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points of merit of its own. The “Sugges- raphy of the same publishers, and are a detions to Teachers" at the beginning are val- sirable addition to the stock of literary curiuable. There is one fault in teaching arith- osities which every teacher should possess. metic, whether this or any other text-book While on the subject of sheet publications, be used, that should be speedily corrected- we must note the Zoological Chart, (6) by namely, a dependence upon the slate. By Simonson. It is exceedingly clear, and of habit a pupil will be soon enabled to solve great value to all teachers who make Natuthe most difficult problems mentally. Any ral History, in whole or in part, one of the one who has attended the exhibitions of any subjects they teach. As an aid to the memof the Institutes for the Blind, must have ory, they should be in the study of every been struck with the readiness displayed by man not as profoundly learned in zoology as the pupils in working out the most difficult

Agassiz or Girard. calculations without, of course, the aid of the Among other noteworthy articles in the black-board. Is there any reason why the September number of that standard publicapossession of the faculty of sight should be a tion the American Journal of Science and positive disadvantage to the young arithme- Arts, are the papers on Celestial Dynamics, tician?

by J. R. Mayer; Molecular Physics, by Prof. Books for boys and girls that will interest Norton; Ærial Tides, by P. E. Chase; and their young readers, are to be desired. To Notes on the Platinum Metals, by M. Carey be successful they must rather rise above Lea. The general summary of scientific inthan get below the level of the child." Chil- telligence presented in each number, renders dren detest puerile books. They look upon this journal invaluable to all who would childish expressions with contempt. They keep up with the steady and unceasing adwant a story told in plain language, and vance of science. that story must have incident in abundance. As the business man keeps a record of his “ The Seven Champions," " Sinbad the Sail- daily transactions, so should the teacher or,"

," "Valentine and Orson,” and “Robinson keep a precise record of the pupils' standing Crusoe”—the last the best of all, are models from day to day. Mr. Potter's School Recof their several kinds. Any child who can ord (7) appears opportunely, as the winter read decently finds interest in such stories. schools are about to be organized. This lit“Captain Horace,” (4) is not one of this kind; tle book is complete, and well adapted to its but it is not without merit. It is told sim- purposes. ply enough, and there are no absolutely silly The main difficulty about most of the expressions, wherein it is a great improve- treatises on algebra is in their lack of proper ment upon many of children's books of progression. They all presuppose a mental recent date. The best part of the book is capacity not always found in the pupil, or a the little hero's adventures in the forest with mathematical aptness not always found in Peter Grant.

young persons of very good mind in other The number of compilations of music for respects. Bailey's First Lessons (8) is a book schools may be summed up by the word on a better plan. It commences at the very "legion.” Some of these are positively good, beginning, and then marches on step by a few positively bad, and a great many with step in a natural and easy progression. a mixture of good and bad points. While it simplifies the acquisition of the Silver Fountain," (5) which is one of the elements, it omits nothing in the end. The latest of these issues, may be put properly pupil acquires as much, but with more ease in the first list. The selections are gener- and equal certainty. ally judicious, the arrangement of the airs The September number of Barnard's Amer. well adapted to the end in view, and the ican Journal of Education contains a series accompaniments simple and easy. We re- of well-digested articles, among which we commend it to the attention of Sabbath particularly notice—“Public Instruction in schools and families.

Hesse Darmstadt,” “The Jesuits and their To travel from music to geography, we Schools,” and “Military System and Schools notice two very curious maps issued by Lip in Russia." The Journal is, and deserves pincott & Co., of Philadelphia, which pur- to be, the leading publication of its kind in port to be faithful reprints of maps publish- the United States. It is conducted with ed in 1492 and 1520. If they be true indi- vigor, tact, and ability. cations of the state of geographical science at the time of their issue, we have improved

(6) SIMONSON'S ZOOLOGICAL CHART, A Directory to the

Study of the Animal Kingdom, New York and Philadelvery much in our knowledge since then.

phia: Schermerhorn, Bancroft & Co. They accompany the Comprehensive Geog- (7) POTTER AND HAMMOND'S SCHOOL RECORD AND RECITA

TIONS. By S. A. POTTER. New York and Philadelphir :

Schermerhorn, Bancroft & Co. Oblong 16mo, pp. 32 By SOPRIE MAY.

$1.50 per dozen. Shepard. 24mo, pp. 183.

(8) FIRST LESSONS IN ALGEBRA; being an Easy Introduc (5) THE SILVER FOUNTAIN OF SABBATH SCHOOL MELODIES,

tion to that Science. Designed for the use of Academie: comprising a great variety of new Music and Hymns, By A. J. ABBEY. New York: Abbey & Barrett. Oblong York and Philadelphia : Schermerhorn, Bancroft & Co. 18mo, pp. 128.

16mo, pp. 254.

« The

(4) CAPTAIN HORACE.

Boston: Lee &

and Common Schools.

By EBENEZER BAILEY.

Yes

AMERICAN

EDUCATIONAL MONTHLY.

VOL. I.-NOVEMBER, 1864.–NO. 11.

THE GREAT SCHOOL OF WINCHESTER.

THE

VE next great school of England, after minute than at Eton. The Warden and

Eton, is that of Winchester. By a Fellows have a right to be consulted if there paper in the London Educational Times, are any great changes-as in the subjects to which we are indebted for this article, of study, for instance. A Scholar, senwe learn that Winchester School is legally tenced to punishment by the Head Master, designated as “The College of St. Mary of can appeal to the Warden, who would comWinchester, near Winchester,” and that it monly dispose of the case himself but would was founded in 1387. It originally con- bring it before a meeting of the Fellows if sisted of a Warden, 10 Fellows, 76 Scholars, that was insisted on. The Warden and the 1 Head Master, 1 Usher or Second Master, Fellows only, or the Warden with the con3 Chaplains, 3 Clerks, and 16 Choristers. sent of the Fellows, can expel a Scholar. By an Ordinance of the Oxford University The Warden and Fellows appoint the Head Commissioners, which took effect in 1857, and Second Masters and the College Tutor, this constitution has been considerably and the Warden also appoints the Mathematmodified; the 10 Fellowships are to be re- ical and Modern Language Masters, because duced as vacancies occur, to 6; and with it is part of their duty to teach the Scholars. the income thus set at liberty, the number In May, 1862, when the school was visof Scholars is to be increased to 100, and ited by the Commissioners, there were 216 20 Exhibitions are to be founded, not tena- boys, and therefore, 146 Commoners. The ble with Scholarships.

number of Commoners was 31 in 1668. The Warden and Fellows are the Gov. During the 18th century it fluctuated greaterning Body of the College, which, as at ly, being 87 in 1730, and in 1750, only 10. Eton (the Statutes of which appear to have In 1846 it had risen to 148, but it then bebeen modeled on those of Winchester), gan to fall rapidly, until in 1858 it did not consists of two distinct, although closely- exceed 68. “The College suffered,” acconnected departments—the College and cording to Dr. Moberly, the Head Master, School.

"for some considerable time under the repThe general government of the School is utation of bad health, which had the effect vested in the Head Master, subject to such of lowering our numbers considerably.” control as is exercised over him by the From this depression the School has since Warden, or by the Warden and Fellows. been gradually recovering. The opening

The legal position of the Head Master of of the Sholarships to competition, the openWinchester is the same as that of the Heading of New College to Commoners, and the Master of Eton. As Master of the Foun- establishment of additional boarding houses, dation Scholars, he is an officer of the Col- bave had very beneficial effects.. lege, “hired and removable” by the Gov- The Statutes permit a limited number erning Body, and subject to the superin- not exceeding 10, of sons of noble and great tendence of its head. The control appears, men, special friends of the College, “filii however, to be in practice less strict and nobilium et valentium personarum dicti

Collegii specialium amicorum,” to be edu- who likewise takes a class, and three comcated within the College walls, but without position masters, who are employed in lookcharge to the College. It appears, by old ing over and correcting the exercises and College accounts, that such boys were in compositions of the whole school, except fact received, and that they paid, not for the upper sixth. One of these, called the their instruction, but for their commons or “ College Tutor," performs this office for board. These are regarded as having been scholars; the other two, called “Tutors in the forerunners of the present “common- Commoners," for the commoners. The ers," or non-foundation 'boys. At what two latter are also employed to preserve time coinmoners ceased to board within order and discipline in the head master's the college does not appear. In 1681, says boarding-house. Mr. Walcott, we find, according to the roll, In 1861 the arrangement of forms (or two commoners in college, three in the “Books," as they are called at Winchester) warden's house, and the remainder out of and sub-divisions of forms, was as follows: college. The distinction, he says, did not disappear till 1747.

Sixth Book.......

| Upper Division.

(Lower Division. There is nothing in the Statutes to show

Senior Part.
Fifth Book Middle Part.

Senior Division. that the founder of Winchester contem

Junior Part.

Junior Division. plated, as the founder of Eton certainly

Fourth Book...... { did, the resort of other boys to his school

Junior Divison. besides the scholars and the small privil- There were no lower forms. The whole eged class above mentioned. The head school was thus distributed into eight asmaster has, however, long been in the cending divisions. habit of taking boarders, who are said, in An institution may be mentioned here the dialect of Winchester, to be “in com- which is among the peculiar features of moners," and are regarded as successors of Winchester, though it has now lost much the class from whom they seem to have of its former importance—that of “Boy inherited the name. The number was Tutors." To each of the 10 senior boys in formerly limited by the warden and fellows college, some of the juniors are assigned as to 130, but this limitation exists no longer. pupils. It is his duty to overlook and corTwo additional boarding-houses were open- rect a certain part of their exercises before ed in 1862; a third, to hold 25 boys, was they are shown up, and to help his pupils then building, and it was in contemplation when they want help in their lessons. He to establish a fourth.

is responsible also, in some measure, for Boys undergo no examination, the sch their general conduct and diligence, and is ars excepted, before admission to the the person of whom the head master would school; but if a boy is sent to school whose make inquiries if he had reason to think attainments are not such as to enable him that any of them were going on amiss. to join the lowest classes with good pros- For each pupil so placed under his charge pect of advantage, he is not received. the “Boy Tutor" receives two guineas a This happens occasionally, but rarely. year from the pupil's parents. This pracThere are no limits of age, and there is no tice has been traced to a provision in the rule as to the highest form in which a boy Statutes, whereby the founder directs that can be placed on admission. Boys seldom “to each scholar of his own kindred there come at an earlier age than eleven, or so should always be assigned, by the Warden late as sixteen, and in practice are never and head master, one of the discreeter and placed higher than in the senior part of the more advanced scholars to superintend fifth, and very rarely so high. A scholar and instruct them in grammar under the stays on an average five years at school, a head master all the time that they should commoner between three and four.

remain in the college." Each of these inThe classical staff comprises, beside the structors was to receive for each pupil 6s. head and second masters, a third and a 8d. a year out of the funds of the college. fourth master respectively taking classes in The functions of the boy tutor were much school, an assistant to the head master, circumscribed, about 26 years ago, by the

1864.]

The Great School at Winchester.

323

appointment of the college tutor, or schol- period. There is a prize also of £5 for an ars' composition master-a change intro- English essay on a historical subject. duced by the then warden on the advice of Both mathematics and arithmetic are the second master, the present bishop of taught in every division of the school, and St. Andrew's, who had been educated at the amount of time allotted to them, espeHarrow, and against the opinion, though cially in the upper part of it, is unusually not against the positive dissent of Dr. Mo- great. Seven or eight hours a week are berly, who was then, as now, head master. devoted to these subjects by the first three Formerly the boy tutor took all the com- divisions, the lowest of which is commonly positions of his pupils; now he takes only reached at about 13 or 14; three or four a small part of them.

hours by the rest of the school. The Some traditional peculiarities in the clas- marks for mathematics are allowed to count sical teaching of Winchester may be here for about one-fourth of the weekly total. mentioned. One is the system called "pul. The highest subjects read in the upper sixth piteers,” probably from the rostrum for- were, in 1861, conic sections and trigonommerly used for the purpose-of assembling etry. periodically all the boys of the first three Every boy is obliged to learn either divisions, for construing lessons in certain French or German during the whole time authors, when some of the seniors construe that he remains at school, but it is not first in the presence of all the rest. An- deemed practicable to allow both languages other is the practice of writing a Latin ep- to be taught at the same time. For learnigram, called a vulgus,"

," thrice a week, ing German there is an additional payment which is thought to bring out cleverness, of £2 2s. a year, beside the £1 10s. and cultivate neatness of expression. An charged for the French masters. The numother, again, is that of devoting a week, or ber learning it in 1862, were about 40, and a week and a half, in summer, to what consisted chiefly of older boys, or of boys is called "standing up." The work of who had been in Germany or had some "standing-up week," consists chiefly in re- family connection with it. peating portions of Greek and Latin gram- There are two French masters, both mar, and in repeating and construing con- Frenchmen; during ten years preceding siderable quantities of Latin and Greek 1862 there was only one, probably on acverse or prose, which the boy has been count of the diminished numbers of the able to store up in his memory. One les. school. An hour and a half in every week son of English verse is allowed to be taken is assigned to two French lessons, occupyup, and one of Euclid. It is confined ing three-quarters of an hour each. Every to the boys below the senior part of the lesson, M. Angoville thinks, ought to take fifth. The comparatively small quantity of an hour to prepare. The French master translation which is done, and the undue has the power to set impositions for inatproportion of original composition in the tention or misconduct during lessons, but classical languages, can hardly be counted no authority out of school. The marks for among the peculiarities of Winchester. modern languages count for about one. Little or no Greek prose is written, even eighth in the weekly total, and French and in the highest form.

German enter into the half-yearly examinNeither ancient nor modern history is ation. taught in set lessons, and ancient history Natural science is taught by lectures, does not enter as a separate subject into about ten or twelve of which on some any of the school examinations. Questions branch (such as chemistry, geology, elecin portions of English history, specified be- tricity, &c.) are delivered every summer, forehand, are set in the general half-yearly between the Easter and Midsummer holiexaminations lately instituted, to which days, by lecturers engaged for the purpose we shall refer hereafter, and in the exain- from time to time. All the boys are reination for the Goddard scholarship; and quired to attend. this leads, in the latter case, to a very care- There is also a drawing master, who has ful reading of the historv of a considerable a few scholars, and some of the boys take lessons in music from out-door profes- doing very elementary work is singularly sors.

large. In the lowest class, doing Greek The system of promotion at Winchester Delectus and a little Ovid, there were in is nearly the reverse of that of Eton. At 1861 two boys of 16; one very nearly 17; Eton a boy rises in the school chiefly by two others not far short of 16, and the seniority; at Winchester his rate of pro- average age of the whole division was very gress is determined by his success in an in- nearly 16, and higher than that of the dicessant competition, in which every lesson vision next above it, which was 14 years and every exercise counts for a certain nu- and 4 months. merical value, and which never pauses or The absence, until very recently, of any terminates till he reaches the sixth book. general periodical examinations, has been Places are taken in every division below ainong the peculiarities of the Winchester the sixth book, and each boy receives for system. There have been regular examin. each lesson a number of marks answering ations for prizes, but the boys who compete to the place he holds in the division at the for prizes form, of course, but a small proend of the lesson. Thus, if he is twentieth portion of the school. The peculiar stimufrom the bottom he receives twenty marks. lus which periodical examinations afford, Marks are likewise given in the mathemat- and the particular mental discipline which ical and modern language classes, but the they supply, have thus in a great measure number of marks which can be given for been wanting, and the school has lost the a French or a mathematical lesson is lim- assistance which they give in correcting ited to a maximum, which is supposed to the defects inseparable from the system of represent roughly the relative value of each “ taking places” as a method of promotion. of those studies compared with classics. Dr. Moberly has lately made an innovation The highest marks which a good mathe- in this respect by instituting a half-yearly matician can gain are one-fourth, the high- examination, turning partly on the classical est that a good French or German scholar work of the previous half-year, but comcan gain are one-eighth, of the grand total. prising also papers in French and German, At the end of every week the marks gained and in set portions of English history, of for all the lessons are added up, and the geography, and of the Old Testament. same thing is done at the end of every The system of promotion above described month. This record of each boy's progress and the stimulus afforded by it, do not, howis called the “Classicus paper.” The pro- ever, reach to the top of the school, nor do motion of each boy at the end of a half- the half-yearly examinations; they cease year, depends on the number of marks he on entrance into the sixth book. Until has obtained in the “Classical paper," dur- about 12 years ago, promotion by taking ing that half-year, with the addition of those places stopped on entrance into the senior which he has gained (if his place in school part of the fifth, that is, about half-way up the is below the senior part of the fifth) for school, and at a point which a boy gener“standing-up" at the end of the summer half. ally attained when about 13 or 14 years

A consequence of this system is that a old. From that time till he stood for New clever and diligent boy rises quickly to the College his place was never changed, and top of the school, and that the duller or the examination which he eventually unmore idle boys are left to stagnate at the derwent for New College was formerly litbottom of it. There is the advantage of a ' tle more than nominal. sharp and unceasing stimulus applied to New College is now thrown open to the those who are capable of rising, and the commoners, and the examination for it disadvantage, such as it is, which a steady, is real and competitive. The sixth-form but slow and backward boy suffers from boys have now, therefore, a stimulus to exthe disheartening effect of being constantly ertion which the upper school had not beoutstripped and left behind.

fore, and Dr. Moberly trusts to this, to the From this cause, and from the fact that examination for the Goddard scholarship, boys are admitted at almost any age, the and to the various school prizes, to combat number of great boys in the lower classes the tendency to stagnation, which is likely

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