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admission, as they were before the war, exchange its debt for our entire State debt. for want of room in the buildings.

Our common schools are flourishing, even Michigan is an agricultural State; but in the third year of the war, as never bewhether agriculture will always remain fore. We have sent nearly sixty thousand our leading interest, admits of doubt. Our men to the field, yet all the arts of peace iron and copper mines are inexhaustible thrive within our borders. in supply, and unsurpassed in quality. Our In all the varied interests of the State, forests will, for a hundred years yet, be a the Agricultural College is well adapted to source of immense wealth. A large por- prepare our young men for success.

In tion of the State contains excellent beds of none of them, will the studies there purcoal, and our petroleum-wells will soon be sued, be found otherwise than useful and flowing.

Already we rival the Empire advantageous. State in the manufacture of salt, and we We wish your readers, therefore, to uncan equal any State in the production of derstand that Michigan is a great, prosperfruit. With all these advantages, manufac- ous, patriotic, and intelligent State; and has, tures can not be kept in the background. for seven years, had an Agricultural College Many a city in the land would be glad to in successful operation. O. B. S.

EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE.

.

The Training School for primary teach- is in the Practising Schools. Thus, oneers, established by an act of the Legislature half the time is given to practise, and the of the State of New York, will go into other half to instruction. operation on the 18th of April, under the II. The Instruction in the Natural Scidirection of Superintendent Sheldon. The ences, will include Zoology, Botany, Geolappropriation for the purpose is, we be- ogy, Mineralogy, and Chemistry, and perlieve, $5,000 per year, the buildings being haps Physiology. Thorough instruction in furnished by the citizens of Oswego. The these is regarded as essential to the highest following is a synopsis of the plan of the success of the teacher in the methods purschool, kindly furnished by Mr. Sheldon. sued.

Course of Instruction.--This will con- III. In Professional Instruction, will be sist, 1st, in Instruction in Methods; 2d, included Mental and Moral Philosophy, Instruction in the Natural Sciences; and School History, Organization and Disci3d, what may be more strictly termed pline. Professional Instruction.

Terms of Admission.—Before admission, I. Under the first head will be inclnded an examination will be instituted in Arithinstruction in methods of presenting Form, metic, Grammar, Geography, Spelling, Size, Weight, Color, Number (including Reading; also in Algebra as far as QuadArithmetic), Language (including Gram- ratic Equations, Geometry (1st Book), and mar), Reading, Spelling, Drawing, Geogra- History of the United States. phy; also of giving lessons in Objects, in- In the last three named branches, the cluding lessons on Animals and Plants, and examination will be less thorongh than in the Human Body.

the former. Fifty per cent. of correct This instruction will be accompanied with answers is required. Model Lessons, illustrating fully the methods at every point. In addition to this, the SOHOOLS OF New York City.—The allpupils will be required to observe and nual report of S. S. Randall, Superintendpractise one-half of each day in the Model ent of the New York city schools, for 1863, and Practising Schools, of which there is states that there are, under the general juone for each grade, including the first five risdiction of the Board of Education, 45 years of the child's school-life. The school grammar-schools for boys, 45 for girls, 3 will be divided into two sections, one of for boys and girls, 47 primary departments, which will be in recitation while the other 42 primary schools, 2 granamar-schools for 1864.)

Educational Intelligence.

121

colored boys, 2 for colored girls, 4 for col- tion of the Board, with the view of imored children of both sexes, 2 primary de- proving the mode of instruction in the partments, and 2 primary schools for col- primary schools. He calls attention to the ored children; making, in all, 194 separate want of more primary schools; and states schools and departments. In addition to that nearly every primary school and dethis, there are 12 corporate schools par- partment in the city is now crowded to ticipating in the public money, 1 free acad- excess, and that there are about 40,000 emy for boys, 26 evening schools for boys, children in the city, over four years of age, 22 for girls, and 2 for colored children of who do not attend any school. both sexes. The whole number of chil- The reports of Assistant Superintendents. dren taught during the year, was 201,124; Kiddle, Jones, and Seton, also present inan increase over 1862, of 29,718. The teresting views in relation to instruction whole number of teachers employed in the in the schools. several schools during the year, was 1,934;

GENERAL BANKS has laid off the terriof whom 200 were males, and the remain

tory under his jurisdiction, in Louisiana, der, 1,734, females.

into school-districts, and is organizing a The superintendent gives a detailed ac

system of common-school instruction for count of the character, progress, and press the children, as well as a free paid labor ent condition of the several schools in each

system for the adult population of that Ward. The number of pupils taught in

sunny clime. General Banks is a stateseach ward, ranges from 425 in the second,

man, as well as a soldier. He knows how to 13,738 in the twentieth. He again urges

to organize the forces of a free, peaceful, the establishment of a normal school for

and happy community, as well as those for the training of teachers, together with a

the stern work of grim-visaged war. Wo high-school for girls. More attention to

shall watch with the deepest interest this physical culture is recommended, and the furnishing of the large halls, basements,

process of reorganization in Southern se

ciety. and playgrounds, attached to each school, with all the necessary apparatus requisite ABOUT a year ago the Massachusetts Legfor this purpose, as a measure beneficial to islature adopted a resolution authorizing health, and preventive of premature dis- the governor to appoint a commission to ease, the danger of which is imminent inquire into the expediency of establishing from the confinement of pupils for six a State military academy. The commis. hours of each school-day.

sion was appointed, consisting of the Hon. The report of Assistant Superintendent Edward Everett, John M. Fessenden, an Calkins gives an account of the course of old graduate of West Point, Wm. S. Clark, study, and of the general condition of the formerly a professor at Amherst College, primary schools and departments. He and for a while an officer in a Massachusetts also sets forth the need of a well-organized volunteer regiment, and they have recentTraining School, for educating teachers in ly submitted their report for the action of the principles and methods of teaching, as the Legislature. The report, evidently ihe greatest want for securing improve written by Mr. Everett, is brief and comment in primary instruction.

" What our

prehensive. By visits to West Point and teachers most need," he truly says, “is the Naval Academy at Newport, and cor. not greater scholarship than may be ob- respondence with our ministers at London tained in the present course of instruction and Paris relative to institutions for miliin the grammar-schools, but the knowledge tary education in Europe, the commissionof how to teach children what they them- ers have collected a large amount of inselves know. Nine teachers fail from the formation, which they have not had timo lack of knowing how to teach, to one that to arrange and submit in detail yet, but fails from lack of book-knowledge.” which is promised hereafter. The results

Mr. Calkins gives a detailed account of to which they have arrived may be state'l the process of teaching pursued, and pre- briefly thus: They are of the opinion that sents a course of studies for the considera- the introduction of military exercises anıl

drill into our colleges, academies, and More children, more teachers, and more schools of a higher grade, though useful to means are reported than in any former a certain extent, would not meet the de- year. And in but one year has the average mands of the country and the times; that length of the schools ever been greater, and whatever the immediate complexion of the that only one-tenth of a month more. future may be, it will bring with it an im- More money was raised by voluntary taxperative call for a more systematic, exten- ation, and less by the odious rate-bill, than sive, and effective development of the mil- ever before. It is quite evident that, while itary power of the country than has yet sending about one in every fourteen of her taken place ; that for the increase of the population to chastise rebellion, the State means of military education the people of has not forgotten that liberty and education Massachusetts must for the present and must not be divorced. for some time to come rely upon their own The number of children reported beresources; that private military academies tween five and twenty years of age is are not organized on a basis sufficiently 273,620; an increase during the year of comprehensive for all branches of military 12,297. This shows an increase of popueducation; and that difficulty would exist lation of about 38,000. Of the above numin the want of authority to govern them ber, 216,144 attended the common schools, by martial law. The commissioners, there- in addition to which several thousand are fore, recommend the establishment of a reported in private schools. When it is military academy for the State of Massa- considered how many leave school for the chusetts, at which provision shall be made active duties of life at eighteen years of for the education of about two hundred age, the conclusion is pretty certain that young men of suitable age, to be divided Michigan is raising very few uneducated into three classes, being at the present time citizens. one annually for every twenty-one hundred The number of graded, or Union schools, of the population of the State. They con- is 124. In these schools, some of which template a first-class institution. A high number several thousand pupils, the prinstandard of qualification for admission is cipals receive salaries of $600 to $1,200. proposed ; and the practice of competitive In the State the average of wages was, to examinations will require the schools at male teachers, $28.17 per month, and to which the candidates are prepared to aim females, $12.42. The total number of in their turn at an elevated standard. The teachers was 8,825; and the average military and naval schools of the United length of the schools was six and oneStates labor under a disadvantage in this tenth months. respect of qualification, as their pupils, for The amount paid for teachers' wages paramount public reasons, are taken in was $520,012. The total school resources geographical proportion from every part for the year were $828,000. Of this about of the Union; and it follows that the requi- $130,000 was from a perinanent school site qualifications of candidates for admis- fund; $277,000 from a State tax of two sion cannot rise above the state of educa- mills on the dollar of property as assessed; tion in any part of the country. In view and nearly all of the remainder was from of this high and uniform standard, a three voluntary taxation by the tax-payers of years' course may be substituted for the 4,382 several districts. The pecuniary four years' course at West Point. The prosperity of the schools is shown (and commissioners estimate that such an in- from this may be inferred that of the stitution as they propose can be put in op- State) in the fact that $106,000 was reeration for about $175,000, and carried on ported on hand at the close of the year, or at an annual expense of about $56,000.- $21,000 more than in the year preceding. Round Table.

The value of school-houses reported is

$1,868,000. Several districts have school. COMMON SchooLS IN MOHIGAN.-The houses that cost from $15,000 to $40,000 School Reports of 1863 in Michigan show each. One district has a stately edifice an increasing prosperity in every respect that cost $50,000.

1864.] Scientific.

123 For the preparation of teachers, the State tion, where, in the last four years, over 6,000 supports a Normal School at an annual ex- teachers have received special training. pense of about $13,000, at which 406 were Such statistics as these, from a State yet in attendance during the year. About but little more than "out of its teens," twelve local State Teachers' Institutes, of ought to rejoice the hearts of educators in one week each, are also held annually by other States, and excite them to renewed the State Superintendent of Public Instruc- efforts throughout the land.

SCIENTIFIC.

STORM-GLASS.—A very simple and use- light proceeding from all incandescent fal instrument for indicating changes of bodies, have similar lines, but each subthe weather, may be constructed of a glass stance gives its own peculiar arrangement tube about ten inches long and three to them. Thus we have a new method of fourths of an inch in diameter, having its chemical analysis; and so delicate is this mouth covered with a piece of bladder, test, that several new metals have been perforated with a needle. The tube must discovered by it in substances which had be partly filled with a mixture of two been repeatedly analyzed, with the utmost drachms of camphor, half a drachm of pure care, by the old methods. It has recently saltpetre, and half a drachm of sal-ammo- been applied to the light of the heavenly niac, pulverized and mixed with about two bodies with such success, as to make it ounces of proof-spirits. It is usually sus- probable that we shall soon be able to depended by a thread near a window, and termine the chemical composition of even the functions of its contents are as follows: the fixed stars! If the atmosphere is dry, and the weather promises to be settled, the solid parts of

A STRIKING evidence of the slowness the camphor in the liquid contained in the

with which knowledge is diffused, is furtube, will remain at the bottom, and the nished by the frequent occurrence, in reliquid above will be quite clear; but on

ceipts for cooking, of directions to boil the approach of a change to rain, the solid slowly, or to boil rapidly, for some specimatter will gradually rise, and small crys

fied length of time. It should at this day talline stars will float about in the liquid. be known, that any thing will cook just as On the approach of high winds, the solid quickly in water boiling as slowly as possiparts of the camphor will rise in the form ble, as it will in water boiling with the of leaves, and appear near the surface in a

greatest fury.

Water, under the pressure state resembling fermentation. These in

of the atmosphere and at the level of the dications are sometimes manifested twenty- sea, boils at 212° Fah.; and as long as it is four hours before a storm breaks out!

open to the air, no fire, however fierce, The cause of these indications is as yet will heat it a single degree above this temunknown; but the leading principle is the perature. If we close the vessel, however, solubility of camphor in alcohol, and its

with an air-tight cover, so as to increase insolubility in water, combined with the the pressure upon the surface of the liquid, fact that the drier the atmosphere the

we may heat it to any degree whatever. more aqueous vapor does it take up, and But, as the pressure increases with the rice tersa.

temperature, the strength of the boiler

must be increased in the same proportion. The Power of SCIENCE.—It has long On the other hand, if the pressure of the been known that the solar spectrum is air on the surface of the water is dimincrossed by fine, dark lines. Upon careful ished by raising the vessel above the surexamination, it has been found that the face of the earth, the water will boil at spectra produced by the analysis of the a lower temperature than 212° Fah. It quarry marble.

takes longer to boil potatoes on the top driven off, leaving iron and manganese of a niountain than at its base, because coinbined with the tungsten. The experiboiling water at the top of the mountain is ments, which were conducted by M. Caron, not so hot as at its base. In sugar refin- satisfactorily proved that when one per eries, it is desirable to boil down the sirup cent. of tungsten was added to cast-iron, at a low temperature, in order to avoid the grain of the latter became more regular, burning the sugar. This is effected by and there was greater homogeneity exhibputting the sirup into an air-tight boiler, ited. The addition of one per cent. of and draining out a portion of the air from tungsten to steel, increased its hardness the space above the sirup, by means of an and tenacity. A steel rifle barrel, containair-pump worked by a steam-engine. Such ing that amount of tungsten, was subjected a boiler is called a vacuum-pan, and is used to severe tests, and it withstood larger in many other operations besides the re- charges of powder, and heavier shot, than fining of sugar.

any other steel barrel of the same dimen

sions tested. M. Caron recommends the MINERAL salt is now brought in ballast from Russia; it sells for $20 a tun. It is employment of tungsten in all French steel,

to improve its quality. mined in blocks, that to the eye appear to be quartz. A thirty-pound block of it, It is easy enough to condense steam, placed in a box in a field, will supply a and to burn the visible particles of carbon herd of cows for some weeks. It is as which we term smoke. The latter operahard as stone. Ordinary salt would dis- tion can indeed always be carried out by a solve in one-fourth the time. No other skillful fireman; but the gaseous products country yet known yields this peculiar of combustion have never been completely product. It is quarried precisely as we consumed in any instance that we know

of. It is therefore thought, that in the

underground railroad in London, air may Light from petroleum costs about one

yet be used for propelling the trains, simthird as much as the same quantity from

ilar to that used by the Pneumatic Disgas, at New York prices; and the petro- patch Company. The use of air for such leum light is better for the eyes, and of superior quality in every respect

. It is purposes, is a subject worthy of patient in

vestigation. essential, however, to use a shade upon the lamp. Otherwise, it is, if possible, From a given weight of hydrogen gas worse for the eyes than gas.

under combustion, a greater quantity of

steam can be generated, than from an equal Tui AND ITS ALLOY8.—Some important and interesting experiments have weight of any other known combustible. portant and interesting experiments have A pound of pure carbon will evaporate 12} lately been made in France, by order of pounds of water, and convert it into steam the Minister of War, to determine the in

of 15 pounds pressure on the square inch. fluence produced by tungsten upon gun

One pound of good Pennsylvania anthrametal, steel, and cast-iron, when combined

cite is capable of raising 9 pounds of wawith them and forming alloys. Tungsten ter, at 212° Fah., into steam. is one of the rare metals, which the great majority of persons have never seen. Its There is now in operation at the Elecname signifies “heavy stone,” and it is tric Telegraph Company's office, London, also called wolfram. In its native state it an instrument, which, from its ingenuity of is found as an ore, associated with iron, construction and perfection of results, demanganese, sulphur, and arsenic. It is serves attention. The object is to transreduced from the ore by fusion with car- mit autograph messages in the exact form bon, and with a current of hydrogen gas. in which they are written; and the most In the metallic state it is difficult of fusion, complicated figures, designs, sketches, or hard, brittle, and gray in color. There is indeed any thing that can be drawn by an only one mine of tungsten ore in France. ordinary pen, are transmitted as readily as When roasted, the sulphur and arsenic are the simplest dot or stroke.

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