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1864.]

Dr. Lewis Adolfus.

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“DR. LEWIS ADOLFUS”-AN ENGLISH SCHOOLMASTER, AND

HIS OPERATIONS IN AMERICA,

TOME three years ago, the subject of scheme of deliberate and systematic ras

cality. We hear of an instance of his Europe — from England's capital -- where borrowing $2,000 from a widow lady rehe was a private tutor in Lord John Rus- siding at College Hill, giving her as sesel's family, as he represented to the many curity & chattel mortgage on property intiuential citizens into whose favor he already completely covered with mortmanaged to ingratiate himself. Favored

gages. with a great address and fine education, By these various means he managed to Dr. Adolfus managed, in the course of a victimize some fifty different persons, in short time, to gain the confidence of many. amounts large and small, all the time covHe established a school for boys at College ering his real character with an able duHill, where he soon had a large number of plicity at which we can not but wonder. pupils, -sons of some of the wealthiest The last and heaviest transaction in which families of the city and vicinity. The doc- we find the doctor engaged, was in forging tor's business flourished, apparently, for he the name of Henry Mack & Bros., on notes soon commenced living in elegant style- to the amount of between $4,000 and dressed in broadcloth and fine linen, kept $5,000, all of which he disposed of without up a good table, drove fast horses, and exciting any suspicion. Some of these sported a fine carriage.

notes were for amounts as high as $600. Many people wondered how he could This was done in the latter part of 1863, afford all this, having no means of support, and the fact of the forgery was not disapparently, save his school; but the truth covered until lately. Success in villainy is at last developed, and the doctor stood seems to have blinded the doctor to any revealed in his true character of forger, danger of detection, for his last operation swindler, and rascal in general. The first was conducted in the boldest manner imagtransaction of a dishonest character in inable. which we hear of his being engaged, was Hearing, however, of the discovery of in negotiating the sale of bills of foreign the forgery, he made preparations to leave; exchange on parties in London. He dis- and on or about the first of the past month, posed of bills of this kind to the amount of drove into town and left his horses and between £1,700 to £2,000, to parties in carriage at William Wood's stable as usual, Cincinnati, which, of course, came back pretending that he was going to return protested; and the worthy doctor stood the same night. He had with him his convicted before the parties whom he had wife and child, with whom he immediately thus swindled, of obtaining money under took passage on the night-express for New false pretenses. He managed, however, to York, and upon his arrival at that place, compromise this matter, having enjoyed took passage on a steamer to Liverpool, the use of the money-$8,000 to $10,000— where he has probably arrived by this time, in the mean while, together with the inter- with a considerable sum of money, the proest and premium, which was clear gain. ceeds of his rascalities in Cincinnati.

The excitement produced in business As an instance of the boldness with circles by this affair having blown over, which lie conducted himself, we are inthe doctor commenced operations again. formed that up to the very day of his deHo managed to borrow money from parties parture he continued his dishonest operawho were entirely unsuspicious of his true tions. The night before he started he character; he made purchases for which made a purchase of furs, silver-ware, and he never paid, swindled employees and other valuable articles, which could be servants out of their wages, and, in fact, conveniently carried away, ordering the carried out in the most complete manner a bill to be sent to his house, as usual.

ENCROACHMENTS OF THE SEA.

INSTANCES OF OVERFLOW.

THE RATE OF SUBSIDENOE.

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discussion among scientific men, is Old observers upon the Atlantic and forced directly upon the attention of visit bay shores, all agree as to the gradual adors to Cape May; namely, the rapid wear

vance of the ocean upon the uplands. ing away and subsidence of the shores, and

Narrow fringes of wood, which formerly the advance of the tide-waters on the land.

skirted the marshes, have been killed by Along the entire extent of the New Jersey the salt water; and numerous islandscoast, this phenomenon is observable. At

spaces of land found surrounded by salt the mouth of Dennis creek, and for many marsh—which, within the memory of men miles along the Delaware bay shore, the

now living, have been cultivated, and marsh is washed away, according to the others which were in woods, have been reports of local surveyors, on an average entirely lost in the advancing marsh, and of about one rod in two years; and from their location is only to be known by the early maps, this would appear to have been

shallowness of the mud which covers them. going on at this rate ever since the first In all the salt marshes on this shore, stumps settlement of the country. Thus an island of trees, of the common species of the which is laid down on a map of 1694 as country, are found with the roots still fast containing three hundred acres, now shows in the solid ground at the bottom of the at low-water only half an acre, and at high- marsh, and this at deptlis far below lowwater is entirely covered.

water mark. Similar submerged forests,

it may be incidentally remarked, are obPROGRESS OF THE ENOROACEMENT.

served on the Massachusetts and other On the west side of Cape May, at a point coasts. where the shore is most boldly outlined, the solid gravel bank, from twelve to eighteen feet high, wears away about one The period during which this subsidence foot a year; the foundations of the houses has been in progress, can not be estimated built at the first settlement, as early as with any degree of accuracy. From the 1691, were long since undermined, and the best evidence that can be gathered, it waters of the bay now cover the place would seem to be certain that two feet in where they once stood.

a hundred years is not above the rate at At this cape, the most southerly point of which the shore is now sinking. the New Jersey coast, the encroachment of the tides is equally rapid, a full mile having been washed away since the Revolution. During that period, according to These changes on the New Jersey coast the report of the State Geological Survey, do not appear to be confined to the more a militia artillery company had its prac- southern shore. The same thing has been tising ground here. Their gun was placed observed in the salt marshes on the Rarinear a house which stood just aside of the tan, and at the mouths of the Hackensack present shore line, and their target was set and Passaic rivers. Nor are these changes up three-quarters of a mile east. This last by any means uncommon on other shores. point was at the outer edge of the culti- Mr. Lyell, in his work on the Principles of vated ground, between which and the Geology, says: “Recent observations have water's edge there were sand-hills or disclosed to us the wonderful fact, that not beaches a quarter of a mile in extent. The only the west coast of South America, but whole of this is now gone; and one of the also other large areas, some of them seven hotels has twice been moved inland, on thousand miles in circumference, such as account of the constant advance of the Scandinavia, and certain archipelagoes in tide.

the Pacific, are slowly and insensibly ris

COAST ELEVATION AND DEPRESSION ELSE

WHERE.

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1864.]

Encroachments of the Sea.

111

ing; while other regions, such as Green- wash against the head-bank, the material is land, and parts of the Pacific and Indian constantly wearing away, and depositing as Oceans, in which atolls or circular coral a sand-bar or shoal, at some distance from islands abound, are as gradually sinking." the shore and parallel to it, leaving com Professor Hitchcock, in his “Report on the paratively deep water contiguous to the Geology of Massachusetts,” mentions the land. The same configuration is among same phenomena as exhibited there. Mr. the peculiarities of the shores of Norway Lyell, in his “First Visit to America,” and Sweden. “If we suppose this to have speaking of the coast of Georgia, says: “I occurred,” says Professor Cook, “during even suspect that this coast is now sinking the former depression of the land, a series down at a slow and insensible rate, for the of shoals would have formed parallel to sea is encroaching and gaining at many the coast. When a rising of the land took points on the fresh-water marshes.” Bar- place, these shoals would be raised above tram, the botanist, writing in 1792, testi- the surface of the water, and become the fied that along the coasts of Carolina, basis of the present beaches; shrubs and Georgia, and Florida, the tides encroach trees would soon grow on them, to protect upon marshes which were once high land, their surface and catch the sand which covered with forests.

would drift up from the strand. The

lower ground back would finally be elEVIDENCES OF FORMER SHORE DEPRESSION.

evated above the water, and would be From the deposits of shells of recent covered by vegetation, shrubs, and trees, species which are now frequently found until a subsequent depression of the surabove the present high-tide mark, it is in- face should again carry them below the ferred that at a period not very remote, tide-level, when they would become salt these New Jersey shores were much lower marshes, filling up with sea deposits as the than at present. This inference is corrob. advancing tides would bring them in, and orated by the appearance of the ridges of thus keeping their surface at high-water drift-sand near Cape May, which seem to mark.” have been formed long since by gradual recessions of the water, and are now covered by heavy growths of black-oak tim

These phenomena, which an inspection ber. These ridges, however, are

of this coast brings to our attention, are wearing away by the advance of the tides; certainly interesting matter of study for and the indications would thus seem to be, scientific men, and we cannot any of us that while the ground was formerly several contemplate them without desiring to infeet lower than it now is, it has since been terrogate the future as to the probable reelevated to a height several feet above its

sults of the constant advances which the present altitude, and that it is at this time, sea is making. Will hoar Neptune yet lift and has been for many years past, slowly his trident, and float in his royal barge, but gradually sinking.

where now it is all “ dry land ?" Will he yet assert his sway over the broad Newark

meadows, or absorb into his domain the The New Jersey State Geologist, in re

marshes on the shore of Long Island, or marking upon this subjecthas broached swallow up the seaside resorts where the the theory, that possibly the peculiarities multitude assembles, pleasure-seeking, of the New Jersey coast are caused by this

“In summer, when the days are long?" gradual elevation and subsequent depression. Along the whole extent, almost, of These are inquiries, which, in view of New Jersey, the main-land is separated what has gone before, may well engage from the ocean by a strip of salt marsh, in our thought; questions of infinitely less some places several miles wide; on the moment have often, before now, set the outer edge of this marsh, next the sea, is schools by the ears, and given tomes of 8 row of long, narrow, sand islands, or learned disquisition to our libraries. Those beaches. In many places where the waves who would have these queries answered

INTERROGATING THE FUTURE.

now

A THEORY UPON THE SUBJECT.

according to existing light and knowledge, yet to many generations they may seem to may protitably.peruse the thirtieth chapter be undisturbed by the advancing tides. of Lyell's “ Principles of Geology,” before During many summers, crowds will enjoy mentionell

the attractions, listen to the music, and However, Nature accomplishes many of revel in the pleasures offered by these deher great changes very slowly, compared lightful resorts, like so many daughters of with the life of man. Though the New the sea, standing with outstretched hands Jersey beaches, and Long Branch, and and presenting, to one and all, beads still Atlantic City, and Cape May, may be des- dripping with the splendors of the crystal , tined to be covered by the great ocean, depths.

PRIMARY INSTRUCTION.

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rarely a natural or pleasant exercise at so

early an age. We think the first four or S primary teachers, we are expected five school-years should be devoted mainly

to perceptive culture, carrying the child powers, since these are the first in the or- on in the development process already so der of development. The child, it is true, fairly commenced. Reading, spelling, and is exercising to a certain extent these pow. number, can be made observing lessons, ers as soon as he opens his wondering eyes and rendered exceedingly interesting to upon the objects about him; but how soon young children. But these alone will not he needs a helping hand! The little one give exercise to all the powers; and as they is not competent to select proper nourish- are frequently taught, they have a tenment for the development of each dawning dency rather to deaden than arouse them. faculty. Suitable aliment must be fur- The child's perception of color, form, size, nished the mind, as well as the body, to place, time, etc., are not commonly brought insure a healthful, harmonious growth. Is into exercise in the ordinary school-course. it not well to ask ourselves, then, if we are Teachers who are intelligently following providing food for the various perceptive out the system called “object teaching," powers in the ordinary routine of primary are paying more attention to this subject; teaching? Are we not starving some of and we believe competent judges who have them at the expense of others? Are we visited the primary schools in Oswego, making our children quick and accurate N. Y., the Normal School at Trenton, and observers? Are we cultivating language, the Farnum Preparatory School at Berteaching our little ones to observe and to erly, N. J., will bear witness to the happy express the result of their observations, in results of this perceptive training. If any drawing in written and spoken language, one is desirous of seeing children who are by our ordinary methods? This can be thoroughly awake, who “find books in done while we are accomplishing the very running brooks, sermons in stones, and important end of teaching reading, spell- good in every thing," we advise him to ing, an

number. We should not, how- pay a visit to one of these places. ever, be too anxious to see primary pupils Simply for the want of a better name, performing difficult examples in Long Di- we term the improved methods for primary vision. To me it is painful to see a child instruction, Perceptive Exercises. “Obsix, seven, or eight years of age, puzzling ject teaching" seems hardly appropriate, over an example in arithmetic. We think since inaniinate objects can not be taught; the time thus spent might be more pleas- and if the children are the objects speciantly and profitably employed. The pro- fied, the name would apply equally well cess, at best, is mostly mechanical, and to any other methods. The name itself 1864.]

Free and Slave Labor.

113

may bare misled some teachers. We find reformation must commence in the primary those in the primary department who are department. llere the foundation is to be in the habit of presenting some object, and laid; and if properly laid, may we not hope giving a lengthened description of its parts, to see the structure more substantially and qualities, etc., expecting the little ones to beautifully completed? We do not wish remember the information given. This to teach our children Natural Philosophy may be very well as an exercise for the or Chemistry in the primary department, memory. It may be an object lesson, but but we do wish to awaken the powers of it is not a perceptive exercise; and as given mind which will naturally lead the child, to young children, we think it out of place. at a proper time, to investigate and appreWe have “ object teaching" in all our ciate such studies, if he is never permitted higher departments, when under the direc- to pursue them under the guidance of some tion of successful teachers. All the higher learned professor.

We shall have more branches are taught objectively when taught self-made men and women, when these properly, and if the mind is prepared for Perceptive Exercises are constituted a speit, sach teaching must be attended with cial feature of primary instruction. Our great results. But how often do we hear Perceptive Exercises are progressive, and teachers complain that they are obliged to given for the special purpose of developing do the work that should have been per- the child's ideas of form, color, size, place, formed in the primary training! They are time, tune, number, etc., and nearly all of obliged to resort to various measures for them are made lessons in reading, spelling, the purpose of awakening observation and and language. We should teach our little gaining attention. Every teacher knows ones to imitate and construct. They coinhow difficult a task it is to accomplish this, mence rudimentary drawing at an early when the observing powers have not been age. We make natural readers, good spellproperly exercised at the proper period. ers, ready calculators, fluent talkers, and. What we want, is, to be able to work hand SHARP observers.

How this is accomin hand. We must prepare our children plished, we shall soon endeavor to show. for the good things in store for them. The

FREE AND SLAVE LABOR.

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ly, on the finances and resources of the land has a shore line, sea and river, of United States, communicates some exceed- 1,336 miles-- Maseachusetts, 764 miles. In ingly interesting facts bearing upon the in- Maryland the rate of mortality is but 1 in fiuence of free and slave labor upon the 92; in Massachusetts, 1 in 57. The area prosperity of the country. He shows, by of arable land in Maryland is more than figures drawn from the late census, the dis- double that of Massachusetts, and the soil advantages under which the Southern more fertile. Maryland has inexhaustible States have labored by reason of the exist- mines of coal and iron, and the necessary ence of slavery there.

fluxes; Massachusetts has no coal, no valHle compares, in the first place, Maryland uable mines of iron, nor fluxes. The popwith Massachusetts, selecting Maryland be- ulation of Maryland in 1790 was 319,728; cause that State has greater natural advan- of Massachusetts, 378,717. In 1860 Marytages, and because it has increased in pop- land had 687,031-Massachusetts, 1,231,065. ulation per square mile more rapidly from In seventy years Maryland increased 1790 to 1860 than any other slaveholding 367,300 ; Massachusetts, 852,340, or more State.

than double as much. In 1790 Maryland The subjoined extract will give a clear had 28 persons to the square mile—in 1860, idea of the results to which Mr. Walker's in 1790 Massachusetts had 48 to the figures tend.

square mile-in 1860, 157. Bear in mind

61 ;

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