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lobe of the ear, as will be seen in Fig. 4. It wand nearly all of the single movements should be exactly of this length, as some of may be executed by the students arranged the most valuable movements can not be in pairs, as in Fig. 5. executed with a shorter one. With this Any hard, well-seasoned wood will an

swer for a wand. The best material is white ash.

Though metallic balls at the end of wands may be dispensed with, and should be for children, they add greatly to the precision and effectiveness of the exercise. These balls differ in size and weight. They should not generally weigh more than three pounds each for strong men. The size better adapted to ordinary purposes than any other, is one inch and a half in diameter, with a hole through the center of the ball of five-eighths of an inch in diameter, in which the well-fitted end of the wand is inserted and securely wedged.

The best balls are cast of iron. They should be japanned, at least three coats, and well baked.

Some of the wand movements are rendered more difficult by seizing the wand near the ends, and others by drawing the hands in so that they are but a few inches from the center.

FIG. 4.

Fig. 5.

ical culture, to any other article of gymII. DUMB-BELLS.

nastic apparatus. With a single pair, a man DUMB-Bells, all things considered, are may exercise every muscle and joint of incomparably superior, as a ineans of phys- his body in half an hour, if he has sufficient 1864.)

Gymnastic Apparatus.

41

ingenuity in positions and movements. In they appear to be; at the next, a pair of his hands, as by magic, they undergo a Indian clubs, gymnastic rings, parallel constant change - at one moment what bars, a wand, a foil—in short, the entire

apparatus of the gymnasium, though occupying but little space either at rest or in motion.

The dumb-bell is available at all seasons and in all places, affording the most pleasing, varied, and concentratcd of all the athletic exercises, both for single and combined movements, individuals, and classes.

Cast-iron dumb-bells, of proper form and weight, are deservedly popular among the best gymnasts. Heavy bells, however, are almost useless for exercise, affording only a few movements that serve as a test of strength. When

FIG. 6.

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using a single bell for this purpose, both arms should be employed to the same extent, to avoid a one-sided development. Dumbbells, weighing from 3 to 5 pounds, properly used, are sufficiently heavy for the strongest man. Be one's time never so much limited, they should not weigh more than 25 pounds to the pair.

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The best and most approved dumb-bell at the present time is made of wood. The timber, before it is turned, should be sawed into scantlings or plank, and well seasoned.

Maple, beech, birch, oak, and hickory, make very good bells for family and school use.

Locust is the best domestic wood for this purpose, rosewood is still better, lignumvitæ is best of all.

The bell illustrated by fig. 8, affording, as it does, an opportunity both for the handle No. 2 is intended for women and youth, (fig. 7) and the ball grasp (fig. 6), is re- Its length is ten and three-quarters inches; garded as greatly superior to all others. diameter of each ball, three and threeThere are four sizes.

eighths inches; length of the handle, three No. 1 is intended for men. Its length and three-quarters inches. is eleven and three-quarters inches; length of handle, including the shoulders, four and a quarter inches; diameter of each ball, three and threequarters inches.

FIG. 9.

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1864.]

The Agricultural College of Pennsylvania.

43

The entire length of No. 3 is nine and though No. 3 answers equally well for one-half inches; diameter of each ball, women and youth, when made of heavy two and seven-eighths inches; full length wood. of the handle to the balls, three and three- In executing the movements, the stufourths inches.

dent usually employs a pair of bells, as in The entire length of No. 4 is eight and Figs. 7 and 8, though some of the very one-balf inches; diameter of each ball, best exercises are taken with a single bell, two and one-half inches; full length of as in Fig. 10. Many of the most beautiful, handles to the balls, three and one-half pleasing, and effective combined moveinches.

ments are executed by the students arNos. 3 and 4 are intended for boys and ranged in pairs, as in Figs. 9 and 11. girls from six to twelve years of age; (To be concluded in the next Number.)

THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE OF PENNSYLVANIA.

PE

ENNSYLVANIA appears to have pity thật so much money as the building Ebeaten her sister states in the erece

cost-over one hundred thousand dollars tion of a farm college. Almost every one -should not have been employed with of the free States has projected such an better taste. As it now stands, it will serve academy, but this one was the first to open, excellently—on the outside at least as a and is, we believe, the only one open at model to show students precisely what a this time.

school-house of any kind should not look

like. LOCATION.

In the interior, too, use is regarded to the The college is located about ten miles exclusion of ornament; and effect is lost from Bellefonte, on a tolerably high table- by too great and irregular subdivision of land. From the summit of the building is the space. But the ends for which the a magnificent view, which alone is worth building was designed have been closely the journey thither. A mountain spur lies kept in view, and there is no lack of room, just opposite in front, and curves somewhat or of material either, for instruction in the abruptly to an end some miles away, as various branches of science which are and may be gathered from the local name of will be taught. Nor has the important this immediate district, which is called matter of vent tion been forgotten in the “End-of-the-Mountain.” This range sepa- numerous dormitories, halls, and studyrates two rich and beautiful valleys, the rooms. Nitany and Penn's Valley, and you look It may give but little notion of the size far into these vales on miles of fair acres of the building to say that it has two hunand comfortable farm-houses.

dred and thirty-four feet of front, and that the centre is one hundred and thirty feet

deep. A more definite notion of its size The establishment has been laid out on is gained from the fact that it is intended & scale so large that this may embarrass it to accommodate five hundred students, all for some tiine. The building is an immense of whom will live entirely in the building; pile, put up with little attempt at architec- and that it has, besides the proper number tural grace or effect. The builder was evi. of dormitories, all the requisite halls, lecdently a utilitarian; he has not given a ture and recitation rooms, museums, laborathought to ornamentation; and while one tories, etc. might forgive this, no one will ever forgive him for belittling the whole structure by a

THE COLLEGE FARM. mean entrance, in the style of the usual The college buildings stand in the midst doorways of country school houses. It is a of four hundred acres of as fine and fair

THE BUILDING.

THE STUDENTS.

lying land as was ever spread out beneath pense, for the term of ten months, books the sun. In all these broad fields there is and clothing excepted, is one hundred dolprobably not an acre of waste. Two hun- lars. The students rise at six, and breakdred acres were given to the State for the fast at half past six, all the year round. college by General James Irvin, now dead, whose family still live near. And two Almost every free State is represented hundred more were purchased. On this on the muster-roll of students. Some land the students will acquire a practical grumblers complain that the farmers do knowledge of farm operations. By the not patronize the college to a great extent, rules, every scholar must labor three hours

but that a considerable portion of the every day out of doors ; and it is found pupils are sons of merchants and profesthat this work does not disturb them from

sional men in the larger cities. This may their studies. The students are arranged

not be true, but we hope it is. There are in gangs or details, each detail taking three no castes in this country;

and there is no hours in turn. Besides this, sub-details good reason why the sons of farmers milk the cows, attend to and feed the cattle should become farmers, or the sons of lawand horses, and perform such other duties

yers lawyers. On the contrary, the of the farm as can not be made part of the country will be greatly benefited if a conregular day's work.

siderable proportion of the young men born There is a large and fine vegetable gar- in cities take to country life and avocations. den and a nursery, besides large stables, Every farmer complains, on the other hand, barns, and other outhouses needed on a

that his boys all want to go to the city. model farm of four hundred acres. The A little fresh blood will not hurt the farmland is kept in perfect order, and the re- ing community, especially if it is accomturns so far have been very satisfactory. panied with capital. So that the merLast year the one hundred students in at- chants and professional men of Pennsyltendance raised more than enough wheat vania may well be the best patrons of this to supply the bread of the establishment, and Agricultural College. no doubt the sleek kine furnish a liberal share of the milk and butter required. Tue SUNSETS.-The past season, in this

In time there will be hothouses and part of the country at least, was remarkother helps to a knowledge of gardening. able for the beauty of its sunsets. These The machinery of the college is scarcely were generally almost cloudless, like the yet in working order. The great building sunsets in Italy and in the Levant, with has just been completed; the rubbish of an amber color or orange light, flushthe builders is not yet cleared away from ing the whole sky, and streaning into the vicinage, and the carpenters still have every nook and recess open to the air, possession of many of the lower rooms. scarcely casting any shadow, or casting THE COURSE OF STUDIES, ETO.

but a faint and undefined one, from the obThe course is laid out for four years. jects on which it falls. The most beautiPupils who have mastered the common- ful sunsets in our climate—and exceedingschool studies can enter the lower class. ly beautiful they are-have generally been It is intended that those who have grad- those in which the clouds have been the uated shall possess a good knowledge of most conspicuous accessories, curtaining English literature and of mathematics and the declining sun with their pomp of colors, chemistry, in their application to the farm- purple, crimson, orange, and gold, and er's life and duties, together with such their almost metallic brilliancy and glitter. special studies as botany, geology, animal Lately, however, we have had a succession and vegetable physiology, surveying and of sunsets often without a single defined engineering. Boys are not admitted till cloud in the sky, as if these meteors had sixteen years of age. The year has but been bidden to withdraw for a season, in one term, and the vacation is of two order to exhibit to our eyes some of the months, and in the winter, when farm op- phenomena presented by the most beautierations are impossible. The entire ex- ful climates of the old world.

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