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The Great School at Winchester.
to begin at the point where taking place" called officers, are invested also with speends.
cial authority, and have charge respectThe hours of work and play at Winches- ively of the ball, school-room, library, ter, like most other parts of the system, are and chapel. The prefect of hall is the chief fixed by ancient usage. The boys prepare, of these five, and has large powers of genas well as say their lessons in school, and eral superintendence; he is "the governor the rule is to allow, for every lesson an of the school among the boys," and their orhour long, an hour of preparation. Speak- gan of communication will the head master. ing roughly, on two days in the week a All the prefects, except the five and the boy is in school between six and seven ten respectively, obtain their positions by hours, on the other days between four and seniority; the five officers are chosen by five hours, besides the time given to com- the warden, with the advice of the head position or private work in the evenings. master, with reference to their character Of the school-hours, he spends about half and power of influencing their schoolfelin preparing his lessons, and the other half lows. All are invested with authority by in saying them. A hard-working sixth- the warden in a traditional and appropriate form boy would generally work about seven form of words (praficio te sociis concamerhours a day; before an examination, per- alibus-præficio te aulæ, &c). They are haps nine or ten hours. If he also made a empowered to punish corporally. It is study of cricket, he would probably give, not the practice for them to set imposione day with another, three hours a day to tions. the game; and it is worth observation, not The system of fagging among the scholonly that Winchester, with very inferior ars is connected with that of government numbers, has played a great number of by prefects. The 18 prefects, and they successful matches againgst Eton and Har- only, have power to fag; all the scholars row, but that the hard-working Winchester who are not prefects are, strictly speaking, boys are able to contend successfully with liable to be fagged, but the burden falls chief the idle boys.
ly on those more recently elected, whatWinchester, the oldest of our great ever may be their position in the school. schools, undonbtedly produced the earliest A junior scholar who was examined by type of what is called the monitorial system, the commissioners, and who had come and appears to have preserved that type in at the head of his election a few months almost unaltered during several centuries. beforo, was, at the time he was examined, The beginning of the systen may be traced in the senior part of the fifth, which is to the founder's statutes.
considerably above the middle of the "In each of the lower chambers let there school. It would be a year and half, he be at least three scholars of good character, informed us, before he ceased to be liable more advanced than the rest in age, discre- to be fagged. The system is somewhat tion, and knowledge, who may superintend complicated. A boy may be "valet” to their chamber-fellows in their studies, and one prefect, whom he waits on in his chamoversee them diligently, and may from ber; “breakfast fag" to another, whom he to time certify and inform the warden, attends at tea-not at breakfast—in hall; sub-warden, and head master, respecting and liable also to be sent on errands, and their behavior and conversation, and pro- to be obliged to field at cricket, at the bidgress in study.”
ding of any prefect who may happen to There were six chambers, and therefore want those services. This would ordina18 “Prefects," and the number was not in- rily be the case with a boy who was not creased when the original school-room was one of the seven juniors, but was just above turned into a seventh chamber. The 18 them. If he were one of the seven juniors, chamber-prefects still exist; of these, eight he would be general fag (instead of "valet”) have power only in the inner quadrangle, in his own chamber. practically only in the chambers; the re- The expenses of a commoner boarding in maining ten (plena potestate præfecti) have the head master's house are estiinated by power everywhere; and five of the ten, Dr. Moberly at about 1151. [about $557] a year, including travelling money, pocket they learn German), and if not prefects, a money, and the tradesmen's bills. There further payment of two guineas to the “ boy are three boarding houses in addition to the tutor.” The system of open competition head master's—two kept by assistant mas- for the scholarships (of which there are on an ters, and the other by a retired tutor-but average about ten vacant every year), was the expenses appear to be about the same rendered obligatory in the college by an in all. The “scholars," who are elected ordinance of the Oxford University Comannually by competitive examination, are mission," in 1854, and appears to have boarded, lodged, and educated without any worked well. Notice of every “election" expense to their parents beyond a payment is given in the Times, and circulars conof thirty shillings a year to the French veying every information are sent to every master (with an addition of two guineas if person who makes inquiries on the subject.
THE POSSESSIVE AUGMENT
"as." VAE addition to the English noun in the Tu
“I mentioned the high tide at possessive case has always been some- Deptford's being the cause." what of a mystery.
Some assert it to have After all, why inquire into the matter at arisen from the abbreviation of his as all? We do not agree with the London “ John's book” is equivalent to “ John bis Athenæum which asserts that “to all such book”—a mode of writing the phrase which discussions no one can object, so long as it had not entirely passed out of vogue in our is understood that ancient learning is not younger days. But then there is the pos- to dictate to our English tongue.” We can session of the female, and “Mary'r book," and do object, because it is a waste of time which would be the abbreviation for “Mary to enter on the discussion. An English her book," is not written at all.
barrister might find something better to do, One writer holds that the noun is con- even though he is in his eighty-third year, verted by the 8 into a possessive adjective; has left the law, and has entered upon a and this can be very well supported also. literary life-literally, it would seem, by Perhaps the best explanation is to proclaim taking the letter s for a subject. the existence of a real genitive case in The truth is that from the earliest times English.
the genitive case in English was marked A recent writer on this subject, Mr. by the addition of es to the nominative James Manning, enumerates nineteen in- form. Chaucer, if our memory be correct, stances of the use of the possessive addition, did not say “man his bliss,” but “ mannes and discusses each with considerable care. bliss." In process of time some printer Some of these are, however, only repeti- cut out the e, and substituted an apostrotions, for “William's book” and “the book phe; and the novelty was imitated and is William's" amount to the same thing, grew into universal use. Whether, howthe word “book” being expressed in the ever, the possessive augment be an abbreone instance, and implied in the other. viation, or the sign of a true genitive, or So with “Mary's pencil” and “the pencil the mark which degrades a respectable and is Mary's.” So, also, with "the skin is a substantial noun, into a beggarly and jourcalf's”-that is, “the skin is a calf's skin." neyman-like adjective, is a matter of no Other of the instances are scarcely aclmis- great moment. It is enough that custom, sible, except among the vulgar, as, “ Upon which makes the language, has rendered Cæsar's passing the Rubicon," where the 's the possessive augment a necessary part is superfluous. And the 's in the nine- of English. All we have to do is to bow teenth instance is hardly a possessive aug- and obey. If such a thing should be Eng. ment. It is rather a mere abbreviation of lish, is not the question ; but, if it is.
The Possessive Augment.
Word-critics—those terrible fellows who to make up the compound word by which are always going about the dark places of that particular Miss Julia Squiggles is disyour sentences with a lantern in their handstinguished before all the other Miss Julia to look for defects are fond of giving rea- Squiggleses, past, present, or to come; and sons for certain modes of expresssion. A the whole twenty syllables are to all intents recent writer in Notes and Queries, informs and purposes a noun—a name dependent us that the cant phrase—“As sure as eggs upon certain peculiarities of the party deis eggs," is not ungrammatical, because, scribed. On the other hand, the alternate 'hear him, oh, Phoibos !' it is a misprint definition is open to objection. “Brains" is or mispronunciation, or mis-something or a noun, beyond doubt; but the brains of a other, for, “ As sure as X is X,” the un- writer who devotes ninety octavo pages to happy writer being algebraical to the last. discussing the possessive augment, in these If this be true, why not say, “as sure as days of labor-saving contrivances, certainly X is X,” and be done with your plural do not exist, nor can we have any notion eggs? The late Edgar A. Poe once wrote of them whatever. what he thought was a review upon a two- It is very evident how the possessive penny work on English grammar, in which augment has grown to its present shape. he explained away the subjunctives,denying An examination of the leading writers of the existence of such a mood altogether. English, from the earliest time until the If “I be" was merely “if I should be," present day will show us that. As to why or, “shall be," there being an ellipsis of the it has assumed the present shape, is a more “should” or “shall.” Of course he would difficult matter to determine. It is, perhave said “if I am," in certain contingen- haps not impossible—few things are, excies. All very nicely explained, to be sure. cept the attempt of a man to raise himself But he said nothing about another tense. two inches from the ground by tugging at He did not give us the invisible auxiliary the straps of his boots. But what is to be in " if I were." We cannot conjecture his gained by the inquiry, except a consumpexplanation on that point, unless he put the tion of pens, paper, and ink, and a waste of ellipses thus—“If I [had been) w[ith you time? th]ere"-which carries the absurd too far. By way of ending the subject upon which
Some of the grammarians squabble about we are in danger of becoming as tedious as the definition of a noun. Lindley Murray's Mr. Sergeant Manning himself, and by way definition of a noun was for a while ac- of showing our sense of the defect of the cepted; but the people said, “can there be English language in forming its genitive by a word which shall be the name of any a sibilant, we will repeat a story found in thing that does not have actual or supposed an old English magazine. The English existence.” One writer, James Brown, who people, having discovered that hissing prewrote a volume to prove no one under- vailed in their language, petitioned Satan stood the structure of the English language to give them a better vocabulary. Either but himself, gave a definition as the best because they were old friends, or that he possible, and printed it partly in small cap- was in an obliging humor, he endeavored to itals to show how very perfect it was: “A comply with their wishes. He got together noun is an INDEPENDENT name." This had a collection of old books, in various lanonly two faults, namely: it did not define
guages, mummy rags, and other odds and "name," and a noun is not independent. ends, and boiled them all in a huge caldron. Beside, noun and name are the same thing; The froth which arose le sent to his Eng. and what part of speech would a depend- lish clients, who were well satisfied. It is ent name be? A noun is a name beyond added, that just as the boiling was nearly doubt, and it may consist of one word or over, the Council of Nice broke up, and two or fifty. “The-never-to-be-too-much the books and papers thus rendered useless admired-and-constantly-beloved-Miss-Julia- . by being deprived of authority, were sold Squiggles dances” consists of a noun and cheaply to his infernal highness. They a verb. It is true that the first sixteen syl- were thrown in with the rest, but not havTables do duty as an adjective, but they go ing time to be thoroughly boiled, furnished the hard words that tumble from some with equal truth and aptness, perhaps, have people's mouths now and then. The au- added that the hissing sound was not much thor assures us that “the language would hurt by the boiling, or that Satan malihave been an excellent language, if it had ciously neutralized the benefits he connot been for the Council of Nice, and the ferred, by adding to the language the poswords had been well-boiled.” He might, sessive augment.
Requisites for the lessons. The teacher was told to find a latlı (for example) six should be provided with laths or thin strips inches long." All observe, as the teacher of wood, varying in length from one inch measures it by the one-inch, and count the to one yard. At least six of the shorter number of inches as it is prored whether measures should be procured, viz.; six it is right or not. Practice may be given laths one inch long, six two inches long, in counting by two's and three's in the etc, up to twelve inches. These will afford measuring process. The question should employment for several children at the be frequently asked how many times did same time.
the one-inch ineasure it? How many times Outline for early lessons. The different did I place the two-inch measure upon this? measures from one inch to one foot being How much longer is the four-inch lath placed on a table, several children may be than the two-inch etc. The idea of divisrequested to find the shortest measure or ion as well as addition and multiplication lath upon the table. The attention of all may be developed in this manner. being gained, the teacher may tell them Drawing Lines.
Children may be althat those selected are one inch long. All lowed to find measures of a specified length will repeat in concert looking at them care- and pass to the board to draw lines of the fully—“The laths are one inch long." The same length. We usually send six to draw measures being thrown upon the table, six lines of the same length and request those children may be directed to find a lath one in their seats to draw upon slates. Those inch long. Let them arrange themselves at the board after drawing are allowed to in a line facing the school, holding their pass among the desks and measure the laths in their hands, and the rest observe lines upon the slates giving each child an and decide whether correct. The teacher opportunity of seeing whether he is right may now take a two-inch lath and after or not. The class may be kept very much gaining the attention of all, may place the interested during these exercises. As many one-inch lath upon it twice and allow the children should be kept busy as possible. class to decide how long it is. All will re- "Activity is the law of childhood;" and peat “The lath is two inches long.” Six of acting upon this law, they never weary, the class may be sent to pick up laths two even when there is a sameness in the inches long, others one inch. All should lessons. observe and decide as before. Proceed in Order of Exercises for Following Lessons. the same manner to give the children prac- 1. Review previous lessons; 2. Distinguish tice in distinguishing the length of other 1, 2, and 3 feet; 3. Class draw lines 4, 6,
We usually send seven or eight 8, 10, and 12 inches long, and bisect them; 4. little ones to the table upon which the laths Class judge of the length of books, slates, are lying at the same time to pick up meas- pencils, eto; 5. Draw parallel lines (for exures of different lengths. After they have ample) 6 inches long two inches apart; 6. selected them they arrange themselves in a Draw circles having a specified diameter. line facing the school and each one in suc- 7. Measure off one, two, and three feet of cession holds up the measure and says “I cord or tape; 8. Class make out by actual
measurement and commit to memory the
quart. following table.
gallon. 12 inches make
peck. 3 feet
bushel. 5 yards
Experience has shown that the course 165 feet
as given, affords sufficient matter for a pri9. Class familiarized with the ordinary mary school for two years if the class commeasures of capacity, viz., pint, quart, gal- mences not earlier than six years of age. lon, peck, and bushel measures, and by ex- If the children are younger the time should periment learn that
WITH A NOTICE OF SOME ERRORS IN TEACHING IT.
THE science of music proposes two
on this second line is a new note repreprincipal methods, the analytic and senting the key a, at the left of and next to synthetic. In my first article I treated the b; this note begins our musical alphabet, staff and Piano keyboard in the former, although it has long ago ceased to be a now I intend to treat the same subject in starting point; the tone c with its note the latter method, to give a sample of both. and key having assumed this prerogative.
A note represents a tone, or, since we By drawing the upper second line (above have the Piano alone in view, a key. All the first), we obtain again three notes, althe notes are of the same shape. We are though all of them do not occupy new pogoing to show how the same character can sitions, the note below being identical with represent all the keys of the Piano. Let us the note above the first line, hence repredraw a horizontal line, and write below, senting the same key d; but the note on on, and above it, a note, the letter 0. We this second line represents the key e, at obtain thus three differently situated notes. the right of and next to d, and the note Now let us call the note below this line 6, above-the key f-next to e at the right. the note on the line c, and the note above If we draw one more (the third upper) the line d, and we see the principle of the line, we can finish our musical alphabet, whole arrangement at once. The note on since it consists of only seven letters. By the line represents the long key c, in or writing a note below, on, and above this nearly in the middle of the keyboard; the third upper line, we obtain again two new note below—the long key b, next to and at notes (one of them being identical with the the left of the key c; and the note above, note above the second line), viz.: g and a, the long key next to and at the right of the representing the keys g and a lying next to key c; we see from this that the notes b, c, each other, and at the right of f. This a d are exactly situated like their correspond- is said to be an eighth (or an octave) higher ing keys b, c, d; we see also that notes in than the first a, the reason of which I need the first instance represent only long keys. not explain. These two a's are easily dis
Let us now draw the second line below cerned one from the other by the great this first line, and call it the lower second. distance of their position, both on the staff We write again a note below, on, and above and on the Piano. In the same manner it. It will be seen at once. that the note every note and key has its six or seven above this line occupies the same place octaves above or below them; all the eight with the note below the first line, hence it keys or notes lying between such two represents the same key b; but the note notes (an octave apart), together with the