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1864.]

Science and the Arts.

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an object of great antiquity, and, from the These cavities contain oil, gas and water, absence of air and water, its surface can plæced according to their specific gravity. have undergone no change for millions of The oil is forced out by pressure of the gas. ages. Ile regards the numerous cracks When the gas is exhausted, the flow of oil and fissures on the moon's surface as re- ceases until the supply of gas is restored. sulting from the contraction of the crust These wells vary in depth from 100 to 800 during the period of its rapid congelation. feet. Respecting the origin of these wells,

a most original theory was offered a short -During his lecture on June 10th,

time ago at the Polytechnic Association of

the American Institute by a gentleman, Dr. Tyndall entered into a consideration of the changes which the molecules of a

who held that they resulted from the debar of soft iron undergo, when it becomes composition of whales, which sank, after a temporary induced magnet by means of death, to the bottom of the ocean, which, current passed through a surrounding

in the early day, covered the whole of helix. That such changes occur is proved

our land. by the fact, that, when the bar is magnet- -Father Secchi, of Rome, has laid ized and demagnetized in succession by before the Academy of Science, at Paris, rapidly breaking the current, it is thrown

the results of his observations of the atinto vibration causing an audible sound. mosphere of Jupiter by the spectrum apAmpére supposed this alteration to be at

paratus, which confirm the existence of tended by a shortening of the bar, but Dr.

certain special lines differing from our own. Joule has shown that the bar is lengthened. The line C, as well as its atmospheric band, The delicate experiment, proving this, was is totally absent in Jupiter's spectrum, and shown to a large audience by means of other lines are differently arranged. very ingeniously arranged apparatus. Upon the upper end of the bar rested a brass rod, - Mr. W. F. Barrett, assistant in the which, by means of delicate leverage, acted Physical Laboratory of the Royal Instituupon a hair-spring turning a small mirror. tion, has published in the Philosophical Upon its conversion into an induced mag- Magazine (at the request of Professor Tynniet, the bar lengthened, and thereby de- dall) a record of his remarkable experipressed the mirror. As the amount of de- ments on the composition of the human pression was too slight to be directly per- breath, made chiefly by means of the appaceived by the audience, a ray of light was ratus employed by Dr. Tyndall in his rereflected upon a screen from the mirror, searches on the absorption and radiation of the least motion of which caused a very heat by gaseous matter. Carefully preperceptible change in position of the re- pared vulcanized india-rubber bags were

filled with air from the lungs--1, about

half an hour after rising; 2, about ten -M. Regnault communicated to the

minutes after breakfast; 3, after a brisk French Academy an interesting paper con- walk; and 4, after severe exertion. Dr. cerning chlorid of copper. A plate of cop- Frankland determined exactly the amount per, dipped in a solution of the perchlorid of carbonic acid in each bag. A series of of copper or iron, becomes covered with

fourteen tables shows the amount of ten cuprous chlorid as a greyish white layer,

sion in the air, the carbonic acid in its which is remarkable for its sensibility to powers of absorption, etc. The following light. A negative placed on a plate so is the proportion of the carbonic acid in sensativised gives a positive picture of the breath in the above-mentioned congreat beauty.

ditions :—1, 4.311; 2, 4,556; 3, 4.061; 4,

5.212. Absorption per cent. by 30 inches -Professor Evans has published a

of breath : in bag 1, 50.6; bag 2, 52.8; paper in Silliman's Journal for September, bag 3, 53.7; bag 4, 54. to account for the peculiar action of oilwells. He regards them as originating in - The Chemical News, No. 246, concavities of not great horizontal extent. taius an abridgment of a paper on the

flected ray.

combinations of the remarkable metal to the thickness of the sheet could not be less which the name Ammonium has been than six thousand feet, and this is in keepgiven, by M. W. Weyl. In this paper M. ing with the same kind of evidence in Weyl seeks to explain how far the volatile other parts of the country; for, wherever alkali ammonia may be reconciled with the the mountains are much below the six existence of the metal; his arguments be- thousand feet, the ice seems to have passed ing strengthened by his having produced a directly over them, while the few peaks new ammonium, and by the mode of its rising on the heights are left untouched. formation and decomposition. He states The glacier, he argues, was God's great that he first sought to obtain a mercuric plow, and when the ice vanished from oxide of ammonium to use for the produc- the face of the land, it left it prepared for tion of other compounds with electro the hand of the husbandman. The hard negative bodies, which he effected by mak- surface of the rocks was ground to powder, ing dry ammonical gas act upon yellow the elements of the soil were mingled in oxide of mercury. In air the new com- fair proportions, granite was carried into pound rapidly absorbed carbonic acid and the lime regions, lime was mingled with lost ammonia, the same taking place over the more arid and unproductive districts, carbonic acid. Rapidly heated in a flame, and a soil was prepared fit for the agricul

a it became brown, and exploded most tural uses of man. There are evidences all vehemently; but by a very careful and over the polar regions to show that at one gradual rise of temperature even thirty period the heat of the tropics extended all grains were decomposed without explosion. over the globe. The ice period is sup

- Professor Agassiz in the Atlantic posed to be long subsequent to this, and Monthly, comes to the conclusion that the

next to the last before the advent of this continent of North America was at one

earth. time covered with ice a mile in thickness. -A new measurement of Ben MacThe proof is that the slopes of the Alle- dhui, and the other mountains of the ghany mountains are glacier-worn on the Cairngorm group, has just been made by very top, except a few points which were the Royal Engineers engaged upon that above the level of the icy mass. Mount part of the Ordnance Survey of Scotland. Washington, for instance, is over six thou- Ben Macdhui, which was formerly supsand feet high, and the rough unpolished posed to be 4,390 feet in height, is now set surface of its summits, covered with loose down at nearly 100 feet less; viz., 4,296. fragments, just below the level at which Ben Macdhui has of late years been supglacier marks come to an end, tells us that posed to be the highest mountain in Britain, it lifted its head alone above the desolate but the new measurement restores the sawaste of ice and snow. In this region, then, premacy to Ben Nevis.

MISCELLANY.

-We seldom give our publishers class of sturdy, thorough text-books we remuch notice in these pages, for we cannot ceive from America, referred to in a recent afford the space; and they must be con- leading article in our journal as tending to tent to take their chances like the world give us a very favorable impression reat large, in the supplementary advertising specting educated Americans. They are sheets. But a review of one of their most got up in a style of binding, typography, popular publications, in the London Reader, and illustration, which does credit to the contains some points complimentary to the Anierican press.

The Manual of Caliscountry at large, which we quote briefly. thenics' is extracted from the large ‘HandThe reviewer says:

book,' with such alterations as were ne“Mr. Watson's volumes belong to that cessary to its completeness as a distinct 1864.]

Miscellany.

381

6

a

treatise, and is intended for those who do article on Croquet," in a London literary not desire to employ apparatus of any kind. journal, opens as follows: It requires no separate notice. The 'Hand- “We warn ladies in turban hats and book' embraces the entire curriculum of Balmoral boots that we have no intention physical culture, and is a complete gym- of setting up as an authority on croquet; nastic drill-book, with words of command and they may as well inform their friends and classes of movements systematically in wide-awakes and knickerbockers of our arranged, together with all necessary exer- resolve." cises for the lungs, the voice, the organs of speech, the joints, the şinews, and the

-At a recent meeting of the British muscles. The first part of the volume, Association, Mr. Groom exhibited tables which treats of Vocal Gymnastics,' con

of the food eaten by each of the smaller tains a carefully-arranged series of exer

birds, and showed that it varied very inuch, cises in Respiration, Phonetics, and Elo- according to the season of the year. He

had arrived at the conclusion that it was cution, and is enriched with a selection of the best English poetry.

Mr. Watson has

wise to protect insectivorous birds. Mr. treated the whole subject of vocal gymnas

Groom admitted that the buds of some tics with the most elaborate care, and has

trees were sometimes destroyed, but asgiven, in this part of the volume, one of

serted that it was only when the birds the ablest treatises on elocution and the

were in search of a more destructive grub general management of the respiratory and

that lay concealed within these buds. Anvocal organs which we have ever seen.

other speaker remarked, that in Holland Nothing could be better than the accom

the eagles and hawks had been destroyed, panying series of poetical reading-exercises; and, as a consequence. hares had increased and the inflections, accentuations, &c.inordinately; also, in the lowlands, in are indicated in a skillful and judicious consequence of the destruction of birds of manner."

prey, wood-pigeons had increased in like After a long and able analytical review of

That the value of insect-eating the two books, the reviewer closes as follows:

birds was duly estimated elsewhere, might “It is not detracting from the merits of be learned by their being exported to New the able teachers of Calisthenics and Gym- Zealand from this country. In Nova Scotia, nastics in England to say that these impor- they were forbidden to kill sparrows and tations from across the Atlantic will give a

other small birds under a penalty of £2. stimulus to the study and practice of these

One day he found a farmer on his estate health-giving exercises among us. None shooting wood-pigeons in a barley-field, will rejoice more than they in the atten

and complained that he was disturbing the tion these volumes may awaken or the im

game, to which the answer was that the provements they may suggest. To their pigeons were destroying a crop of barley. contents we would earnestly invite the at

The bird's crop, however, on being opened, tention of all classes of our countrymen....

was found to be full of seed of the common We practiced these exercises to recover

spurry. He was glad that the little waterhealth; we would advise others to practice ouzel had been absolved from the charge them to keep it. It is when health is lost

that had been made against him of eating or impaired that one can sympathise with fish-spawn. At one time there was a prethe assertion of Professor Kloss, that 'He

mium of 2s. 6d. put on his head in the

North. Instead of eating fish-spawn, the who has it has all things; he who lacks it has nothing.'”

larvæ of one of the May flies, destructive to salmon-spawn, had been found in its

stomach. Was it not Sydney Smith who asked once- -“ Who reads an American book ?" - The National Library of Madrid bas It would appear not only that well-in- recently been presented with the only copy formed Englishmen read American books, of the first edition of Don Quixote known but that the bloods of London adopt in to exist in Spain. The donor was Senor part our peculiarities of costume ; for an Justo Zapala, of Teruel.

manner.

EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE.

- We are glad to find that there is classes of congregational schools, from 400 some prospect that the great demand for to 750 thlr. a year; lady teachers, to be practical, well-educated chemists will in employed exclusively for instruction in future be supplied by our own institutions sewing, &c., 300 thlr. a year. of learning. There are at present excellent chemical laboratories for the instruc- A school for the education of idiots tion of young men at New Haven, Boston, has been founded at Stettin, in the province and other cities. New York has long been of Pommerania, in Prussia. It was opened deficient in this branch of education, but October the 14th last, and has now pubher reputation may yet be redeemed, since lished its full report. Its funds consist of Professors John C. and Henry Draper have donations to the amount of 8,000 thalers, recently established a practical chemical and loans to the amount of 10,700 thir. school in the University Medical College The report states that there are over 600 (Fourteenth street), which is well attended, idiotic children in the province of Pommeand will, we hope, be the nucleus of a rania who need education. The report school of mines in the University of New next proceeds to a review of the schools York.

for the education of idiotic children exist

ing in Europe. France contains three; -A Mr. Marcus, principal of a high two at Paris, and the third at Laforce (Deschool for ladies, in one of the Prussian partment of the Dordogue), founded by an provinces, is also editor of a paper wł English minister, John Bost. Italy conmaintains principles differing from those of tains but one, at Aosta, in the Piedmont. the government. The ministry decided that In England there are five, one at Bath, one he must not continue as editor, or, if he in- at Highgate, at London, one at Caulswood sisted on that, he must resign his office as in Surrey, one at Essex Hall, and one at principal of a school. Mr. Marcus appealed Wakefield, besides three small private infrom this decision to the Prussian House of stitutions. In Scotland there are two, Representatives, who passed a resolution one at Baldovan, near Dundee, and one at declaring the decision of the ministry to be Edinburgh. In Holland there are two at illegal. The same house rejected a petition the Hague and at Utrecht. Denmark also of the school teachers of the province of has two at Sonderburg, in the island of Westphalia, demanding the exercise of the Alsew, and at Copenhagen. general right of hunting, it being thought Of German States, Wirtenburg has two, inexpedient to grant this privilege to those Bavaria two, Saxony one, Holstein one, connected with schools. The teachers may Hanover one, Austria two, and Prussia teach the young idea how to shoot, but two besides that at Stettin. they must not shoot, themselves.

-The educational statistics at Leipsic -At a meeting of the Common Coun- show that while the attendance at the pubcil of Berlin, reported in the Rheinesche lic schools has advanced with the populaBlätter, it was resolved to raise the pay of tion of the town, the attendance at the the teachers of the “Real” schools, as private schools has decreased. In 1831 the follows: directors are to receive hence- proportion was 8.31 at the public, and 3.43 forth 2,300 thlr. per annum; teachers of at the private schools;. while in 1864 the the first-class (Oberlehern) receive from former reached 13.01, and the latter fell off 800 to 1,500 thlr. a year; ordinary tutors, to 1.14. from 600 to 800 a year; teachers at the elementary classes at high schools receive -The Brocken, the highest of the from 500 to 750 thlr. a year; principals at Harz Mountains, will, by next spring, be congregational schools are to be paid 750 connected by telegraph with the Ilsenburg, to 900 thlr. a year; teachers at elementary the loftiest mountain in Saxony.

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1864]

New Books.

383

-According to the Allgemeire Schlu- embracing weeklies, semi-monthlies, monthZeitung, the oldest educational weekly in lies, quarterlies and half-yearlies. This Germany, there are now in the German list does not include periodicals devoted to States sixty-three educational periodicals, special departments.

,

NEW BOOKS.

Our readers may remember the war of the is our intention to notice its peculiar feadictionaries, and a very uncivil war it proved tures, at more length, in connection with to be, which raged so violently for the last those of similar publications, in a future few years, and only died out recently—as number, to which time we reserve our fur. many other wars have done—from the ap- ther comment. parent exhaustion of the combatants. The We have long desired to see an elementpartisans of Webster, on the one side, and ary treatise on geology, for the use of schools, Worcester, on the other, have an opportuni- which should possess sufficient thorough ty of gratifying their combative propensities, ness, without being encumbered with deif they are fully recovered from their pros- tails. The larger volumes on the subject are tration ; for a new illustrated edition of too costly for the wear and tear of school Webster has just been issued,' which, in all use, and so ponderous as to invest the subpoints, surpasses former editions, and will ject with a certain amount of terror to youthbe the signal, we suppose, for a renewed ful pupils. Our desire has been gratified, effort on the part of rival publishers. Yet and the general want of teachers fulfilled, we submit whether “Webster's Dictionary” by an abridgment of Dana's larger work, is not getting to be a misnomer. So many made by the author. A very good abridg. eminent scholars have been engaged in the ment it proves to be-containing all the work of revision and addition ; so much essential parts of the larger treatise. The have they softened or changed the moot pe- volume is tlidrough, without being verbose ; culiarities of the orig'nal; and so extensive and concise, without being dry. The illushave been their additions, that little remains trations are skillfully designed and happily of the original except the basis. Even the chosen ; the mechanical execution neat and vocabulary, which, in the original, went but beautiful ; and the book, as a whole, both little beyond seventy thousand words, has interesting and attractive. reached the number of one hundred and Of collections of music for schools and forty thousand. And these additions to the families there has been apparently an overstock appear to be legitimate, the compound issue. Yet there have been few without words, that explain themselves, having been some novel feature of addition or omission ; excluded. The mode of accentuation is and every variety of taste can be suited. vastly improved. Numerous additional illus- The newly-issued and enlarged edition of trations are given, and the various synonyms “ The Silver Lute"? is adapted to the views are arranged in their regular order. Out- and feelings of a large number of teachers side of the ordinary vocabulary are supple- and parents, and is particularly well-suited mentary ones. Thus we have pronouncing in its selections to the tastes of young schol. vocabularies of Scriptural, Greek, Latin, ars. There is prefixed the admirable eleGeographical, Biographical, and English mentary treatise of Dr. Mason on Musical Christian Names, as well as the names of Notation ; and following this is a series of noted fictitious persons and places ; an ety- progressive song-lessons of great value. We mological vocabulary of Geographical Names; commend this little book to the careful cona collection of words and phrases from an- sideration of school trustees and teachers. cient and modern languages ; tables of ab- In the way of church music we have a breviations, contractions, and arbitrary signs new publication of merit, under the editorial used in writing and printing ; and a collec- supervision of Gustave Blessner, a composer tion of ancient, foreign, and remarkable of some celebrity.' There is much originalalphabets. As the dictionary now stands, a large quarto volume of 1,840 pages, combining the results of the labor of many of the (2) A TEXT BOOK OF GEOLOGY. Designed for Schools and ripest scholars in the country, it is a vast

Academies. By JAMES D. DANA, LL. D.

by 375 wood cuis. Philadelphia : Theodore Bliss & Co. monument of industry and research, of lomo, pp. vi-354. which its publishers inay well be proud. It (3) THE SILVER LUTE. A new Singing Book for Schools

Academier, and Juvenile Classes, New York and Phil. adelphia : Schermerhorn, Bancroft & Co. Oblong 16mo,

Illustrated

Pp. 215.

O A NEW DICTIONARY OF THE Esglish LANGUAGE. By

N. WIESTER, LL. D. A new revised and illustrated edition. Springtield : G. & C. Merriam. Royal 4to, pp. 1,864.

(4) FLORA SACRA. A new Collection of Church Music, in

tended for all denominations, for singing schools, seminaries, private circles, and musical conventions. By G BLESSNER. New York: S. T. Gordon.

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