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first and last, are also called an octave. strokes of the metronome, or of the foot, Still there are standard octaves which we or of the hand, or by counting twice. We shall learn to name at the proper time. know that a line has two points, that the The teacher can now easily proceed with town-clock has to strike twice to indicate the representation of all the keys by notes, an hour completed, that it must be twice drawing one line after the other in the noon or twice midnight to complete one manner above indicated. When through, day. So likewise a beat has two points, a he may tell his scholar that the first or beginning and an end; hence two beats middle octave is situated between the have three points, and three beats four middle c and the next higher or second c, points. We count one to indicate the bethe second upper octave between the ginning of a beat, and two to finish the second and third upper c; the second first beat, and at the same time to begin lower octave between the first and second the second, etc. lower c, &c. The naming of the octaves The number of beats in each measure occurs very seldom, hence not much time varies in different pieces of music. The ought to be spent on this subject. All this end of a measure is indicated by a bar (1), can easily be taught in one lesson. The a perpendicular across the staff, and the exercises in reading and writing belong to end of a part or of the whole piece of inuthe second lesson.

sic by a double bar ( 11 ), two parallel perpendiculars across the staff.

A carpenter has to apply the footrule,

and a dry good merchant the yardstick, to A piece of music is rhythmically divided ascertain accurately the length of the timlike a piece of poetry, into stanzas, called ber or of the dry goods; so likewise has Parts in musical parlance. Parts are sub- the reader of a piece of music constantly divided into Measures (poetically, feet). and accurately to measure the length of Measures again are subdivided into beats each tone. The questions when to begin, (poetically, syllables), and the simple ele- i, e., to strike a key, how long to keep the ments of inusic are called Tones (in lan- finger on it, and when to withdraw the guage, sounds) (audible), represented by finger, is recurring with every new note, Notes (visible), and by Keys (tangible). and it requires long and careful practice to The reason why I speak so definitely in be able to read a piece of music at sight regard to Tones, Notes, and Keys, is because For this purpose and because keys have Instruction-books, and perhaps teachers too, to be struck with various degrees of velociuse these terms promiscuously, and also be- ty, we have affixes. The only note having cause I wish to prove that instrumental no affix is the whole note (O). The half music cannot be as difficult as many be- note has a short perpendicular (stem) either lieve. It is a maxim in instruction and at the right side up, or at the left side education that the greater the number of downward. The origin of this perpensenses which are occupied, the easier and dicular is obvious. Imagine the whole surer the scholar will comprehend and

note divided by a perpendicular through learn. Here are three senses constantly and severely taxed ; why should it not be its centre, we obtain two halves de easy? why should the scholar not compre- each being provided with the perpendicuhend?

lar dividing line (the stem). These two A Beat* is a space of time, the beginning kinds of notes are the remnants of an old and the end of which are indicated by two musical notation now extinct, consisting of

the Maxima, the Longa, the Breve (occa* The term Beat is an unfortunate one on ac- sionally still met with), the Semibreve count of its synouym "Stroke.” “Time” has

(our present whole note), and the Minim been proposed instead of it by some authors, but

(our present half note), the last of the it being so frequently used in a general sense, especially in this instance, I consider it more

series according to its name. The quarter unfortunate. Still I am unable to propose u

note is of a later date, and is the model for better term,

the formation of the remaining kinds. It 1864.]

Rudimental Music.


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is formed like the half note, but its head is Trioles); Septoles, marked by 7, etc. I do filled (black). However, instead of divid- not like these names, but cannot offer beting the head (oro) as in the first instance, ter ones. Their jingle renders them acwe subdivide now the stem, so that the ceptable. eighth note has besides the half note affix The characters for the different kinds of (the stem) one horizontal across the stein Rests bear a great resemblance to those of

their corresponding kinds of notes. The the sixteenth, two horizontals, ;

square placed on any line of the staff seeins and so down: or, more modernized,

to be the original form, from which all the other characters are derived, The lower part of this square is the character

of the whole rest, and the upper part that or, as now frequently written, in groups : of the half rest. If we place a stem at the

left of any of these two rests, we form the quarter rest; if at the right—the eighth

rest. With the eighth rest begins a perfect It will be seen that here are no limits, resemblance between the rests and their yet we very rarely go beyond the hundred corresponding notes, thus : and twenty-eighth note; and if we do, rudimental instruction has nothing to do with that.

Their very names, whole, half, quarters, The Germans found the resemblance etc., indicate their meaning. The whole between the eighth and quarter rests too pote represents a key, upon which the great, and joined to the quarter rest anfinger is to remain twice as long as on that other small horizontal . The combirepresented by the half note, and vice versa.

nation of larger rests than the whole is The quarter note represents a key, on which the finger is to remain twice as long agonal? Ed.] stroke extending from one

simple enough. One small horizontal (di. as on that representing the eighth note, and

principal line of the staff down to the next, half as long as on that representing the

indicates two measures rest; extend this half note, etc. I need not enlarge on this

stroke down to the next principal line, and point. Let teachers go cautiously and

it indicates four measures rest, etc. The slowly. The school education of all music scholars is not always as it should be. silent, is indicated by adding a whole rest.

uneven number of measures, when kept Some of them could not or would not penetrate into the mysteries of vulgar fractions. Illustrations with an apple or any thing else readily at hand are in such cases indispensable. If scholars compre- It very often occurs that a note is to rehend slowly, take one kind of notes at a present three of the next lower denomitime, i. e., one kind now, and a week or nation ; ex. gr.: A whole note to represent two after another kind.

three half notes (and this, said of notes, When any of the principal or subordinate applies equally well to rests.) In this case parts of a measure, i. e., a beat or a fraction a whole note is provided with a Dot, virof a beat, is subdivided into an uneven tually also a note, but without a characternumber of notes, we have no proper af- istic affix, its duration being determined by fixes indicating it, but have to supply such calculation. This dot belongs to a denoma want by improper ones, viz.: marking ination of notes next below that of the note the impropriety by writing within a curve which it follows, or in other words: when drawn above or below such an uneven a whole note has this suffix, the dot is a number of notes, a figure expressing their half note, hence the whole note with its number. Such combinations are called suffix is equal to three halves. Often this Trioles, marked by the figure 3 ; Quintoles, suffix occurs double, in which case the marked by 5; Sextoles, marked by 6 (two second dot following the first is half of the


first dot; hence a whole note with a double learned classifications on this subject, dot is equal to ++ i = 1, or seven which not only lead to nothing, but they quarter notes. There are even instances of mystify the scholars. They are well enough

ree dots following a note; these are cal- in books written on the science of music, culated in the same manner, but they do where they have some object, but not here. not belong to the elementary course. When will authors of such books learn

what belongs to elementary, and what to RHYTHMIC PREFIXES.

scientific instruction ?

The rhythmic prefixes and are I said above, that the number of beats in relics of an old musical notation, consisting each measure varies with the pieces of of 0, 0, 0, 0, and . From this it music. There are pieces having two beats in each measure, in which case is the can easily be seen that our Primers have rhythmic prefix, written at the beginning had something to do with it, where we of it directly after the chromatic prefixes, learn that G stands for Goose, and hence of which hereafter; in other pieces, with € happening to have the form of a C, is two beats in each measure, the quarter a C, and stands for “common !" How note has one beat, and ; is the rhythmic people enjoying their sound senses can prefix; in others again is the prefix indi- print such stuff in Instruction-books from cating that three half notes or their equiv- one year to another, goes beyond comprealents in other denominations of notes are hension. Moreover who will pretend to found in each measure, and that every half say that, ex. gr., 1 time is more common note or its equivalents has one beat. Other than time, when we consider the inpieces have the rhythmic prefixes ori, numerable Waltzes besides other kind of others , i, or 6, others; or 6, others s or music in time too numerous to count? jo; all of which bear the simple names And is common the proper word in oppotheir characters indicate, but no others. sition to compound? But why such a

There are found in Instruction-books classification at all ?



NHIS department of Natural Science Archæology has long been mostly supple

now centres in itself the most at- mental to, and parallel with, written histention. The recent period within which tory, but within the last few years she has it has been brought into notice, together taken a step backwards and alone, into with the importance of some of the ques- unrecorded time. Already we hear her tions wbich it has started, will account for profess to write the history of man before this interest. Our object is to present a documents and tradition, and to give his few facts relating to the nature, and pro- home and age. We must be ready to hear, gress, of this science.

understand, and, possibly, confute what she Archæology is one of the sources of un- may say. written history. Philology is another. Man in every stage of civilization conFrom the latter we have histories of na- stantly deposits remains of life and intions, attempted from the remains of their dustry, and if nothing else certainly his languages. The former gives wider, surer, bones, which are by far not the least and fuller information, from the remains valuable acquisition to an Archæological which we call antiquities. Every thing cabinet. The Swedish Nilsson, and Steenwhich shows the impress of man's use or strup, and the Danish Thomsen, led the contrivance, belonging to tiine long past, way in the collection and study of tliese belongs to Archæology.

ancient relics, and we believe first gave 1864.]




this branch of investigation the character

The Kjoekenmoedding. and dignity of a separate science.

This is a Danish word, compounded of They claim to have discovered, and have kjoeken (kitchen) and moedding (rubbish). actually divided the pre-bistorical age of They are called by Lyell kitchen-middens. Europe, into three eras, the Stone Age, the Heaps of marine shells are found on difBronze Age, and the Iron Age.

ferent parts of the coast of Denmark. They We learn from them that the early in- were at first taken for natural deposits, and habitants of northern Europe had not yet showing a change in the level of the sea. discovered the use of the metals, since we But on examining them more closely, there find among their remains only implements were found only adults and those of a few and arms of stone, or bone, hence the pe- species of shells, which would not be the riod is called the Stone Age.

case were they deposited by a natural This age was followed by that of Bronze.

process. Closer investigation discovered A copper age is thought to have preceded broken bones, pottery, and instruments this in some parts of the world. It is seen of stone. Nature was released immediatein the remains of the “Mound Builders" ly, and man was arrested as the author of of North America. In Europe there was these curious remains, which were soon no copper age, as bronze was introduced called by their right name, kitchen-rubprobably from Asia. Somewhere here bish, and all the learned antiquaries of the copper was found, and also tin. By some North devoted themselves to the study of accident these were melted together, and the old clam-shells and broken fish-bones, thus bronze was discovered to civilization. the refuse of the dinners of these barbaThis, as soon as known, supplanted copper, rians. They are indeed interesting as the because of the ease with which it was only remains of a people that has long since worked and excellent quality.

It was

passed away. soon carried to Europe, where copper These kitchen-middens often of was unknown, and thus arose the Bronze enormous size. They are generally froin Age.

three to five, and even ten feet thick. The Iron tardily made its appearance, and length sometimes reaches one thousand with its introduction civilization began to feet, and the width a hundred and fifty move with mighty strides. Science, art, feet. Some of them are of a circular form; and history now sprang into existence. the huts of the barbarians having been in Thus began the Iron Age.

the centre. They are generally about ten We have bere a picture of the birth and feet above the level of the sea. They are first growth of civilization. Nor should found along the arms of the sea where they we despise this youth or rather babyhood are not exposed to the action of the waves; of science, for it is yet in its youth if we those in more exposed localities having may judge by its present rapid progress. been most probably washed away. It was infinitely more difficult to start this They are found over all the Northern mighty machine of contrivance and im- part of Denmark. These conformations provement than to keep up its motion, and are said to exist in other parts of the world, increase it with accelerated rapidity. The as, for example, in Sweden, and Italy, near discovery of the use and method of pre- Genoa. paring iron is far more wonderful than all There are few remains of any vegetable the brilliant results of modern ingenuity matter; charcoal and ashes, however, are taken together. These problems were found in them in great abundance. solved slowly and grasped with tenacity. The Fauna.The shells mostly belong

We would direct attention to two only to four species which we will name in the of the great sources of Archæological in- order of the frequency of their occurrence: formation.

the oyster, the cockle, the muscle, and the First, the Kjoekenmoedding and the littorine, all of which are still eaten and Skoomose of Denmark;

are found in the markets of Europe. Second, the Lacustrine habitations of The bones of fish exist in great quantiSwitzerland.

ties, of which the herring is most abundant,

stone age.

and the codfish, founder, and eel, quite centre the peat is found. There are many common. The presence of these as well as facts connected with the trees forming the the oyster shows that the old inhabitants outer edge, and the character of the varimust have fished in the open sea, and this ous mosses and plants which have assisted in canoes hollowed out by fire.

in forming the peat-bogs, which we must Some bones of birds have been found. pass over, from want of time. Suffice to

The quadrupeds which occur oftenest, say that here we have the Flora of the are the deer, the roebuck, and the wild boar.

Numerous archeological specimens are The only domestic animal seems to have · found in these bogs, which are often very been the dog, which from suspicious marks fine, and which belong to all the three eras of stone knives appears to have been an of stone, bronze, or iron, according to their article of food.

depth. Man.-His bones are not found here, as Some stone implements have been found the method of interment practiced here by beneath the roots of pines, in the woody this people will show.

zone, showing the great antiquity of the This also proves that cannibalism did not primitive population. These bogs attain a . exist among this primitive people, for, if it depth of thirty feet. The time consumed did, we would find the bones, and these in their growth, and the general question marked by knives.

of chronology, we wish again to refer to. We find many products of industry. There are many large sepulchral vaults Fragments of rough pottery are quite in Denmark belonging to the age of stone. usual. Rough and poorly shaped articles In these large numbers of skulls are found, of silex are found in great quantities, and very small, and remarkably rounded, very the marks upon bones of animals they much like that of the modern Laplander. have been cutting show that they had We can thus easily learn the type of the other and better instruments of the same people of the stone age. We are wanting material, but which they did not throw in materials for the age of bronze. The into their refuse heaps. The only indica- people of this age burned their dead, and tion of arms exists in the form of sharp therefore no skulls are found, but the angular fragments of stone, intended for presence of the domestic animals indicates projectiles, but whether for war, or simply the influx of a new population. for hunting, cannot be determined.

With the iron age the people began The presence of these stone implements, again to bury their dead, and consequently and the absence of any metal, assign these we have skulls of this period, but no large Kjockken-moedding to the stone age. number lave as yet been collected. Those

A few words in relation to the Skoo- which we have show a great improvement mose, or peat-bogs of Denmark. There upon thc skulls of the stone age. They are three kinds of peat-bogs, the Engmose are quite elongated, and the forehead or bog-meadows, the Swampmose or Hoer- somewhat retreating, but very much larger mose, which may be called heather-bogs, than the skulls of the stone age. The age occupying extended plains of dry ground, of bronze supplanted the age of stone, and the Skoomose or forest-bogs, which through the higher civilization and use of last are the most ancient, and to which the superior arms of bronze, but we have only we will refer. These have done for no measure of their physical development, the vegetable what the kitchen-middens except by the handles of their swerds, have for the animal history of the stone which are quite small. age of Denmark. These peat-bogs grew The iron age, with its strong race and in deep hollows. The trees growing on effective arms, destroyed the bronze.

An the edge, when they became too large, fell illustration of the supplanting of the age over into the bogs from all sides. When of bronze, by the age of iron, has happened the bog is small, these trees fill it up, but very near our own times, in the destrucwhen it is larger, they form simply a tion, by the Spaniards, of the bronze civili. woody zone about the edge, and in the zation of Mexico.

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