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1864.]

Miscellany.

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The commerce of the world requires ogen, diffused through five and a half pailfuls 3,600,000 able-bodied men to be constantly of water. In plants we find water thus traversing the sea. The amount of property mingling no less wonderfully. A sunflower moved on the water is from $1,560,000,000 evaporates one and a quarter pints of water or $2,000,000,000, and the average annual a day, and a cabbage about the same quanloss is $25,000,000.

tity. A wheat plant exhales, in a hundred

and seventy-two days, about one hundred Great CuriosITY.– A singular meteor

thousand grains of water. An acre of growite, of immense size, has just been received

ing wheat, on this calculation, draws and at the Smithsonian Institution, in Wash

passes out about ten tons of water per day. ington, and is attracting much attention.

The sap of plants is the medium through It is in the shape of a ring, the greatest which this mass of fuid is conveyed. It diameter being over four feet. Its weight forms a delicate pump, up which the watery is fourteen hundred pounds. It was pre- particles run with the rapidity of a swift sented to the institution by the Ainsa

stream. By the action of the sap, various family, of California, and will be known

properties may be communicated to the as the " Ainsa Meteorite." A full analysis

growing plant. Timber in France is, for and history of the meteorite will be pub

instance, dyed by various colors being lished by the institution,

mixed with water and poured over by the Count KUELEFF-BEDBUSOORODKO, the

root of the tree. Dahlias are also colored brother-in-law of the medium Hume, bas

by a similar process. made by will a handsome present to the The age of a young lady is now exPetersburg Academy of Arts, viz., his pressed according to the present style of

, whole picture gallery, one of the richest in skirts, by saying that eighteen springs the whole Russian empire, with the con- have passed over her head. dition that it shall be open daily and gratuitously to everybody, without distinction

The three most difficult things are--to of rank or dress.

keep a secret, to forget an injury, and to

make good use of leisure. Curious FACTS ABOUT WATER.—The ex

LABORERS LEAVING CANADA.-The Montent to which water mingles with bodies apparently the most solid is very wonder

treal papers are complaining of the exodus

of laborers from Canada to the United ful. The glittering opal, which beauty

States. They say that so many working wears as an ornament, is only flint and

inen have left the province to earn the high water. Of every twelve hundred tons of earth which a landholder has in his estate

wages that are paid in the States, that solfour hundred are water. The snow-capped

diers have to be employed to load the ships

at the wharves in Montreal. summits of Snowden and Ben Nevis have many million tons of water in a solidified AUTOGRAPHS OF THE SUN. – Professor form. In every plaster of Paris statue Selwyn's “autographs of the sun” have atwhich an Italian carries through our streets tracted much attention in the scientific for sale, there is one pound of water to every world. They were taken by his heliautofour pounds of chalk. The air we breathe graph, an instrument which consists of a contains five grains of water to each cubic camera and instantaneous slide attached to foot of its bulk. The potatoes and the a refractor of two and three-fourth inches turnips which are boiled for our dinner aperture. These autographs are of July have, in their raw state, the one seventy- 25, 26, 28, 29, 31; August 1, 2, 4;--a series five per cent., the other ninety per cent., of bright days coincident with a large of water. If a man weighing ten stone group of spots; August 19, 20, 23, and 25, were squeezed flat in a hydraulic press, where the same group reappears much diseven and a half stone of water would run ininished; September 19, 23, 26, and 30, out, and only two and a half of dry resi- in which is seen a group of 118,000 in due remain. A man is, chemically speak- length. On the 23d, three autographs ing, forty-five pounds of carbon and nitro- were taken, two of thein with the edge of

camera.

inense

are

the sun in the center of the photographic force than the gunpowder in ordinary use. plate, showing that the diminution of light It has also the great advantage of not foultoward the edges of the disk is a real ing the piece to any appreciable extent, phenomenon, and not wholly due to the and, from the nature of the materials used,

In the two of the 4th of August, is produced at a far cheaper rate. Another where the great spot, twenty thousand point in its composition which recommiles in diameter, appears on the edge, mends its use, is the facility with which a very distinct notch is seen, and the sun the ingredients are mixed together, thus appears to give strong evidence that the rendering it possible to keep them separate spots are cavities; but eye observations until wanted for actual use. In this state and measurements made by others, tend the powder is non-explosive. to show that this evidence is not conclu

JAPANESE OPINION OF AMERICAN WOMEN. sive, there being still a remaining portion - The Paris Patrie publishes extracts from of photosphere between the spot and the

a journal of the Japanese Embassadors, edge. The phenomena shown in these autographs appear to confirm the views of printed on their return to Jeddo. Speak

ing of the fair portion of the community, Sir J. Herschel, that the two parallel re

the Embassadors say: “Of the French gions of the sun where the spots appear

women soine are very handsome, for exare the tropical regions of the earth, where tornadoes and cyclones occur. The foculæ

ample, the Empress. They are, howerer,

in general, far less so than the American." seem to show that the tropical regions of the sun are highly agitated, and that im- Tuomas D. Bıyan, of Chicago, paid the

waves of luminous matter Northwestern Ladies' Fair $3,000 for the thrown up, between which appear the original manuscript of the President's dark cavities of the spots, whose sloping Emancipation Proclamation, and has given sides are seen in the penumbræ. Other assurances that it shall not leave Chicago. analogies between solar spots and earthly

Lord LYNDHURST is said to have lost his storms are also well known to exist, and, life at last, not through natural decay, but indeed, are laid down by some astronomers

through the plague of an infected lodgingas constituting a meteorological law.

house, at a fashionable resort, where he How the GovernmeNT IS PROVIDED FOR caught the scarlet fever. War.—The Governinent, which had not

GENIUS, Talent, AND CLEVERNESS. half a million of muskets in all the armor

Genius rushes like a whirlwind: talent jes at the commencement of the rebellion,

marches like a cavalcade of heavy men now has, in addition to the million and

and heavy horses: cleverness skims like a half placed in the hands of the men of swallow in the summer evening, with a onr armies, enough remaining to equip sharp, shrill note and a sudden turning. eight hundred thousand men.

There are

The man of genius dwells with men and accouterments enough for eighteen hundred

with nature; the man of talent in his study; thousand men. It is not likely that, as a

but the clever man dances here, there, and nation, we shall ever hereafter be caught everywhere, like a butterfly in a hurricane, unprepared for war, for our present neces

striking every thing and enjoying nothing, sities have developed all the resources

but too light to be dashed to pieces. The which are required to supply the materials

man of talent will attack theories; the of war.

clever man will assail the individual, and GUNPowder suPERSEDED.-M. Schmidt, slander private character. The man of a captain of artillery at Berlin, is the ori- genius despises both; he heeds none, lie ginator of this discovery, whose idea was fears none, he lives in himself, shrouded in subsequently imitated and improved by the consciousness of his own strength; he Col. Von Uchatius. The latest explosive interferes with none, and walks forth an material consists of the flour of starch, example that "eagles fly alone, they are which, boiled in a peculiar way with nitric but sheep that herd together." It is true, acid, possesses a far greater projective that should a poisonous worm cross his 1864.)

Miscellany.

01

path, he may tread it under his foot; should into Montreal, for private convenience, as a cur snarl at him he may chastise him; it has been for public advantage. A firm but he will not, can not attack the privacy in that city, largely engaged in wholesale of another.

drugs, have established a line between their X A Methodist minister in Kansas, living store in the city and their mills in the

on a small salary, was greatly troubled to country. The wires are similarly used in get his quarterly instalinent. He at last

this city. told the non-paying trustees that he must

Among the novelties of the age is a seedhave his money, as he was suffering for the

less apple. A tree has been found in necessaries of life. “Money!” replied the Dutchess county, New York, bearing this trustees, "you preach for money! We

fruit. There are no blossoms, the bud thought you preached for the good of souls!” forms, and, without any show of petals, the “Souls !" responded the reverend, “I can't

fruit sets and grows, entirely destitute of eat souls—and if I could, it would take a seeds. In outward appearance the apple thousand such as yours to make a meal!" resembles Rhode Island Greenings. A Moxg certain articles dug up at York

Some men ought to have a clear contown, Va., by Northern soldiers, last winter, science—if straining would do it.

sayswas red

stone, which, upon cleaning, proved to be X A Toan's Toilet.—Audubon relates that

a garnet, and a further inspection revealed

he saw a toad undress himself. He comthe interesting fact that it had once formed menced by pressing his elbows hard against & part of the signet-ring of the Marquis de his sides and rubbing downward. After a Rochambeau, the liberty-loving commander few smart rubs, his side began to burst of the French army in this country, who open along his back. He kept on rubbing acted in concert with Washington in plans until he had worked all his skin into folds which won for us the battle of Yorktown. on his side and hips; then grasping one It contains the noble count's motto in Latin, hind leg with both hands, he hauled off and his family crest.

one leg of his pants the same as anybody We can often take a rebuke patiently the same way. He then took his cast-off

would; then stripped off the other leg in from a book, which we can not endure from

cuticle forward between his forelegs, into a tongue.

his mouth, and swallowing as his head CONGRESSIONAL LIBRARY.—Thirty-seven

came down, he stripped off the skin unhundred new books have recently been

derneath until it came to his forelegs, and added to the Congressional Library, em

then grasping one of those with the opbracing every variety in politics and bis

posite hand, by considerable pulling striptory. The volumes now on hand number ped the other, and by a slight motion of eighty-two thousand.

An estimate of the head, and all the while swallowing, he $160,000 has been made for the enlarge- drew it from the neck and swallowed the inent of the library, so as to include the

whole. That is economy-what is good rooms formerly occupied by the Clerk of for the back answers for the belly. the House, and those vacant chambers

X which abut upon the present chamber of A Boston CORRESPONDENT of the Cinthe Supreme Court.

cinnati Gazette is responsible for the folAN ANCIENT Lawsuit.—The supreme

lowing: “I heard, the other day, a bontribunal of Madrid has just given final

mot made by Longfellow, the poet. Young judgment in a suit which had been under

Mr. Longworth, from your city, being in

troduced to him, some one present remarklitigation 240 years, and which involved the succession to the inheritance of Francis

ed upon the similarity of the first syllable

of the two names. · Yes,' said the poet, Pizarro, the famous invader and conqueror of Peru in 1532.

'but in this case I fear Pope's line will

apply :' Private TELEGRAPH.—The use of the

"• Worth makes the man, and want of it the magnetic telegraph is now being introduced fellow.'"

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WHAT MAKES A Bushel?—The following those glittering accessories of glass and table of the number of pounds of various lights which usually form such principal articles to make a bushel may be of interest features in theatrical interiors. In lieu of to some of our readers :

these there is a ceiling of ground glass 168.1

lbs. sparingly decorated with elegant araWheat 60 Beans.

besques, above which, and unseen, are jets Corn, shelled.. 56 Bran

20 Corn, on the cob... 70 Clover-seed

60

of gas, arranged in a concentrated mass, Rye.. 56 Timothy-seed.. 45

which pour down a flood of softened and (ats 32 lemp-seed.

45 Barley 46 Blue Grass-seed..... 14

equalized light through the semi-transparBuckwheat.

52 Dried Peaches... 33 ent ceiling, and the intensity of which can Irish Potatoes. 50 Flax-sced...

56

be heightened or diminished at pleasure. Sweet Potatoes 50 Castor Beans

46 Onions..... 57 Dried Apples. 24 Not only is the glare of the chandelier, by

which the view of the stage from some GOVERNMENT GYMNASIUM.—It is said that Mr. Abner S. Brady, founder of the

parts of the house was obscured, effectuSeventh Regiment Gymnasium, in New

ally removed, but the unwholesome heat

and noxious fumes produced by a great York, has gone to Washington to build and conduct a grand gymnasiuin for the gov

number of gas-lights are also, by this plan,

got rid of—a most important improvement. ernment. New System of Lighting.—The last,

It is a law of human nature that it must

be educated by failures and repetitions,—a and by far the most important of the novelties of structure and decoration attempt

law which is no less imperative in the

school-room than in the general economy ed, and so successfully, in the new Theatre

of the world. du Chatelot, in Paris, is the entirely original mode of lighting the salle, so as to secure The true educator should read and study easy, pleasant, and ample illumination, and teach subjects rather than books. The combined with the highest artistic effect. truth, the principle, the idea, the thought, Not a single chandelier appears, large or should be valued more than its mode of small, and yet the house is perfectly light- expression; the diamond, not its mechanied, and the richness of the architectural cal setting. Thought is the soul of laneffect, according to the description given, guage, and language is of little worth withseems absolutely to gain by the absence of out it.

LITERARY NOTICES.

SCIENCE FOR THE SCHOOL AND FAMILY. aids which are the product of a very recent

Part II., CHEMISTRY. BY WORTHINGTON period, and which augur well for the cause HOOKER, M. D. New York, Harper &

of educational progress.

The present treatise differs from other Brothers.

chemical text-books in the following particTo those who have an experimental ac- ulars : quaintance with Dr. Hooker's other text- I. It includes only that which every wellbooks, and particularly his physiology, the informed person ought to know on the subpresent volume will need no commendation. ject. Few authors have evinced equal aptness in II. It recognizes fully the distinction bethe adaptation of scientific subjects to the tween a book for reference and a book for work of school instruction, and none have study. exhibited a more thorough appreciation of III. Its illustrations, which are abundant, the needs alike of teacher and taught. One are drawn from the phenomena of common feature of Professor Hooker's works for school life instead of the laboratory of the chemist. use is, that he never sacrifices scientific pre- IV. Its arrangement of topics is such that cision and accuracy even while catering to the most simple and interesting, ones come the wants of the popular mind. His text- first, and each lesson aids the pupil to an unbooks belong to that higher type of school derstanding of the succeeding one.

1864.]

Literary Notices.

63

The Sunday School Times, edited by JOHN S. But that want exists no longer. What HART, LL.D. Published weekly by J. C.

Potter and Hammond have done for penmanGarrigues & Co., Philadelphia.

ship, they have also done for book-keeping.

They have reduced it to its elements. They The Times is conducted with ability and have evolved its principles, and built upon tact. It presents a great variety of interest

them a system of practice so plain that a ing and exceedingly useful matter in every wayfaring man, though half a fool

, need not department of Sunday School effort. The err therein. These books are prepared by title of the leading editorial in the number practical book-keepers and practical teachers. before us, “Teaching not Talking,” is an in- Hence, they meet the wants of both. dication of the sensible and practical charac- If the principles and forms here presented ter of the subjects discussed.

could be, as they should be, taught in every

school in the land, we should see ten success Simonson's CIRCULAR ZOOLOGICAL CHART.

ful business men where unfortunately we -We intended to have noticed at some

now scarcely see one. Let teachers, especiallength a very ingenious and useful Chart of the Animal Kingdom, constructed by Prof. ly, begin a reform by studying, using, and Simonson, of Hartford, Conn., by which the

practicing the maxims laid down in this seclassification of animals into their several

ries, and we shall speedily find more business

men, and less mere mercantile tyros among subdivisions, species, and varieties, can be

thim and in the community. seen and distinguished at a glance. This Chart will be published by Schermerhorn, Bancroft & Co., 130 Grand-street, New York,

MAP OF THE WORLD—THE HEMISPHERES. and we commend it to the careful examina- By ARNOLD GUYOT. New York: Charles tion of every teacher who wishes to have at Scribner. hand, on his table, or on the wall of his

We have seen the advanced sheets of this school, or class-room, a convenient reference,

world picture, belonging to the series of Proor authority, to settle the classification and

fessor Guyot, to whom the whole country is characteristics of any disputed specimen of indebted for the noblest contribution to geoZoology:-Barnard: American Journal of graphical science, and especially to the aids Education.

to geographical instruction, ever brought be

fore the public. THE January number of the “ Atlantic Monthly” contains, among other interesting sheet, and are each three feet in diameter.

These hemispheres are both on the one articles, a Christmas story by the author of “ Life in the Iron Mills ;" a paper by 0. W.

The water surface is colored blue, and the Holmes, on Henry Ward Beecher, whom he great physical features of the globe are precalls“ The Minister Plenipotentiary ;" three

sented with the same regard to beauty, boldcantos of Dante's “ Paradiso,” translated by characterizes the other productions of this

ness, and scientific accuracy, as that which H.W. Longfellow ; Mrs. Stowe's initial chapters of " House and Home Papers, by Chris

eminent geographer. We shall reserve a

more detailed and extended notice for a futopher Crowfield;" a poem by W. C. Bryant;

ture number, and after a more minute ex& tribute in verse to the late Col. Shaw, by

amination. J. R. Lowell; “My Book,” a brilliant essay, by Gail Hamilton ; a graphic story by Miss Prescott, and “External Appearances of

THE HISTORY OF CHARLES THE BOLD, DUKE Glaciers," by Professor Agassiz. The politi- OF BURGUNDY. By John FOSTER KIRK. cal article is “A Greeting for the New Year," Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott & Co. by W. Hazewell, showing what has been done by the loyal army and navy during the

We are indebted to the eminent publishpast twelve months. The new number is a

ers of these splendid volumes for an early very attractive one.

copy of the work, which presents not only

the history of Charles the Bold, but that of POTTER & HAMMOND'S BOOK-KEEPING BY his ancestry; the older branch being the SINGLE AND DOUBLE ENTRY. New York

earlier kings of France—the younger, his im

mediate forefathers. This history is a reality and Phil., Schermerhorn, Bancroft & Co.

presented to the reader full of vivid life, and Every man ard woman should know how as fascinating as any romance ever written. to do business. This is an accomplishment It must give Mr. Kirk one of the foremost which no one can safely dispense with. And places in the rank of modern historians. yet there are comparatively few who possess Franche Comté, the original Burgundy, it. Why is this? The answer is obvious. being but a small part of their possessions, It is because book-keeping, which comprises they had gradually acquired eleven provinces business forms and usages, is so little and so of the Netherlands, comprising nearly all of poorly taught in our schools. And the ex- the present kingdoms of Holland and Belcuse has been the want of text-books at once gium. The Dukes of Burgundy were veritsimple, practical, and adapted alike to the able héros de Roman. The setting sun of wants of the learner and the convenience of chivalry shone upon their times in full splenthe instructor.

dor; their court was the resort of all who

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