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lying land as was ever spread out beneath pense, for the term of ten months, books the sun. In all these broad fields there is
and clothing excepted, is one hundred dolprobably not an acre of waste. Two hun- lars. The students rise at six, and breakdred acres were given to the State for the fast at half past six, all the year round. college by General James Irvin, now dead, whose family still live near. And two Almost every free State is represented hundred more were purchased. On this
on the muster-roll of students. Some land the students will acquire a practical grumblers complain that the farmers do knowledge of farm operations. By the
not patronize the college to a great extent, rules, every scholar must labor three hours but that a considerable portion of the every day out of doors; and it is found pupils are sons of merchants and profesthat this work does not disturb them from sional men in the larger cities. This may their studies. The students are arranged not be true, but we hope it is. There are in gangs or details, each detail taking three
no castes in this country; and there is no hours in turn. Besides this, sub-details good reason why the sons of farmers milk the cows, attend to and feed the cattle
should become farmers, or the sons of lawand horses, and perform such other duties
yers lawyers. On the contrary, the of the farm as can not be made part of the country will be greatly benefited if a conregular day's work.
siderable proportion of the young men born There is a large and fine vegetable gar- in cities take to country life and avocations. den and a nursery, besides large stables, Every farmer complains, on the other hand, barns, and other outhouses needed on a that his boys all want to go to the city. model farm of four hundred acres. The A little fresh blood will not hurt the farmland is kept in perfect order, and the re- ing community, especially if it is accomturns so far have been very satisfactory. panied with capital. So that the merLast year the one hundred students in at
chants and professional men of Pennsyltendance raised more than enough wheat vania may well be the best patrons of this to supply the bread of the establishment, and Agricultural College. no doubt the sleek kine furnish a liberal share of the milk and butter required. The SUNSETS.-The past season, in this
In time there will be hothouses and part of the country at least, was remarkother helps to a knowledge of gardening. able for the beauty of its sunsets. These The machinery of the college is scarcely were generally almost cloudless, like the yet in working order. The great building sunsets in Italy and in the Levant, with has just been completed; the rubbish of an amber color or vrange light, flushthe builders is not yet cleared away from ing the whole sky, and streaming into the vicinage, and the carpenters still have every nook and recess open to the air, possession of many of the lower rooms. scarcely casting any shadow, or casting
THE COURSE OF STUDIES, ETC. but a faint and undefined one, from the obThe course is laid out for four years. jects on which it falls. The most beautiPupils who have mastered the common- ful sunsets in our climate—and exceedingschool studies can enter the lower class. ly beautiful they are—have generally been It is intended that those who have grad- those in which the clouds have been the uated shall possess a good knowledge of most conspicuous accessories, curtaining English literature and of mathematics and the declining sun with their pomp of colors, chemistry, in their application to the farm- purple, crimson, orange, and gold, and er's life and duties, together with such their almost metallic brilliancy and glitter. special studies as botany, geology, animal Lately, however, we have had a succession and vegetable physiology, surveying and of sunsets often without a single defined engineering. Boys are not admitted till cloud in the sky, as if these meteors had sixteen years of age. The year has but been bidden to withdraw for one term, and the vacation is of two order to exhibit to our eyes some of the months, and in the winter, when farm op- phenomena presented by the most beautiorations are impossible. The entire ex- ful climates of the old world.
forms an important feature of its history. TOBACCO forms a staple product in It is a special subject of legislation of the
many parts of the Southern States, several governments of Europe in whose West India Islands, and South America. territories it is produced. In some it is a The most excellent tobacco is produced royal monopoly; in others it is admitted in Virginia The Carolinas, Venezuela, from abroad under very high duties. In Cuba, and Brazil export large quantities. some of the European governments it is Within a few years has formed an im- bought of the producers by the crown at a portant product in several sections of the low price and sold at an extravagant profit, northern and middle States. In some parts protected by prohibitory import duties. of Connecticut it has been successfully cul- The English prohibit its cultivation in the tivated, and it is found to grow well upon British Isles, and admit it under high the rich bottom lands in the valley of the duties. In 1851 the revenue to the British Connecticut river in Massachusetts The government from tobacco was $22,428,840. crop in Pennsylvania has, during the last In the same year the production reached two years, brought millions of dollars to
2,000,000 of tons, which, at five cents per the agriculturalists of that State.
pound would amount to $40,000,000.
THE PART IT PLAYS IN THE WORLD.
IN EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFRICA.
When we consider the fact that this is prohibited by law. Its cultivation is
plant produces no nutritive substance-is carried on to a considerable extent in Hol
an unsightly object while growing, having land, Flanders, Alsace, Hungary, and Euro
no beauty of flowers or foliage, no pleasant pean Turkey; but the quality of the plant
odors—but, on the contrary, has a disagreegrown in these countries is far inferior to
able taste and smell, when eaten produces that produced in America.
vomiting and giddiness, and when taken Tobacco of a good quality is raised in
in large qnantities causes death, we are surthe Levant, and in India, especially in the
prised that it should play the part it does Indian Archipelago; large quantities are
in the world that it should become an produced in China and Japan. It also important agricultural product-that it forms an important crop in South Africa, having been introduced by the Dutch;
should be produced in such quantities as
to require one-eighth of the tonnage of the and quite recently the English have com
civilized world to freight it—that its commenced its culture in Australia.
mercial importance should compare favorably with any other single article—that it
should be made the pet of empires and the Tobacco is cultivated with the greatest object of special legislation—that thousands success upon virgin soil, or, as the farmer should be busied in its production and denominates it, “new land.” It requires manufacture—that vast amounts of capital a deep rich mould which, if not renewed should be employed in its purchase and and kept up by constant feeding with de- sale—and that nearly half the male popcaying vegetable matter, soon becomes ulation of the civilized world should be sterile. On account of this character of engaged in chewing, smoking, and snuffing the plant to impoverish and exhaust soils, tobacco. it is regarded as a curse, carrying its blight- But it has happened with this poisonous, ing effects not only to the people who cul- fated plant as with men who sometimes tirate and use it, but to the very soil upon rise without merit to posts of honor and which it grows.
ITS EFFECTS UPON SOIL.
WILLIAM MAKEPEACE THACKERAY.
“Christmas is here!
honoring love and truth, full of pity and Winds whistle shrill,
charity and wisdom; finding the noblest Icy and chill,
men and women under all conditions, and Little care we;
not afraid to describe the weaknesses and Little we fear Weather withont,
faults of either. Sheltered about
As a pure novelist, or delineator of The Mahogany Tree.
manners, he is not surpassed. He con
stantly reproduced certain types of charac“Evenings we knew
ter within the same range of society ; but Happy as this; Faces we miss
with such incisive skill and completeness Pleasant to see.
of portraiture that they take permanent Kind hearts and true,
place among the creations of human genius. Gentle and just,
He chose deliberately the profession of litPeace to your dust!
erature, worked steadily and faithfully in We sing round the tree."
it; honored its illustrious chiefs, and won CHILE those who knew and loved and wore its laurels. But to him it was a
him were singing this Christinas noble profession; and his task in it, at carol of Thackeray's, the kind heart and which he labored until the hand that held true that first sang the song was lying the pen fell forever, was to make men betstilled forever. He has taught us how to ter by every kind of stern, sweet, witty, speak of him, not only by the simple, ten- wise, sarcastic, or humorous representation der appreciation with which he spoke of of the life and character he saw around the dead, but by the many works in which him. When Miss Brontë dedicated to his shrewd insight, kind heart, nimble wit, him the second edition of “Jane Eyre,” and consuming satire, held the mirror up. she did so in the strongest and most unto nature, and pleaded for humanity and qualified words of praise ; but they express truth. He was a man of heroic simplicity the final and mature verdict upon the charand candor, with the profoundest hate of acter and power of his genius. Not the of all kinds of hypocrisy—a hate which be- least of his charms as an author is the came indignation from his consciousness sweet, sinewy English of his style, which that neither he nor any man could entirely is nervous, transparent, picturesque, and escape the influence of the social atmos- exquisite. phere he was compelled to breathe. “It The death of every great story-teller is is in the air, gentlemen,” he always seems like a personal loss to the world; but the
" we all have the disease more or American friends of Thackeray who perless. I have no doubt that I should be sonally knew him probably were not very glad to be seen walking down Pall aware how much they loved him until Mall with a duke on each arm.” It was they saw that he was dead. It seems as this impatience of falsity which the more if there were less life in the world now he that it was gilded was the more repulsive is gone. He enjoyed so fully; his great, to him, because more dangerous, that made blithe nature came ringing out in song and him often blunt, rough, stern in his man- jest in genial festive hours so exuberantly, ners, although he lived in the most courtly yet so tenderly still, that feasts will always circles. He ranged through British clubs be less festal hereafter to the guests who and drawing-rooms, a Bersekir in the mask sat with him. His social sympathy, his of Mephistophiles, refusing to accept amia- love of children, his universal charity, and bility for fidelity, or politeness for human- his constant allusions to the delightful sea. ity. He was called a cynic by the snobs, son, especially associated him with Christand a snob by the cynics. He was in real- mas, and he died, a month ago, on the day ity a great moralist, preaching trenchant before it came. Farewell, great, generous sermons from the most familiar texts; soul, kindly teacher, faithful friend wise,
to say ;
A TWILIGHT SCENE.
The great woods climbed the mountain at our back ;
The brown old farm-house like a bird's nest hung.
Of sun-brown children, listening, while they swung,
J. G. Whittier.
THE BIBLE IN SCHOOL. THE importance of connecting moral
I. READING BY THE TEACHER.
Every inorning, so soon as the time for the necessity of introducing and using the opening arrives and the pupils are in their Bible in schools for that purpose, are uni- places, the teacher reads a chapter or porversally conceded by the Christian educator tion of Scripture, without comment. He and patron.
may begin with the Old or New TestaThe best method or most efficient man. ment, and, chapter by chapter, read it regDer, however, of using the Scriptures, is by ularly through. This is the common methno means agreed upon, as the diversity of od, of but little trouble, and, I have somemodes show,- and it is to this subject, that times thought, of little value. Unless the I would respectfully and briefly call atten- teacher possess the rare gift of an attractive tion. The proposition, as to whether the and fascinating elocution, in reading, he Bible should be regularly introduced in will soon have an inattentive, listless auschools, studied, and recited, during the dience, the whole exercise degenerating daily sessions, as Arithmetic, is not the into a mere mechanical performance. subject proposed, -but it is the manner of using it in the opening exercises every
II. Select READING AND EXPOSITIONS BY morning.
derive some and exposition of such chapter, text, or valuable hints, suggestive of variety, if passage, as the teacher may think most nothing more, as the teacher may use appropriate and instructive. The exposithem, in alternate succession,-or inter- tion is a familiar explanation of such points changeably adapt the mode to the occasion. or passages as he may think most instruc
tive. This method is more efficient than of such of the Scriptures recited, as the the first, and a little tact and ingenuity on teacher may choose; and apply them to the part of the teacher, will enable him to the conduct of every-day life. command the attention of the school.
To illustrate : suppose, in the recitation, This is an excellent plan, provided there the following Scriptures have been given exists no suspicion of sectarianism against by two of the pupils: “Enter not into the the teacher. It is thought to afford a path of the wicked, and go not in the way teacher, if he is so disposed, an excel- of evil men." "A false witness shall not lent opportunity of propagating his pecu- go unpunished, and he that telleth lies shall liar sentiments among his pupils. It is ad- perish.” mirably adapted to sectarian schouls, and The first of these passages will afford the to any school, if a teacher is prudent in the teacher a text, and an opportunity of imuse of it.
pressing upon the minds of his pupils the
importance and necessity of shunning bad III. READING BY THE PUPILS.
company; and from the second he can This method requires each pupil to have show them the direful consequences of falsea Bible, and the whole school to read, be. hood and warn them against lying. In this ginning with a chapter, each reading a way the teachings of the Bible are so inverse, till all have read, and so on through terwoven with the daily labor of the pupils, the chapter or lesson. This, however, has and so applied to the solution of the varibut little more value than a common read- ous problems that may come up in their ing exercise. But few of the pupils take conduct, as to supersede the necessity of interest enough in it to know, even what what the master of the “ Birch" and his chapter comes next, or was read last. They “feruled” subjects were wont to call the realize not the momentous import of the “Rules of School.” The influence of this words of eternal life, and may not the exercise, when properly conducted, in the practical effects of such an exercise create formation of character and conduct of life, a criminal indifference to the Divine teach- can not be over-estimated. During a comings, is a question for prayerful considera- mon pupilage, the mind is filled with the tion.
most beautiful and instructive passages
from the word of God. They warn us IV. RecitaTION BY THE PUPILS.-A LEO
against every vice and inculcate every virTURE BY THE TEACHER.
tue. If the snares of vicious society are This method consists in requiring the set in our path way, we hear the warning, whole school, or a section of it, embracing “ Enter not into the path of the wicked," not less than twenty, to make voluntary and we shun them. If the temptations to selections of such texts, verses, or para falsehood are upon us, we remember that graphs as they may choose, memorizing "He that telleth lies shall perish," and we them perfectly, and reciting every morning resist them. as a class. The sections may be increased The fourth method, thus briefly described, or diminished, in number, to suit the size is my own favorite one. I have used it for of the school. If there be two sections, many years, with unflagging interest. It let each recite every other day, and if three, involves the labor of both teacher and puevery third day, &c.
pil. My advanced pupils generally took Each pupil should select such a verse or great interest in the exercise. Among number of verses as will state some truth them existed a generous emulation, as to or proposition, or make good sense, and who should select the most sublime and the same pupil ought not to be allowed to beautiful passages, and I have often been repeat the same Scripture, in two different touched with their impressive elocution. recitations.
With a becoming distrust of the correctThe teacher's lecture, only a few minutes ness of my own judgment and experience, Jong, follows the recitation, and is designed I respectfully submit what I have said to to give an extempore, practical exposition the attention of teachers and patrons.