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IRELAND, AND SCOTLAND. Happy the patriot who can teach the means To check his frauds, and yet untroubled leave Trade's open channels. Would a generous aid To honest toil, in Cambria's hilly tracts, Or where the Lunel or Coker? wind their streams, Be found sufficient? Far, their airy fields, Far from infectious luxury arise. 0, might their mazy dales, and mountain sides, With copious fleeces of Ierne shine, And gulfy Caledonia, wisely bent On wealthy fisheries and flaxen webs; Then would the sister realms, amid their seas, Like the three graces in harmonious fold, By mutual aid enhance their various charms, And bless remotest climes ! - To this loved end Awake, Benevolence ! to this loved end Strain all thy nerves, and every thought explore.

And rules divulged beneficent to sheep :
Or turn the compass o'er the painted chart,
To mark the ways of traffic ; Volga's stream,
Cold Hudson's cloudy straits, warm Afric's cape,
Latium's firm roads, the Ptolemean fosse,
And China's long canals ; those noble works,
Those high effects of civilizing trade,
Employ me, sedulous of public weal :
Yet not unmindful of my sacred charge ;
Thus also mindful, thus devising good,
At vacant seasons oft, when evening mild
Purples the valleys, and the shepherd counts
His flock, returning to the quiet fold
With dumb complacence ; for religion, this,
To give our every comfort to distress,
And follow virtue with an humble mind;
This pure religion.

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Far, far away, whose passions would immure In your own little hearts the joys of life ; (Ye worms of pride !) for your repast alone Who claim all Nature's stores, woods, waters, meads, All her profusion ; whose vile hands would grasp The peasant's scantling, the weak widow's mite, And in the sepulchre of Self entomb Whate'er ye can, whate'er ye cannot use. Know, for superior ends the Almighty Power (The Power whose tender arms embrace the worm) Breathes o'er the foodful earth the breath of life, And forms us manifold ; allots to each His fair peculiar, wisdom, wit, and strength ; Wisdom, and wit, and strength, in sweet accord, To aid, to cheer, to counsel, to protect, And twist the mighty bond. Thus feeble man, With man united, is a nation strong ; Builds towery cities, satiates every want, And makes the seas profound, and forests wild, The gardens of his joys. Man, each man's born For the high business of the public good.

Thus, in elder time, The reverend Blasius wore his leisure hours, And slumbers broken oft ; till, filled at length With inspiration, after various thought, And trials manifold, his well-known voice Gathered the poor, and o'er Vulcanian stoves, With tepid lees of oil, and spiky comb, [length, Showed how the fleece might stretch to greater And cast a glossier whiteness. Wheels went round; Matrons and maids with songs relieved their toils, And every loom received the softer yarn. What poor, what widow, Blasius ! did not bless Thy teaching hand ? thy bosom, like the morn, Opening its wealth, what nation did not seek Of thy new-modelled wool the curious webs?



For me, 't is mine to pray that men regard
Their occupations with an honest heart
And cheerful diligence : like the useful bee,
To gather for the hive not sweets alone,
But wax, and each material ; pleased to find
Whate'er may soothe distress, and raise the fallen,
In life's rough race. O, be it as my wish !
"T is mine to teach th' inactive hand to reap
Kind Nature's bounties, o'er the globe diffused.

For this I wake the weary hours of rest;
With this desire, the merchant I attend ;
By this impelled, the shepherd's hut I seek,
And, as he tends his flock, his lectures hear
Attentive, pleased with pure simplicity,

Hence the glad cities of the loom his name Honor with yearly festals : through their streets The pomp, with tuneful sounds and order just, Denoting Labor's happy progress, moves, Procession slow and solemn : first the rout, Then servient youth, and magisterial eld ; Each after each, according to his rank, His sway, and office, in the common weal; And to the board of smiling Plenty's stores Assemble, where delicious cates and fruits Of every clime are piled ; and with free hand Toil only tastes the feast, by nerveless Ease Unrelished. Various mirth and song resound; And oft they interpose improving talk, Divulging each to other knowledge rare, Sparks from experience that sometimes arise, Till night weighs down the sense, or morning's Rouses to labor man to labor born.


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1 Lune, a river in Cumberland. 2 Coker, a river in Lancashire.

This, blanched, emerges from the oily wave ;
And that, the amber tint or ruby drinks.

For it suffices not in flowery vales
Only to tend the flock, and shear soft wool;
Gums must be stored of Guinea's arid coast,
Mexican woods, and India's brightening salts ;
Fruits, herbage, sulphurs, minerals, to stain
The fleece prepared, with oil-imbibing earth
Of Wooburn blanches, and keen alum-waves
Intenerate. With curious eye observe
In what variety the tribe of salts,
Gums, ores, and liquors, eye-delighting hues
Produce, abstersive or restringent ; how
Steel casts the sable ; how pale pewter, fused
In fluid spirituous, the scarlet dye ;
And how each tint is made, or mixed, or changed,
By mediums colorless : why is the fume
Of sulphur kind to white and azure hues,
Pernicious else? why no materials yield
Singly their colors, those except that shine
With topaz, sapphire, and cornelian rays :
And why, though Nature's face is clothed in green,
No green is found to beautify the fleece
But what repeated toil by mixture gives.

Him, the all-wise Creator, and declares
His presence, power, and goodness, unconfined,
'T is Trade, attentive voyager, who fills
His lips with argument. To censure Trade,
Or hold her busy people in contempt,
Let none presuine. The dignity, and grace,
And weal of human life, their fountains owe
To seeming imperfections, to vain wants,
Or real exigencies ; passions swift
Forerunning reason ; strong contrarious bents,
The steps of men dispersing wide abroad
O'er realms and seas. There, in the solemn scene,
Infinite wonders glare before their eyes,
Humiliating the mind enlarged ; for they
The clearest sense of Deity receive
Who view the widest prospect of his works, [climes;
Ranging the globe with trade through various
Who see the signatures of boundless love,
Nor less the judgments of Almighty Power,
That warn the wicked, and the wretch who 'scapes
From human justice ; who, astonished, view
Ætna's loud thunders and tempestuous fires ;
The dust of Carthage ; desert shores of Nile ;
Or Tyre's abandoned summit, crowned of old [isles
With stately towers; whose merchants, from their
And radiant thrones, assembled in their marts ;
Whither Arabia, whither Kedar, brought [lambs ;
Their shaggy goats, their flocks, and bleating
Where rich Damascus piled his fleeces white,
Prepared, and thirsty for the double tint
And flowering shuttle.




To find effects where causes lie concealed
Reason uncertain tries : howe'er, kind Chance
Oft with equivalent discovery pays
Its wandering efforts. Thus the German sage,
Diligent Drebet, o'er alchymic fire
Seeking the secret source of gold, received
Of altered cochineal the crimson store.
Tyrian Melcartus thus (the first who brought
Tin's useful ore from Albion's distant isle,
And for unwearied toils and arts the name
Of Hercules acquired), when o'er the mouth
Of his attendant sheep-dog he beheld
The wounded murex strike a purple stain,
The purple stain on fleecy woofs he spread,
Which lured the eye, adorning many a nymph,
And drew the pomp of trade to rising Tyre.


Our valleys yield not, or but sparing yield,
The dyer's gay materials. Only weld,
Or root of madder, here, or purple woad,
By which our naked ancestors obscured
Their hardy limbs, inwrought with mystic forms,
Like Egypt's obelisks. The powerful sun
Hot India's zone with gaudy pencil paints,
And drops delicious tints o'er hill and dale,
Which Trade to us conveys.

Not tints alone ;
Trade to the good physician gives his balms ;
Gives cheering cordials to th' afflicted heart ;
Gives to the wealthy delicacies high ;
Gives to the curious works of Nature rare ;
And when the priest displays, in just discourse,

While th' admiring world Crowded her streets, ah ! then the hand of Pride Sowed imperceptible his poisonous weed, Which crept destructive up her lofty domes, As ivy creeps around the graceful trunk Of some tall oak. Her lofty domes no more, Not even the ruins of her pomp remain ; Not even the dust they sunk in; by the breath Of the Omnipotent offended hurled Down to the bottom of the stormy deep : Only the solitary rock remains, Her ancient site ; a monument to those Who toil and wealth exchange for sloth and pride.?

1 Tyre was 16 miles in circuit, and the metropolis of an almost continuous manufacturing city, stretching along the sides of Lebanon, and coast of Syria, for 180 miles. Its trade extended from Ceylon, Madagascar, and Guinea, to England and the Baltic. It was famous for the height of its houses, the splendor of its palaces, and the wealth,

enterprise, and intelligence, of its people. Nebuchadnezzar | destroyed the continental part of the city in 573 B. C., 1700

years after its foundation. The insular city, which had again risen to be the centre of art and intelligence, w33 taken by Alexander in 332, but rose again. After various fortunes, its site became a bare rock. Latterly it is rising once more into notice. Its whole history is a wonderful lesson for those who exult in a mere material, or even artistic and intellectual prosperity, whose representative is wealth and splendor. The poet, therefore, justly alludes to its fortunes to enforce the necessity of moral and religious excellence in nations that would truly and permanently prosper. -J.

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To manual occupation : and oft called

Their chieftains from the spade, or furrowing plough, Introduction. Recommendation of labor. The several Or bleating sheepfold. Hence utility

methods of spinning. Description of the loom, and of Through all conditions ; hence the joys of health ; weaving. Variety of looms. The fulling-mill described, and the progress of the manufacture. Dyeing of cloth,

Hence strength of arm, and clear judicious thought; and the excellence of the French in that art. Frequent Hence corn, and wine, and oil, and all in life negligence of our artificery. The ill consequences of idle

Delectable. ness. Country workhouses proposed ; with a description of one. Good effects of industry exemplified in the prospect of Burstal and Leeds; and the cloth-market there

ART AND NATURE. -TOIL THE ORIGIN OF WEALTH. described. Preference of the labors of the loom to other

What simple Nature yields manufactures, illustrated by some comparisons. History of the art of weaving; its removal from the Netherlands, (And Nature does her part) are only rude and settlement in several parts of England. Censure of

Materials, cumbers on the thorny ground ; [fleece those who would reject the persecuted and the stranger ; our trade and prosperity owing to them. Of the manu

'Tis toil that makes them wealth ; that makes the facture of tapestry taught us by the Saracens. Tapestries (Yet useless, rising in unshapen heaps) of Blenheim described. Different arts procuring wealth to different countries. Numerous inhabitants, and their

Anon, in curious woofs of beauteous hue,
industry, the surest source of it ; hence a wish that our A vesture usefully succinct and warm,
country were open to all men. View of the roads and
rivers through which our manufactures are conveyed.

Or, trailing in the length of graceful folds,
Our navigations not far from the seats of our manufac- A royal mantle.
tures; other countries less happy. The difficult work of
Egypt in joining the Nile to the Red Sea ; and of France

in attempting, by canals, a communication between the
ocean and the Mediterranean. Such junctions may more

Come, ye village nymphs ! easily be performed in England, and the Trent and Severn

The scattered mists reveal the dusky hills ;
united to the Thames. Description of the Thames, and
the port of London.

Gray dawn appears ; the golden morn ascends,
And paints the glittering rocks, and purple woods,
And flaming spires : arise, begin your toils ;

Behold the fleece beneath the spiky comb
Pr ed, Arcadian Muse ! resume the pipe Drop its long locks, or from the mingling card
Of Hermes, long diffused, though sweet the tone,

Spread in soft flakes, and swell the whitened floor. And to the songs of Nature's choristers Harmonious. Audience pure be thy delight,

SPINNING ; ITS DIFFERENT KINDS. Though few ; for every note which Virtue wounds, Come, village nymphs, ye matrons, and ye maids ! However pleasing to the vulgar herd,

Receive the soft material ; with light step To the purged ear is discord. Yet too oft

Whether ye turn around the spacious wheel,
Has false dissembling Vice to amorous airs

Or, patient sitting, that revolve, which forms
The reed applied, and heedless youth allured : A narrower circle. On the brittle work
Too oft, with bolder sound, inflamed the rage Point your quick eye, and let the hand assist
Of horrid war. Let now the fleecy looms

To guide and stretch the gently-lessening thread ; Direct our rural numbers, as of old, [haunts. Even, unknotted twine will praise your skill. When plains and sheep-folds were the Muses' A different spinning every different web

Asks from your glowing fingers : some require DEDICATION TO SIR J. HEATHCOTE ; EMPLOYMENT OF THE The more compact and some the looser wreath ; POOR.

The last for softness, to delight the touch So thou, the friend of every virtuous deed

Of chambered delicacy : scarce the cirque And aim, though feeble, shalt these rural lays

Need turn around, or twine the lengthening flake. Approve, O Heathcote !1 whose benevolence Visits our valleys, where the pasture spreads,


And where the bramble, and would justly act
True charity, by teaching idle Want

There are, to speed their labor, who prefer
And Vice the inclination to do good ;

Wheels double-spooled, which yield to either hand Good to themselves, and in themselves to all,

A several line ; and many yet adhere Through grateful toil.

To th' ancient distaff, at the bosom fixed,

Casting the whirling spindle as they walk : LABOR. --HONOR TO LABOR IN ANCIENT COMMONWEALTHS. At home, or in the sheepfold, or the mart,

Even Nature lives by toil : Alike the work proceeds. This method still Beast, bird, air, fire, the heavens, and rolling Norvicum favors, and the Icenian 1 towns : All live by action : nothing lies at rest [worlds,

It yields their airy stuffs an apter thread. But death and ruin : man is born to care ;

HELEN AND HER DISTAFF ; PAUL'S SPIRAL ENGINE, WITH Fashioned, improved, by labor. This of old

MANY SPOOLS. Wise states observing, gave that happy law

This was of old, in no inglorious days, Which doomed the rich and needy, every rank, The mode of spinning when the Egyptian prince 1 Sir John Heathcote, of Normanton, in Rutlandshire.

1 The Iceni were the inhabitants of Suffolk,

The wheel-moved wagon, and the discipline
Of strong-yoked steers. What needful art is new?

A golden distaff gave that beauteous nymph,
Too beauteous Helen ! no uncourtly gift
Then, when each gay diversion of the fair
Led to ingenious use. But patient art,
That on experience works, from hour to hour,
Sagacious, has a spiral engine formed,
Which on an hundred spools an hundred threads,
With one huge wheel, by lapse of water, twines,
Few bands requiring ; easy tended work,
That copiously supplies the greedy loom.



Nor hence, ye nymphs ! let anger cloud your

brows ;

The more is wrought the more is still required :
Blithe o'er your toils, with wonted song, proceed :
Fear not surcharge ; your hands will ever find
Ample employment. In the strife of trade
These curious instruments of speed obtain
Various advantage, and the diligent
Supply with exercise, as fountains sure,
Which ever-gliding feed the flowery lawn :
Nor, should the careful Stato, severely kind,
In every province to the house of toil,
Compel the vagrant, and each implement
Of ruder art, the comb, the card, the wheel,
Teach their unwilling hands, nor yet complain :
Yours with the public good shall ever rise,
Ever, while o'er the lawns and airy downs
The bleating sheep and shepherd's pipe are heard ;
While in the brook ye blanch the glistening fleece,
And the amorous youth, delighted with your toils,
Quavers the choicest of his sonnets, warmed
By growing traffic, friend to wedded love.


Next, the industrious youth employs his care
To store soft yarn ! and now he strains the warp
Along the garden-walk, or highway side,
Smoothing each thread : now fits it to the loom,
And sits before the work ; from hand to hand
The thready shuttle glides along the lines,
Which open to the woof, and shut, altern;
And ever and anon, to firm the work,
Against the web is driven the noisy frame,
That o'er the level rushes, like a surge
Which, often dashing on the sandy beach,
Compacts the traveller's road : from hand to hand
Again, across the lines oft opening, glides
The thready shuttle, while the web

a pace
Increases, as the light of eastern skies
Spread by the rosy fingers of the morn,
And all the fair expanse with beauty glows.

Or if the broader mantle be the task,
He chooses some companion to his toil.
From side to side, with amicable aim,
Each to the other darts the nimble bolt;
While friendly converse, prompted by the work,
Kindles improvement in the opening mind.



The amorous youth with various hopes inflamed, Now on the busy stage see him step forth, With beating breast : high-honored he beholds Rich industry. First, he bespeaks a loom ; From some thick wood the carpenter selects A slender oak, or beech of glossy trunk, Or sapling ash : he shapes the sturdy beam, The posts, and treadles, and the frame combines : The smith, with iron screws and plated hoops, Confirms the strong machine, and gives the bolt That strains the roll. To these the turner's lathe And graver's knife the hollow shuttle add. Various professions in the work unite, For each on each depends. Thus he acquires The curious engine, work of subtle skill ; Howe'er, in vulgar use around the globe Frequent observed, of high antiquity No doubtful mark : the adventurous voyager, Tossed over ocean to remotest shores, Hears on remotest shores the murmuring loom, Sees the deep-furrowing plough and harrowed field,


What need we name the several kinds of looms? Those delicate, to whose fair-colored threads Hang figured weights, whose various numbers guide The artist's hand : he, unseen flowers, and trees, And vales, and azure hills, unerring works : Or that, whose numerous needles, glittering bright, Weave the warm hose to cover tender limbs ; Modern invention ; modern is the want. FULLING, DRESSING, ETC., COMPARED WITH THE CULTURE OF

THE SOIL, Next, from the slackened beam the woof unrolled, Near some clear-sliding river, Aire or Stroud, Is by the noisy fulling-mill received ; Where tumbling waters turn enormous wheels, And hammers, rising and descending, learn To imitate the industry of man.

Oft the wet web is steeped, and often raised, Fast dripping, to the river's grassy bank, And sinewy arms of men, with full-strained strength, Wring out the latent water : then up hung On rugged tenters, to the fervid sun Its level surface, reeking, it expands; Still brightening in each rigid discipline, And gathered worth ; as human life, in pains, Conflicts, and troubles. Soon the clothier's shears And burler's thistle skim the surface sheen. The round of work goes on from day to day, Season to season. So the husbandman Pursues his cares ; his plough divides the glebe ; The seed is sown ; rough rattle o'er the clods The harrow's teeth ; quick weeds his hoe subdues ;

1 Paul's engine for cotton and fine wool.

The sickle labors, and the slow team strains, Till grateful harvest-home rewards his toils.


The ingenious artist, learned in drugs, bestows The last improvement ; for the unlabored fleece Rare is permitted to imbibe the dye. 'In penetrating waves of boiling vats The snowy web is steeped, with grain of weld, Fustic, or logwood, mixed, or cochineal, Or the dark purple pulp of Pictish woad, Of stain tenacious, deep as summer skies, Like those that canopy the bowers of Stow After soft rains, when birds their notes attune, Ere the melodious nightingale begins.


O when, through every province, shall be raised Houses of labor, seats of kind cons raint, For those who now delight in fruitless sports More than in cheerful works of virtuous trade, Which honest wealth would yield, and portion due Of public welfare ? Ho, ye poor ! who seek, Among the dwellings of the diligent, For sustenance unearned ; who stroll abroad From house to house, with mischievous intent, Feigning misfortune : ho, ye lame ! ye blind ! Ye languid limbs, with real want oppressed, Who tread the rough highways and mountains wild, Through storms, and rains, and bitterness of heart; Ye children of affliction ! be compelled To happiness : the long-wished daylight dawns, When charitable Rigor shall detain Your step-bruised feet. Even now the sons of Trade, Where'er their cultivated hamlets smile, Erect the mansion : 1 here soft fleeces shine ; The card awaits you, and the comb, and wheel : Here shroud you from the thunder of the storm ; No rain shall wet your pillow : here abounds Pure beverage : here your viands are prepared : To heal each sickness the physician waits, And priest entreats to give your Maker praise.


THE BEST DYE, AND DYEING. From yon broad vase behold the saffron woofs Beauteous emerge ; from these the azure rise ; This glows with crimson ; that the auburn holds ; These shall the prince with purple robes adorn, And those the warrior mark, and those the priest.

Few are the primal colors of the art ; Five only ; black, and yellow, blue, brown, red ; Yet hence innumerable bues arise.

That stain alone is good which bears unchanged Dissolving water's, and calcining sun's, And thieving air's attacks. How great the need With utmost caution to prepare the woof, To seek the best-adapted dyes, and salts, And purest gums ! since your whole skill consists In opening well the fibres of the woof, For the reception of the beauteous dye, And wedging every grain in every pore, Firm as a diamond in rich gold enchased.




But what the powers, which lock them in the web; Whether incrusting salts, or weight of air, Or fountain-water's cold contracting wave, Or all combined, it well befits to know. Ah ! wherefore have we lost our old repute ? And who inquires the cause why Gallia's sons In depth and brilliancy of hues excel ? Yet yield not, Britons ! grasp in every art The foremost name. Let others tamely view, On crowded Smyrna's and Byzantium's strand, The haughty Turk despise their proffered bales.

Behold, in Calder's ? vale, where wide around Unnumbered villas creep the shrubby hills, A spacious dome for this fair purpose rise : High o'er the open gates, with gracious air, Eliza's image stands. By gentle steps Up-raised, from room to room we slowly walk, And view with wonder, and with silent joy, The sprightly scene ; where many a busy hand, Where spools, cards, wheels, and looms, with motion

quick, And ever-murmuring sound, the unwonted sense Wrap in surprise. To see them all employed, All blithe, it gives the spreading heart delight, As neither meats, nor drinks, nor aught of joy Corporeal, can bestow. Nor less they gain Virtue than wealth, while, on their useful works From day to day intent, in their full minds Evil no place can find. DEALERS, CARDERS, COMBERS, WINDERS ; SINGING IN CHORUS ;


With equal scale Some deal abroad the well-assorted fleece ; These card the short, those comb the longer flake : Others the harsh and clotted lock receive, Yet sever and refine with patient toil, And bring to proper use. Flax too, and hemp, Excite their diligence. The younger hands Ply at the easy work of winding yarn

THE WEAVER'S CURSE, INTEMPERANCE. Now see, o'er vales and peopled mountain-tops The welcome traders gathering every web, Industrious, every web too few. Alas! Successless oft their industry, when cease The loom and shuttle in the troubled streets ; Their motion stopped by wild intemperance, Toil's scoffing foe, who lures the giddy rout To scorn their task-work, and to vagrant life Turns their rude steps, while Misery, among The cries of infants, haunts their mouldering huts.

1 Erect the mansion. This alludes to the work-houses at Bristol, Birmingham, &c.

2 Calder, a river in Yorkshire, which runs below Halifax, and passes by Wakefield.

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