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onward and upward to a higher stand- tary sounds of the English language, may point of liberty. What though it comes to make this an unfailing source of healthful us amid the storm of battle and the shock amusement in the school and the family. of contending armies ! Not as we hoped—but what are we!

“LAUGHTER, by the aid of Phonetics, is Above our feeble arms and plans,

easily taught, as an art. It is one of the God lays with mightier hands than man's

most interesting and healthy of all class The corner-stones of Liberty.'

exercises. It may be either vocal or res“The Anglo-Saxon race, even in its ruder

piratory. There are thirty-two well-deyears, always possessed an inherent power fined varieties of laughter in the English of independence and self-government. Tell language, eighteen of which are produced me not that now, when this stubborn vi

in connection with the tonics; nine, with tality and surplus energy, expended so long the subtonics of l, m, n, ng, r, th, v, and z; in overrunning the world, are guided by

and five, with the atonics of f, h, 8, th, and intelligence and refined by Christianity, this sh. Commencing with vocal laughter, the same race is to be stricken with the palsy, instructor will first utter a tonic, and then, because of a two years' war.

prefixing the oral element of h, and accom“The two millions of boys now in the

panied by the class, he will produce the Public Schools constitute a great · Union syllable continuously, subject only to the League,' electrified by intelligence, cement- interruptions that are incidental to inhalaed by the ties of one blood, one language, tions and bursts of laughter; as, a, hä, hän one course of instruction-strong in its

ha, ha, ha, &c.,—ă, hă, hă, hă, hă, &c. power to perpetuate the Union as the great

The attention of the students will be called • Union League' which the citizens of the to the most agreeable kinds of laughter, nation are now organizing for its defence. and they will be taught to pass naturally Long before the completion of the Pacific

and easily from one variety to another." Railroad, these new recruits, drilled in the Public Schools, will push their way across The New Jersey State Teachers Associathe continent, as the Saxons sent out from tion held its Eleventh Annual Session at their northern hives, a vast army of occu- New Brunswick, on the 28th, 29th, and pation, cultivating the National Home

30th of Deceinber. stead, and fortifying the whole line of

This meeting was one of the largest communication by a cordon of school-houses and most spirited ever held in the State. that shall hold it forever as the heritage of Among the subjects discussed were, “The free labor, free men, and a free nation.

True Objects of Education;" "The ComSo shall the Northern pioneer go joyful on his parative Merits of Male and Female Teachway,

ers in the various departments of our ComTo wed Penobscot's waters to San Francisco's

mon Schools;” “The Influence of the Study Bay,

of Natural History upon Intellectual EduTo make the rugged places smooth, to sow the vales with grain,

cation;" “The Teacher's Work;” “The And bear, with Liberty and Law, the Bible in Relations of our Common Schools to the his train;

Perpetuity of the Government;" “ EducaThe mighty West shall bless the East, and sea tion, a Growth; and National Education." shall answer sea,

Reports of committees were presented And mountain unto mountain call, PRAISE God,

on the course of study best suited to our FUR WE ARE FREE !'"

Common Schools; and on the part perPHONETIO LAUGHTER.-In Prof. Wat- formed by the teachers of the State in the son's admirable work, just issued from the suppression of the Great Rebellion. press, entitled the “Hand-book of Calis- From the above, it will be seen that the thenics and Gymnastics," under the head of teachers of New Jersey are dealing with * Vocal Gymnastics," he thoroughly ana- vital and practical questions, the discussion lyzes Laughter, virtually reducing it to one of which can not fail to contribute to the of the fine arts. Teachers and parents who onward progress of Popular Education. have a practical knowledge of the elemen- The debates were characterized by a de1864.]

Educational Intelligence.

55

gree of earnestness, ability, and withal of ble only on the condition of intelligence brevity, eminently worthy of imitation. and virtue equally free and universal; that

We select the following from the able the Common Schools afford the only means series of resolutions adopted by the Asso- whereby nineteen-twentieths of our popuciation, because they embody general prin- lation can enjoy the blessings of a sound ciples in accordance with the spirit of the and harmonious culture, and that it is the epoch in which we live:

highest and most obvious duty not only or Resolved, That the true theory of educa

our State authorities but of our National tion involves the progressive growth and

Government to establish, foster, and perdevelopment of all the powers and facul- fect by all their combined influence and ties of man, and that its true end is, in the power these nurseries alike of the national words of Milton, “ to restore the ruins of life and modern civilization. our first parents by regaining to know God aright, and out of that knowledge to love

The Superintendent of Common Schools Him, to imitate Him, to be like Him, as

for the State of Pennsylvania, in his anwe may the nearest by possessing our souls

nual report to the Legislature, shows that of true virtue, which being added to the

the number of Common Schools in the Heavenly grace of faith, makes up the

State, not including Philadelphia city, is highest perfection."

12,161, an increase on the last year of 171,

The whole attendance of pupils is 634,499, Resolted, That the judicious cultivation

an increase of 19,412. Average attendof the imagination is an object of primary

ance of pupils, 397,922, increase 9,659. importance in early education; that without

Percentum of average, .005; last year, it the labor and care bestowed upon the

.635. Average length of school term, 5 faculties of perception, memory, and rea

months, 14 days. Average cost of each son, are, to a great extent, wasted, and as a

pupil per month, 50 cents; an increase of consequence, there can be no success with

one cent. Number of teachers, 14,442; inthe higher walks of knowledge or in the

crease, 62. Total cost of tuition, $1,498,formation of a symmetrical and perfect

040; increase, $130,859. Total cost of the character.

system, including $46,000 appropriation to Resolved, That we cordially approve of Philadelphia schools, $2,284,099; increase, the more liberal introduction of the ele- $56,934. The total number of pupils, inments of Natural History in its different cluding Philadelphia, is 703,453, and the departments, as a branch of instruction, whole cost of the system, including the not only on account of its relations to the amount paid by Philadelphia, is $2,888,199; material interests of society, but especially an increase of $104,604. These facts are for its admirable adaptation to the develop- encouraging to the friends of a school sysment of the faculties in general, and, when tem. Notwithstanding the war, the averrightly directed, to the cultivation of a rev- age attendance has been larger, the average erence for that Divine Being who, while per cent. upon the whole number in athe guides the stars in their courses, suffers tendance one-half per cent. greater, than not a sparrow to fall unnoticed to the last year. There were 717 less male teachground.

ers, and 779 more female teachers, in 1863

than the year previous, owing to the war. Resolted, That this Association is deeply

The percentage of attendance in the State impressed with the conviction of the supe

schools is only 63.5, while in Philadelphia rior adaptation of female teachers to the

it is 84.4. great work of instruction, and that we respectfully urge their claims upon the con

We have received from Prof. Drowne, fidence of the school officers and friends of Director of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Ineducation throughout the State.

stitute at Troy, the Annual Register of that Resolved, That the purity and perma- Institution for 1863–64. The reputation of nence of free institutions founded on the the Institute is a continental one. The rights of free universal suffrage are possi. Register contains the names of eighty.one students in the different divisions, from introduction of improved methods of inevery part of the United States, the Weststruction therein. A delegation, composed Indies, and South America. It also pre- of thirty-six gentlemen, from the Controlsents a catalogue of the thirty-seven grad- lers, the Committees on Education from uating classes that have gone out from the both branches of the Select Councils, and Institution since its foundation in 1824. the Principals of the Grammar Schools, We have counted the names of thirty-six visited the Farnum Preparatory School at of the graduates since 1846, who are, or Beverly, N. J., on the 11th ultimo, to withave been in the government service, as ness a series of exercises on the Training officers in the army and navy of the United or Object System. The exercises were of States. The buildings of the Institute a most animated and satisfactory characwhich were destroyed by the great fire of ter. They were arranged and directed by 1862, will soon be replaced by a neat and Mrs. P. C. Case, the accomplished Preceptasteful edifice, one hundred and fifteen tress of that institution, which is a branch feet long by fifty feet wide, together with of the State Normal School. a Chemical Laboratory and an Astronom

PREPARATIONS are being made for the ical Observatory. This school stands at

opening of one of the State Normal Schools the head of its class in this country. We

established in Maine, at Farmington. It rejoice in its continued prosperity.

will go into operation in the coming Illinois.-A State Convention of School spring. Mr. A. P. Kelsey has been elected Commissioners was held in Bloomington,

principal. commencing October 1, Hon. J. P. Brooks, By reference to the list of new schoolState Sup't, presiding. The meeting is re- commissioners for the State of New York, ported as of extreme interest, and the most we see that about one-fourth of the old liberal and enlightened spirit prevailed in officers have been re-elected, while the mathe deliberations. Among other proposi- jority of the others were taken from the tions that obtained favor, was one to abolish ranks of the profession. This speaks well third-grade licenses; and a recommenda- for the good judgment of our citizens, and tion to amend the school law so that a promises a vigorous prosecution of the war teachers' institute shall be held annually in against ignorance in that State for the next each county, a fund to be set apart by the three years. We still have faith in our State to defray the expenses. A very in- country. teresting and profitable “Normal Institute"

Albert H. Gallatin, M. D., a grandson was held during the autumn for six weeks

of Albert Gallatin, has been appointed to at Bloomington, the exercises conducted by the Professors of the Normal University. which University, at Norwich, Vermont.

the professorship of natural science in NorIt was not largely attended.

Dr. Gallatin was nominated for this posiThe Board of Controllers of the Public

tion by the Actuary of the “ American Schools of Philadelphia, have appointed a

School Institute,” J. W. Schermerhorn. committee to report upon the expediency The appointment will do honor to all parof establishing the office of Superintendent ties interested. of Schools for the city. This Board have The Maine Commissioners on the Noralso under consideration a plan for the re- mal School have reported to the Governor organization of the primary schools under and Council in favor of establishing the their charge, with special reference to the school for Eastern Maine at Castine.

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1864.)

Miscellany.

57

MISCELLANY.

covers.

Ix ExGLAND, whenever a letter is found with importing atheism to corrupt the in the post-office with the address illegible moral sentiments of the youth of America. or incomplete, it is passed to a so-called The society which he instituted did not “blind officer." The “blind officers" are flourish ; but three branches were estabsupplied with all the principal London and lished at Yale, Harvard, and Dartmouth, provincial directories, guides, and gazet- which preserved the organization. Others teers, by the help of which they generally have since been established. The branch succeed in making out the destination of the at each college elects an orator to deliver letters referred to them. They are indeed an oration at the annual Commencement of able at once, by their own intelligence, to the ensuing year, all the members present dispose of many letters which a stranger voting, whether in class or not. As all the would consider it impossible to find owners branches constitute one society, the memfor. When it has been fully ascertained bers from different colleges have a right to that nothing further can be done to effect attend sessions anywhere. the delivery of a letter, such letter, if it

Dr. Kemp, an English chemist, in a recontain an address, is, of course, returned

cent work on his favorite science, remarks: to the writer; and, when possible, this is

“So it is, that, as we all sprang from putredone without breaking the seal or examin

faction, or from dead matter that had never ing the contents, some hundreds of letters

before been vitalized, so, in like manner, being returned daily by means of the in

must all our frames return through the orformation obtained from the outside of the

deal of putrefaction to the dead world. The muscle of the strong man, the bloom

of beauty, the brain of the philosopher, Tue short-hand writer of the House of

inust once more rot, as, doubtless, they Commons receives two guineas a day for

have often rotted before, and are destined, attendance before committees, and 9d. per

in the continual phasis and circulation of folio of seventy-two words for making a

matter, to rot again. The hand that writes copy of his notes. Last year, he received

this sentence, nay, the very brain that confor business thus done for the committee

ceives the thought that the hand is markon private bills £6,667, consisting of £1,682

ing down, was once earth, such as we all for attendance fees, and £4,985 for the

trample on, and soon will be earth again, transcripts ; this does not include the

and, perhaps, ere even the writer's name charges in respect of committees on public

has ceased to be mentioned by those with matters. He has a staff of ten short-hand

whom he holds familiar intercourse, will writers, each of whom has one or two

be transformed into the cypress of the clerks, who dictate from the notes to quick

cemetery, or the daisies of the country long-hand writers.

church-yard. Nay, also the matter of that

eye which reads this saying, and of the Par Beta KAPPA.-The Greek letters

brain which receives that saying, and is, phi beta kappa are employed to designate perhaps, startled at it, a little while ago a society now existing in our higher insti

was allied to the elements of inorganic tutions of learning. The society was im

matter; and the time can not be very disported from France by Thomas Jefferson,

tant ere some have to mourn over those and was established by him at William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Virginia.

terrible words read over it, of dust to

The very tear The three Greek letters are the initials of dust, and ashes to ashes.'

of affection was once water and a little the words Philosophia biou kubernetes

rock-salt; and after a little time it will be pbilosophy the regulator of life. Mr. Jef

water and rock-salt once more." ferson was at one time bitterly assailed for introducing a philosophical secret society GEORGE PEABODY, the London banker, from France into America, and charged has sent over to his native town of Dan

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vers, Mass., upwards of two thousand võl- sumption is one hundred millions. So that umes of choice selected books. They will the time may come when coals will have be placed in the Peabody Institute.

to be carried to Newcastle after all. It is proposed by the Swedish govern

The metal called Vanadium, discovered ment to measure an arc of the meridian in a high northern latitude, to be accompanied varieties of iron ochre. Its most practical

in English pig-iron, has been detected in by experiments with the pendulum first

use is in the preparation of writing ink. tested by the English standard instruments

To a solution of nutgalls is added a minute at Kew.

portion of vanadic acid, and the ink thus A MATHEMATICAL QUESTION.—Will some obtained is intensely black, and indelible mathematical correspondent of yours oblige by the ordinary agents which destroy the several anxious inquirers with a correct color of the iron-ink in common use. reply to the following question:

also resists a high temperature. The inferSuppose a ship is sailing ahead at the ence is, that its use will prevent alteration rate of thirty miles an hour, and suppose or forgeries in writings of special impora cannon-ball to be fired from a gun in her

tance. stern, straight astern, and that this, too, is propelled at the rate of thirty miles an MOISTURE IN THE AIR.-One of the most hour, how far apart would the two objects curious and interesting of the recent dis-the ship and the cannon-ball-be at the coveries of science is, that it is to the end of an hour, supposing both to continue presence of a very small proportion of a their course, on a right line, for an hour. watery vapor in our atmosphere-less than -Post.

one-half of one per cent.—that much of the

beneficent effect of heat is due. The rays A Royal Academy Medal has been

of heat sent forth from the earth after it given to Mr. Gassiot, the famous electrician, to whom we owe many important be lost in space, but for the wonderful ab

has been warmed by the sun, would soon discoveries in his favorite science. To him

sorbent properties of these molecules of we are indebted for the settlement of the dispute whether the voltaic battery owed

aqueous vapor, which act with many thou

sand times the power of the atoms of oxyits energy to the contact of its metals or to chemical action. He showed by actual

gen and nitrogen of which the air is experiment that its action could be main composed. By this means the heat, instead tained, though the metals are separated by

of being transmitted into infinitude as fast strata of air. He also demonstrated that

as produced, is stopped or dammed up, and voltaic and frictional electricity are the

held back on its rapid course, to furnish the same, and also that a perfect vacuum is not

necessary conditions of life and growth.

Let this moisture be taken from the air but a conductor of the fluid.

for a single summer night, and the sun The minor planets now number seventy- would rise next morning upon a nine in the catalogues of the astronomers. held fast in the iron grip of frost.” But ARTIFICIAL marble has been obtained

the power of absorption and of radiation both by Sir James Hall of England and

in the same body are always equal, so that Professor Rose of Prussia, by subjecting

at length it is poured forth into space; chalk to a high heat in a close vessel.

else our atmosphere would become a vast

reservoir of fire, and all organic life be There is some apprehension entertained by leading British geologists that in three centuries their country will be destitute of

Dust TO Dust.-Something to think coal. Professor Arnsted and Sir William about: Armstrong agree in this opinion, and give

Imperial Cæsar, dead, and turned to clay, the following reasons. There are in fact

Might stop a hole to keep the wind away; left of good coal but thirty-five thousand Oh, that the earth, which kept the world in awe, millions of tons. The present annual con- Should patch a hole to expel the winter's flaw !"

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