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A Saxon Schoolmaster.


pride that irritates at the slightest remon- servation-one, in fact, who would invariastrance, my sons have not been as well bly be satisfied.” brought up as I have wished them to be. The young lads exchanged glances, they Their mother, that providence on earth, perceived that Mr. Sebaltus, though apparhas been but too soon taken from them, ently easy, was not a man of pliant adulaand absorbed as I am in the cares of my

tion. government, I have left Otho and Freder- "Listen, Mr. Spurdzer," gravely replied ick in the hands of tutors who have not Otho, “though we speak rather enigmatiproven worthy of my confidence; but cally, we comprehend each other. You courtiers without dignity, they have toler- have been prejudiced against us,-you ated the frolics of my sons. Some have have been recommended to be firm,-bebeen too indulgent; others have shown too cause we have been spoiled." much severity, which is likewise reprehen- “Prince-" sible when in excess. Between passive “Do not deny it; we speak to you gentleness and excessive rigor there is & openly. The yoke of order, exactitude, medium which I hope to find in you. and continual study would be insupportYour whole life has been among youth, able. At our age, with our rank and foryou can gnide it, instruct it, keep it within tune, we require enjoyment more than bounds. In a word, you are a father, science—a friend more than a pedagogue.” your two sons love and respect you; your Good Sebaltus looked sad; he foresaw two pupils will also love and respect you. a struggle, and as he was too keenly imStudy their dispositions, and resist without pressed with a sense of duty, he could not violence their caprice and fancies. I as- refrain from condemning the explicit sign to you my authority over them; make avowal of Otho. Before he could reply, judicious use of it, and be assured that I the fencing-master entered, and he was shall not hesitate to yield to what is just obliged to assist at the lesson, deafened and right on all occasions."

with the noise of stamps and voices. Then Armed with these instructions, the new it was successively the music lesson (and tutor was introduced to his pupils.

the royal scholars learned to blow the " Ah! ah !” said Otho, ironically, "here trumpet, which affected Mr. Sebaltus's is Mr. Spurdzer, the clever Mr. Spurdzer." ears in a very unsatisfactory manner);

“How are you, Mr. Spurdzer ?” said, in then the dancing lesson, and the riding his turn, the roguish Frederick, as he lesson, always in presence of the preceptor. ogled the court costume, awkwardly worn "My God !” murmured the latter, “how by the pedagogue. The latter wished to many useless exercises! If a prince dance commence studies, but he met with the artistically, if he be an adept in fencing, if above-mentioned resistance.

he blow the trumpet as masterly as a "Such are preceptors,” exclaimed the huntsman, or ride a steed as skillfully as a elder prince. “Their first thought is to Hungarian hussar, for that reason are his satiate one with Latin and Greek;

subjects the better off? Should the sons must be as machines,-continually work- of the sovereign of Saxony be educated ing at themes and versions. Living dic- like mountebanks? Let them learn intionaries, walking grammars, their unique stead, in the good classic authors, the art aim is words, words. This is not educa- of governing their people; let them know tion, at least according to our ideas. How the human heart ! That is the road to we have longed for a tutor who would be true knowledge: they stray, wheresoever our friend, who would not overtask us else they go. I shall speak to the prince with study, and who would not trouble concerning this matter." onr father's ears with the tales of our Unfortunately for Sebaltus, his thoughts slightest freaks !"

were audible. Otho reproved him sharply: “I understand,” said Spurdzer, with sim- “So Mr. Spurdzer blames the method ple ingenuity, “your lordship wishes a of our studies. He desires a prince to be tutor who would teach nothing, and who nobody at a ball, to know nothing of hurtwould see faults without hazarding an ob- ing or of riding. Well said ! But talk

for we


about Greek and Latin, we are now at was utterly impossible for Sebaltus to folyour orders; the day will have been well low them, and in vain would he shout for employed I'm sure.”

them to stop. Very fortunate was he when It seemed as if the two brothers had had they did not contrive to upset him by an understanding to multiply the balder- thrusting adroitly a stool or any other obdash in their themes and versions; soject in his way, or not to season his soup much so that Master Sebaltus began to re- with an overdose of salt. One night be flect if he had not to deal with some of awoke with a sudden start on hearing the idiotic cretins of the Alps or Pyrenees. groans and the tinkling of a chain.—LO, However, the fine and intellectual features what does he behold at the extreme end of of the two princes emphatically denied his room, in the shade ? - a ghost clothed this supposition.

in long white robes. The terror of the un“Well," said the Elector to Spurdzer, on fortunate man can easily be imagined. He the evening of that same day, “are you remained motionless, speechless, his tongue pleased with your pupils ?”

adhered to his palate, his eyes were fixed “I know not whether I should confess to upon the apparition which stood motioning your highness"

in a most sinister-like attitude. “Master “Speak frankly, my friend. I have not Spurdzer,” said the ghost, with a sepulconcealed to you the turbulent dispositions chral voice, “thou shalt leave this apartment of my sons."

which thou hast profaned by thy presence. “ If it were only that!”

Here, in this place where now thou re“What else, then ?” asked the Elector, posest, formerly slept the knight Siegfried with a marked disquietude.

Walkenstern. It is I, .... yes. ... “Sire, you exact sincerity, and here is that very plaće I was murdered by my the result of the examination I have made: vassals, and since then thou alone hast the princes Otho and Frederick have bril- . dared to occupy the knight's chamber. If, liant talents for fencing, dancing, horse- then, thou art still there to-morrow night, manship; but what poor Latinists I and they thou shalt die by my own hand." know not a word of Greek.”

After that terrible threat, the specter “You astonish me greatly : assuredly, I disappeared, Sebaltus knew not how. The do not pretend to present them to you as night following he was again awakened by erudite scholars, yet I doubt if they be as the same infernal noise. However, Master ignorant as you say."

Sebaltus thought of putting a stop to this “Then they show palpable unwilling- eccentric nonsense, the annoyance of

which was most probably connived at to Maybe. Meanwhile rely upon my au- disturb his rest. A brave military man, thority and support."

Captain Fritztroffen, commander of the The princes, however, who were roundly palace guards, having become the tutor's admonished by their father, conceived an confidant in the matter, said to him, in his invincible aversion for poor Spurdzer, and own martial way, “If I were you, my dear they swore to victimize him in every pos- fellow, ghosts should not trouble me very sible manner. They immediately com- long. Nevertheless, if you wish for your menced the attack, and unfortunately for own safety to take this double-barreled Sebaltus, their imagination was in no way pistol, your unfortunate visitor will soon void of malignant trickery. Sometimes, make his escape. Ghosts do not like the when they were in the carriage with Mas- smell of powder.” ter Spurdzer, they would lower the win- Thus provided with fire-arms, Sebaltus dows, and the gusts of wind blowing fell into a profound sleep; but, as on the through caused him to utter exclamations preceding night, the sound of the chain and exhortations to those imprudent young awoke him from his dreams. He saw the lads, who were deaf to his entreaties, and ghost brandishing a sword. Sebaltus seized they railed at his fear of catching rheuma- bis pistol. tism. In their walks out in the country, “ Back !" cried he. “If thou dost not they would rush on with such speed that it vanish, I fire!”


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A Saxon Schoolmaster.

37 The ghost made a retrogressive move- inoffensive of men!- I never dreamed ment, but as if ashamed of its pusillanim- of entering this palace. My sovereign has ity, it advanced toward Sebaltus, who, sought me, and when I thought that I was pressing the trigger with his finger, fired unworthy of this honor, and that I strove a double shot that re-echoed throughout by dint of zeal to justify the confidence of the palace with a frightful sound. A groan this excellent prince, his sons have sworn was heard, the specter seemed to lean a my ruin. They have scotfed at me and moment against an arm-chair, then slowly tormented me; my age, and the respect disappeared.

they owe to their father-nothing has imWhile Spurdzer was pausing in a half- pressed them with reverence !raised posture, striving to realize the pres- God! my God! was I then destined to enent state of affairs, a loud knock was heard dure such cruel afflictions !" at his door.

Though of a thoughtless nature, Fred“ Open! open! in the name of his high- erick was moved. “Be not troubled, my ness," cried they.

dear preceptor," said he, “and let the past Spurdzer sprang to his feet, donned pre- be forgotten, I entreat you. You must cipitately his robe de chambre, and opened. make allowances for the petulance of our

Several persons belonging to the palace dispositions. Be not troubled, my brother's entered: among them was Count Pilnitz. hand was slightly wounded; in five or six

“What is this, sir ?" said the chamberlain. days he will be well again." “Have you been attacked? Did you fire “I feel that this accident will increase a pistol ? Speak, speak then."

the hatred with which I have inspired the “Eh? my God! yes, sir Count, yes, I Prince Otho," have been attacked. I forewarned and I “Not at all. We are in the wrong. fired."

Henceforth we wish to be on good terms “ What do I see !” exclaimed the cham

with you. So be composed, and let us berlain, "blood upon this arm-chair?- breakfast.” On the floor a sword !—this is rather “Alas, alas,” thought Spurdzer, " those more serious."

fine promises will soon vanish like emoke. After reflecting a little, the Count bent With reason has Phedre said: “Contra potoward Captain Fritztroffen, and added : tentes nemo est munitus satis.'"* " I have the key to this mystery; our brave (To be concluded in the next Number.) preceptor did not know that there was a door of communication. Come, captain, come and see if some dreadful accident has

Books,-Books are the true levelers. not taken place."

They give to all, who will faithfully use The next morning, Spurdzer, as it was his them, the suciety, the spiritual presence of custom, went to the apartments of his royal

the best and greatest of our race. No pupils for breakfast, and for his lessons :

matter how poor I am, no matter though he was astonished to find Frederick alone.

the prosperous of my own time will not "Where is Prince Otho ?” asked he, with

enter my obscure dwelling. If the Sacred an instinctive inquietude.

Writers will enter and take up their abode " My brother?” answered Frederick, under my roof, if Milton will cross my slightly embarrassed, “he is—rather in

threshold to sing to me of Paradise, and disposed."

Shakspeare to open to me the worlds of im. “Wounded, perhaps !"

agination and the workings of the human This exclamation was uttered as if by heart

, and Franklin to enrich me with his Inspiration. The young prince hung down practical wisdom, I shall not pine for want his head and blushed.

of intellectual companionship, and I may Then poor Sebaltus saw clearly into the

become a cultivated man though excluded mystery of the preceding nights. His

from what is called the best society in the heart smote him with anguish. “O my place where I live.— W. E. Channing. God!" said he, his eyes filling with tears,

Against the great, no ono is sufficiently ** what have I done to them, I the most guarded.

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subject is absurd, exercises both with and PPARATUS versus NO APPARATUS has

without apparatus being necessary in a

course of physical training. ern gymnastic instructors. To the true CALISTHENIOS, a term having special gymnast, however, the discussion of this reference to the exercises employed in


FIG. 1. physical training that are performed without the aid of technical apparatus, are now reduced to a more satisfactory form than ever before. They are equally well adapted to classes and individuals. The general divisions embrace Chest, Shoulder, Elbow, Arm and Hand, Head and Neck, Trunk and Waist, Knee, Leg and Foot, and Combined Exercises.

In these divisions there are one hundred and thirty positions, and two hundred and fifty classes of movements, which require about seven thousand separate motions for their execution.

After the positions and elementary movements are mastered, an almost innumerable variety of combined ones may be executed without further instruction, simply by employing appropriate words of command. These exercises may be formed by the combined efforts of the students arranged in pairs, as in Figs. 1 and 2,* as well as by a combination of two or more elementary movements.

While the lead and Neck, the Hand, and several of the Foot exercises, cannot be executed with ap paratus, and while Calisthenic exercises are so numerous, varied, and beautiful — bringing into play all the joints, sinews, and muscles, and insuring a

Fig. 2. * The illustrations used in this series of articles are taken from “ Watson's IIAND-BOOK OY CALISTHENICS AND GYMNASTICS."

Gymnastic Apparatus.

39 symmetrical physical development - yet all ages, either individually or in classes ; gymnastic apparatus adds so greatly to and that insure geniality and generous emuthe variety, precision, and effectiveness of lation alike in the family, the school, and the athletic exercises, that it may be re- the gymnasium. garded as indispensable.

The apparatus is all made of wood. If The apparatus used in our modern gym- not given the French polish, it should be nasiums seems to have been almost wholly varnished with shellac, at least three unknown among the ancients. Ilolding as coats. It should be well rubbed with they did, especially in the Grecian States,

fine sand,

both after the first
that there could be no health of the mind and second coats of varnish are ap-
unless the body were cared for, and view. plied. Thus prepared, the more it
ing exercise also as a powerful remedial is used the smoother it becomes.
agent in disease, they adopted the gymna-
sium as their school, making the public
games and festivals its annual exhibitions.

1. WANDS. Gymnastics, instead of being made a mere appendage in their system of education, WANDS furnish such an extended occupied a position certainly not inferior course of beautiful and peculiarly to Grammar, Music, Architecture, and effective exercises, that they may Sculpture. The results were, “living mod- be regarded as almost indispensaels of manliness, grace, and beauty”—an ble in the formation of a system of equal development of the powers of the physical training. Intelligently and mind and of the body. If, however, with ingeniously employed, they call inthe discus, or quoit; the leaden dumb-bell; to play, separately and in combinatheir games of ball; the sport called ska- tion, all the muscles and joints. perda, in which a single rope drawn over Firm and uncompromising, the a pulley was employed; and by running, wand is only equaled by the Inleaping, wrestling, and boxing, such splen- dian club in giving flexibility to the did results were secured, what ought we ligaments and muscles of the arms not reasonably to expect, having all the and shoulders. As a promoter of modern appliances of the gymnasium! digestion, and a curative for dys

Parallel bars, both vertical and horizon- pepsia, it surpasses all other gymtal, vaulting bars, Indian clubs, dumb-bells, nastic apparatus. peak-ladders, horizontal ladders, weights It may be used by persons of all and pulleys, suspended rings, hand-rings, ages, and is alike accessible to the the wooden horse, the spring-board, the rich and the poor. Any straight leaping-pole, the wand—in a word, every smooth stick of moderate size piece of gymnastic apparatus worthy of will answer. A staff from the the name, probably has peculiar advan- commonest sapling becomes, in the tages, affording new positions from which hands of a gymnast, more potent interesting movements may be executed than any magician's wand; the that bring into play, more vigorously than limbs of the beech, the birch, of any thing else, certain classes of muscles. nearly all of our forest trees, more As, however, our gymnasiums are usually precious than fabled boughs, heavy private, and only accessible to the few; with their golden apples, fresh from and as it is better to know every thing the gardens of the Hesperides. with regard to the use of a fer pieces of The form of the wand, illustrated apparatus than to know something of many, by Fig. 3, is superior to all others. we have restricted ourselves to those only It has eight plane, equal faces, or that are easily secured and cheap; that sides. It is seven-eighths of an inch afford the most and best exercise in the thick for men and women, and shortest time; that may be used with three-fourths for boys and girls. equal facility under cover, or in the open When held vertical by the side, air; that may be employed by persons of it extends from the floor to the Fig. 8.

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