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FARMER'S TOOLS ; THE PLOUGH ; HARROW ; ROLLER ; HOE ; Or stroke the swelling udder; some expert
To raise from leavened wheat the kneaded loaf;
Its flavored strength ; or, with a housewife's care, First he provides the needful implements.
To keep the decent habitation neat. of these, the honored plough claims chief regard. But now let loose to revelry and sport, Hence bread to man, who heretofore on mast In clamorous mirth, indelicate and rude, Fed with his fellow-brute in woods and wilds, The boisterous swains and hoyden nymphs provoke Himself uncultured as the soil he trod.
Outrageous merriment. Yet not alike The spikéd harrow next, to break the clods,
Is every swain, nor every sylvan maid ; And spread the surface of the new-ploughed field ; As Verulam the pleasing tale records, Nor is the roller's friendly aid unsought.
Where Patty, lovely Patty, graced the crowd, Hoes he provides, with various arms prepared,
Pride of the neighboring plains.
PATTY THE MILK-MAID DESCRIBED.
Who hath not heard
Of Patty, the fair milk-maid ? Beautiful The fork to spread, the gathering rake to save,
As an Arcadian nymph ; upon her brow With providential care he treasures up.
Sat virgin modesty, while in her eyes His strong, capacious wain the dull slow ox
Young sensibility began to play Drags on, deep loaded, grinding the rough ruts ;
With innocence. Her waving locks fell down While with his lighter team, the sprightly horse
On either side her face in careless curls, Moves to the music of his tinkling bells.
Shading the tender blushes in her cheek. Nor will his foresight lack the whirling flail,
Her breath was sweeter than the morning gale, Whose battering strokes force from the loosened Stolen from the rose or violet's dewy leaves. sheaves
Her ivory teeth appeared in even rows, Their hidden stores profuse ; which now demand
Through lips of living coral. When she spoke, The quick rotation of the winnowing fan,
Her features wore intelligence ; her words With blasts successive, wafting far away
Were soft, with such a smile accompanied, The worthless chaff, to clear the golden grain.
As lighted in her face resistless charms.
Her polished neck rose rounding from her breast FARM-LABORERS ; TIE PLOUGHMAN ; MOWER; THRESHER ;
With pleasing elegance : that lovely breast ! SHEPHERD ; FARM-GIRLS; SPINNERS ; MILK-MAIDS, ETC. Ah! Fancy, dwell not there, lest gay desire,
And now, compelled to hire assistant strength, Who, smiling, hovers o'er the enchanting place, Away he hastens to some neighboring town,
Tempt thy wild thoughts to dangerous ecstasy. Where willing servitude, for mutual wants
Her shape was moulded by the hand of case ; Of hind and farmer, holds her annual feast.1 Exact proportion harmonized her frame; "T is here the toiling hand of industry
While grace, following her steps, with secret art Employment seeks. The skilful ploughman, lord
Stole into all her motions. Thus she walked And leader of the rustic band ; who claims
In sweet simplicity; a snow-white pail His boy attendant, conscious of his worth
Hung on her arm, the symbol of her skill And dignity superior ; boasting skill
In that fair province of the rural state, To guide with steadiness the sliding share,
The dairy ; source of more delicious bowls
Than Bacchus from his choicest vintage boasts.
How great the power of beauty! The rude swains
Grew civil at her sight; and gaping crowds,
Wrapt in astonishment, with transport gaze,
Whispering her praises in each other's ear.
As when a gentle breeze, borne through the grore, For heaps of gold, the meed of honest toil. The sunburnt shepherd, too, his slouching hat
With quick vibration shakes the trembling leaves,
And hushing murmurs run from tree to tree ;
So ran a spreading whisper through the crowd.
Young Thyrsis hearing, turned aside his head, Some taught with dexterous hand to twirl the wheel,
And soon the pleasing wonder caught his eye.
Full in the prime of youth, the joyful heir 1 This is called in the country a 'statute,' and is held annually at most market towns in England, where servants of
Of numerous acres, a large freehold farm, all kinds resort in quest of places and employments. Thyrsis as yet from beauty felt no pain ;
THE EFFECTS OF BEAUTY OX RUDE XATURES.
THYRSIS FALLS IN LOVE WITH PATTY.
Had seen no virgin he could wish to make
See where the farmer, with a master's eye,
PATTY ENAMORED OF THYRSIS ; THEIR HAPPY EXION.
Ah ! little did he know, alas ! the while Poor Patty's tender heart, in mutual pain, Long, long for him had heaved the secret sigh. For him she dressed, for him the pleasing arts She studied, and for him she wished to live. But her low fortunes, nursing sad despair, Checked the young hope ; nor durst her modest eyes Indulge the smallest glances of her flame, Lest curious malice, like a watchful spy, Should catch the secret, and with taunts reveal. Judge then the sweet surprise, when she at length Beheld him, all irresolute, approach, And, gently taking her fair trembling hand, Breathe these soft words into her listening ear : “0, Patty! dearest maid, whose beauteous form Dwells in my breast, and charms my soul to love, Accept my vows; accept a faithful heart, Which from this hour devotes itself to thee! Wealth has no relish, life can give no joy, If you forbid my hopes to call you mine." Ah! who the sudden tumult can describe Of struggling passions rising in her breast? Hope, fear, confusion, modesty, and love, Oppress her laboring soul. She strove to speak, But the faint accents died upon her tongue. Her fears prevented utterance. At length, “Can Thyrsis mock my poverty? Can he Be so unkind? O, no! yet I, alas ! Too humble e'en to hope." No more she said ; But gently, as if half unwilling, stole Her hand from his; and, with sweet modesty, Casting a look of diffidence and fear, To hide her blushes, silently withdrew. But Thyrsis read, with rapture, in her eyes The language of her soul. He followed, wooed, And won her for his wife. His lowing herds Soon call her mistress ; soon their milky streams, Coagulated, rise in circling piles Of hardened curd ; and all the dairies round To her sweet butter yield superior praise.
THE FARM-YARD; HAY-STACKS ; WEEAT-STACKS ;
PILES ; CATTLE ; SWINE. Here stacks of hay, there pyramids of corn, Promise the future market large supplies : While with an eye of triumph he surveys His piles of wood, and laughs at winter's frown. In silent rumination, see the kine, Beneath the walnut's shade wait patiently To pour into his pails their milky stores ; While pent from mischief, far from sight removed, The bristly herd within their fattening styes, Remind him to prepare,
many a row, The gayly-blooming pea, the fragrant bean, And broad-leaved cabbage for the ploughman's feast.
THE EMPLOYMENTS AND ENJOYMENTS OF THE FARMER.
PEACE ; HEALTH ; SEREXITY. These his amusements, his employments these ; Which still arising in successive change, Give to each varied hour a new delight. Peace and Contentment with their guardian wings Enclose his nightly slumbers. Rosy health, When the gay lark's sweet matin wakes the morn, Treads in his dewy footsteps round the field ; And cheerfulness attends his closing day. No racking jealousy, nor sullen bate, Nor fear, nor envy, discompose his breast.
THE FARMER'S ENEMIES; THE FOX, BADGER, KITZ, STOTE,
WEASEL, PARTRIDGE, HARE, OTTER, MOLE ; SPORTING. llis only enemies the prowling fox, Whose nightly murders thin the bleating fold ; The hardy badger, the rapacious kito, With eye malignant on the little brood, Sailing around portentous ; the rank stoto Thirsting, ah, savage thirst! for harmless blood ; The corn-devouring partridge ; tim'rous hare ; The amphibious otter bold ; the weasel sly, Pilfering the yolk from its enclosing shell ;
THE FARM, THE POULTRY-YARD ; THE PEACOCK, TURKEY
COCK, GEESE, DECKS, PIGEONS.
Whither, O whither dost thou lead my steps, Divine Philosophy? What scenes are these, Which strike my wondering senses? Lo ! enthroned Upon a solid rock, great Nature sits, Her eyes to heaven directed, as from thence Receiving inspiration. Round her head A mingled wreath of fruits and flowers entwines. Her robe, with every motion changing hue, Flows down in plenteous foldings, and conceals Her secret footsteps from the eyes of men.
TIE POMPS OF WEALTH TEMPT NOT THE FARMER ; NOR AM
BITION, AVARICE, OR LUXURY.
THE GOD PAN; MUSIC OF THE SPHERES ; THE ELEMENTS :
A VISION OF NATURE AND PAN.
TIE FARMER'S HOMESTEAD DESCRIBED.
There sweet prospects rise Of meadows smiling in their flowery pride, Green hills and dales, and cottages embowered, The scenes of innocence and calm delight. There the wild melody of warbling birds, And cool refreshing groves, and murmuring springs, Invite to sacred thought, and lift the mind From low pursuits, to meditate the God !
List! list! what harmony, what heavenly sounds Enchant my ravished ear? 'T is ancient Pan,' Who on his seven-fold pipe, to the rapt soul Conveys the fancied music of the spheres. See by his strains the elements inspired, Join in mysterious work; their motions led By active 2 fire, in windings intricate, But not perplexed, nor vague.
And who are they? What pair, obeying in alternate rounds The tuneful melody? Majestic one, And grave, lifting her awful forehead, moves In shadowy silence, borne on raven wings, Which, waving to the measured sounds, beat time. A veil obscures her face; a sable stole, Bedecked with sparkling gems, conceals her form; As wreaths of bending poppy crown her brow. The other, raised on swan-like spreading plumes, Glides gayly on : a milk-white robe invests His frame transparent ; in his azure eyes Dwells brightness, while around his radiant head, A shining glory paints his flying robe, With all the colors of the watery bow.
THE WEALTHY INVITED TO BECOME AGRICULTURISTS. - THE
SCIENCE AND ART OF FARMING. Turn then, at length, 0 turn, ye sons of wealth, And ye who seek through life's bewildering maze, To tread the paths of happiness, O turn ! And trace her footsteps in the rural walk ; In those fair scenes of wonder and delight, Where, to the human eye, Omnipotence Unfolds the map of nature, and displays The matchless beauty of created things. Turn to the arts, the useful pleasing arts Of cultivation ; and those fields improve Your erring fathers have too long despised. Leave not to ignorance and low-bred hinds That noblest
which in ancient time
1 Mythologists have thought the universal nature of things to be signified by this god ; and that his pipe, composed of seven reeds, was the symbol of the seven planets, which they say make the harmony of the spheres.
2 According to Dr. Boerhaave, and other philosophers of his time, all the motion in nature arises from fire ; and, taking that away, all things would become fixed and ima movable ; fluids would become solid ; a man would harden into a statue; and the very air would cohere into a firm and rigid mass.
PROCESSION OF THE SEASONS; SPRING AND SUMMER PER
SOXIFIED AND DESCRIBED.
Proceeding now, in more majestic steps, The varying seasons join the mystic train. In all the blooming hues of florid youth, Gay Spring advances smiling ; on her head A flowery chaplet, mixed with verdant buds, Sheds aromatic fragrance through the air ; While little zephyrs, breathing wanton gales, Before her flutter, turning back to gaze, With looks enamored, on her lovely face. Summer succeeds, crowned with the bearded ears Of ripening harvest ; in her hand she bears A shining sickle ; on her glowing cheek The fervent heat paints deep a rosy blush : Her thin light garment waving with the wind, Flows loosely from her bosom, and reveals To the pleased eye the beauties of her form.
To its own nature every different plant
AUTUMS AND WINTER PERSONIFIED AND DESCRIBED. Then follows Autumn, bearing in her lap The blushing fruits which Summer's sultry breath Had mellowed to her hand. A clustering wreath of purple grapes, half hid with spreading leaves, Adorns her brow. Her dew-besprinkled locks Begin to fall, her bending shoulders sink, And active vigor leaves her sober steps. Winter creeps on, shrivelled with chilling cold ; Bald his white crown, upon his silver beard Shines the hoar frost, and icicles depend. Rigid and stern his melancholy face ; Shivering he walks, his joints benumbed and stiff, And wraps in northern furs his withered trunk.
THE BEAUTIES OF NATURE ; LEAVES, FLOWERS, AND FRUITS.
“See ! see ! the shooting verdure spreads around ! Ye sons of men, with rapture view the scene ! On hill and dale, on meadow, field, and grove, Clothed in soft mingling shades from light to dark, The wandering eye delighted roves untired. The hawthorn's whitening bush, Pomona's blooms, And Flora's pencil o'er the enamelled green, The varying scenes enrich. Hence every gale Breathes odors, every zephyr from his wings Wafting new fragrance ; borne from trees, from Borne from the yellow cowslip, violet blue, (shrubs, From deep carnations, from the blushing roso, From every flower and aromatic herb, In grateful mixtures. Hence ambrosial fruits Yield their delicious flavors. The sweet grape, The mulberry's cooling juice, the luscious plum, The healthful apple, the dissolving peach, And thy rich nectar, many-flavored pine. These are the gracious gifts, O favored Man ! These, these to thee the gracious gifts of Heaven, A world of beauty, wonder, and delight.'
THE HYMN OF NATURE. -- VEGETABLE CHEMISTRY.
ASCRIPTION OF PRAISE TO GOD.
• To God, supreme Creator ! great and good ! All-wise, Almighty Parent of the world ! In choral symphonies of praise and love, Let all the powers of nature close the strain.'
And now great Nature pointing to the train
* To God, supreme Creator ! great and good !
• The watery signs forsaking, see the sun,
of different soils, and their culture. Mr. Tull's principles
and practice. Of the principles and practice of the Middlesex gardeners. Of various manures, and other methods of improving land. Of hedging and litching. Of planting timber-trees. Of draining wet and flooding dry lands. Of gardening, and the gardens of Epicurus.
THE PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS SOILS; ADVANTAGES AND DIS
ADVANTAGES OF A SANDY SOIL.
Descending now from these superior themes, O muse, in notes familiar teach the swain The hidden properties of every glebe, And what the different culture each requires. The naturalist to sand, or loam, or clay, Reduces all the varying soils, which clothe The bosom of this earth with beauty. Sand,
1 The philosophy of this hymn is built on that experimental foundation laid by the learned and ingenious Dr. Hales, in his vegetable statics.
Hot, open, loose, admits the genial ray With freedom, and with greediness imbibes The falli
moisture : hence the embryo seed Lodged in its fiery womb, push into life With early haste, and hurried to their prime, Their vital juices spent, too soon decay.
Of every plant is earth : hence their increase,
Nitre first prepares
HOW TO IMPROVE A SANDY SOIL.
THE THEORY WHICU ASSERTS MANURE TO BE UXNECESSARY.
- TILLAGE THE BEST FERTILIZER.
Correct this error of the ardent soil With cool manure : let stiff, cohesive clay Give the loose glebe consistence and firm strength ; So shall thy laboring steers, when harvest calls, Bending their patient shoulders to the yoke, Drag home in copious loads the yellow grain.
HOW TO MANAGE A CLAYEY SOIL.
Has fortune fixed thy lot to toil in clay? Despair not, nor repine : the stubborn soil Shall yield to cultivation, and reward The hand of diligence. Here give the plough No rest. Break, pound the clods, and with warm Relieve the sterile coldness of the ground, [dungs Chilled with obstructed water. Add to these The sharpest sand, to open and unbind The close-cohering mass ; so shall new pores Admit the solar beams' enlivening heat, The nitrous particles of air receive, And yield a passage to the soaking rain. Hence fermentation, hence prolific power, And hence the fibrous roots in quest of food, Find unobstructed entrance, room to spread, And richer juices feed the swelling shoots : So the strong field shall to the reaper's hand Produce a plenteous crop of waving wheat.
Is earth the food of plants ? their pasture then By ceaseless tillage, or the use of dung, Must or ferment, or pulverize, to fit For due reception of the fibrous roots : But from the steams of ordure, from the stench Of putrefaction, from stercoreous fumes Of rottenness and filth, can sweetness spring ? Or grateful, or salubrious food to man? As well might virgin innocence preserve Her purity from taint amidst the stews. Defile not then the freshness of thy field With dung's polluting touch ; but let the plough, The hoe, the harrow, and the roller lend Their better powers, to fructify the soil ; Turn it to catch the sun's prolific ray, The enlivening breath of air, the genial dews, And every influence of indulgent heaven. These sball enrich and fertilize the glebe, And toil's unceasing hand full well supply The dunghill's sordid and extraneous aid.
EXCELLENCES OF A LOAMY SOIL.
But blest with ease in plenty shall he live, Whom Heaven's kind hand, indulgent to his wish, Hath placed upon a loamy soil. He views All products of the teeming earth arise In plenteous crops, nor scarce the needful aid Of culture deign to ask. Him, nor the fears Of scorching heat, nor deluges of rains Alarm. His kindly fields sustain all change Of seasons, and support a healthy seed In vigor through the perils of the year.
THE CULTIVATOR, HOE-PLOUGH, AND DRILL. Thus taught the Shalborne swain ; who first with
skill Led through the field the many-coultered plough ; Who first his seed comınitted to the ground, Shed from the drill by slow-revolving wheels, In just proportion, and in even rows ; Leaving 'twixt each a spacious interval, To introduce with ease, — while yet the grain Expanding crowned the intermediate ridge, His new machine, formed to exterminate The weedy race (intruders who devour, But nothing pay), to pulverize the soil, Enlarge and change the pasture of the roots, And to its last perfection raise the crop. He taught, alas! but practised ill the lore Of his own precepts. Fell disease, or sloth, Relaxed the hand of industry : his farm, His own philosophy disgracing, brought Discredit on the doctrines he enforced.
TULL'S THEORY OF VEGETATION.
aprovements curious wouldst thou learn, Hear then the lore of fair Berkeria's 1
son, Whose precepts, drawn from sage experience, claim Regard. The pasture, and the food of plants, First let the young agricolist be taught : Then how to sow and raise the embryo seeds Of every different species. Nitre, fire, Air, water, earth, their various
combino In vegetation ; but the genuine food
THE EFFECTS OF SLOTH ON THE FARM ; FILTH, WEEDS ;
THE NIGHTSHADE ; CHILD POISONED. Then banish from thy fields the loiterer sloth, Nor listen to the voice of thoughtless ease. Him sordidness and penury surround, Beneath whose lazy hand the farm runs wild ; Whose heart nor feels the joy improvement gives,
1 The late Mr. Tull, of Shalborne, in Berkshire, in his JIorse-hoeing Husbandry, or an Essay on the Principles of Vegetation and Tillage.
1 The hoe-plough.