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But when the western winds, with vital power, Or in the ruddy ocean seeks his bed.
Call forth the tender grass and budding flower ; Swift rivers are with sudden ice constrained ;
Then, at the last, produce in open air

And studded wheels are on its back sustained. Both flocks, and send 'em to their summer fare. An hostry now for wagons, which before

Tall ships of burden on its bosom bore.

The brazen cauldrons with the frost are flawed ; Before the sun while Hesperus appears ;

The garment, stiff with ice, at hearths is thawed ; First let 'em sip from herbs the pearly tears

With axes first they cleave the wine, and thence Of morning dews ; and after break their fast By weight the solid portions they dispense. On green-sward ground, a cool and grateful taste : From locks uncombed, and from the frozen beard, But when the day's fourth hour has drawn the dews, Long icicles depend, and crackling sounds are heard. And the sun's sultry heat their thirst renews ; Meantime perpetual sleet, and driving snow, When creaking grasshoppers on shrubs complain, Obscure the skies, and hang on herds below. Then lead 'em to their watering-troughs again. The starving cattle perish in their stalls, In Summer's heat some bending valley find,

Huge oxen stand enclosed in wintry walls Closed from the sun, but open to the wind ;

Of snow congealed ; whole herds are buried there Or seek some ancient oak, whose arms extend Of mighty stags, and scarce their horns appear. In ample breadth, thy cattle to defend ;

HUNTING THE DEER IN THE SNOW. Or solitary grove, or gloomy glade,

The dextrous huntsman wounds not these afar To shield 'em with its venerable shade.

With shafts, or darts, or makes a distant war Once more to watering lead, and feed again, With dogs ; or pitches toils to stop their flight : When the low sun is sinking to the main

But close engages in unequal fight. When rising Cynthia sheds her silver dews,

And while they strive in vain to make their way And the cool evening-breeze the meads renews ; Through hills of snow, and pitifully bray, When linnets fill the woods with tuneful sound, Assaults with dint of sword, or pointed spears, And hollow shores the halcyon's voice rebound.

And homeward, on his back, the joyful burden bears. THE LYBIAN PASTURES AND FLOCKS ; LYBIAN PRAIRIES AND


CIDER ; BEER; THE RIPHÆANS, DUTCH ; FURS. Why should my muse enlarge on Lybian swains;

The men to subterranean caves retire, Their scattered cottages, and ample plains ?

Secure from cold, and crowd the cheerful fire : Where oft the flocks without a leader stray,

With trunks of elms and oaks the hearth they load, Or through continued deserts take their way ;

Nor tempt th' inclemency of heaven abroad.
And, feeding, add the length of night to day.
Whole months they wander, grazing as they go ;

Their jovial nights in frolics and in play

They pass, to drive the tedious hours away. Nor folds nor hospitable harbor know :

And thoir cold stomachs with crowned goblets cheer Such an extent of plains, so vast a space

Of windy cider, and of barmy beer. Of wilds unknown, and of untasted grass,

Such are the cold Riphæan race ; and such Allures their eyes : the shepherd last appears,

The savage Scythian, and unwarlike Dutch ; And with him all his patrimony bears ;

Where skins of beasts the rude barbarians wear, His house and household gods ; his trade of war;

The spoils of foxes and the furry bear.
His bow and quiver ; and his trusty cur.
Thus, under heavy arms, the youth of Rome

HOW TO SECURE CLEAN, WHITE FLEECES. - PAN AND DIANA. Their long laborious marches overcome ;

Is wool thy care ? Let not thy cattle go Cheerly their tedious travels undergo,

Where bushes are, where burs and thistles grow; And pitch their sudden camp before the foe.

Nor in too rank a pasture let 'em feed :

Then of the purest white select thy breed.

Ev’n though a snowy ram thou shalt behold,
Not so the Scythian shepherd tends his fold ;

Prefer him not in haste for husband to thy fold. Nor he who bears in Thrace the bitter cold ;

But search his mouth ; and if a swarthy tongue Nor he who treads the bleak Mæotian strand ;

Is underneath his humid palate hung ; Or where proud Ister rolls his yellow sand.

Reject bim, lest he darken all the flock; Early they stall their flocks and herds ; for there

And substitute another from thy stock. No grass the fields, no leaves the forests wear.

'T was thus with fleeces milky white (if we The frozen earth lies buried there, below

May trust report), Pan, god of Arcady, A hilly heap, seven cubits deep in snow :

Did bribe thee, Cynthia ; nor didst thou disdain And all the west allies of stormy Boreas blow.

When called in woody shades to cure a lover's pain. WINTERS OF NORTH EUROPE ; CE; FROST ; FROZEN WINE ;


If milk be thy design, with plenteous hand The sun from far peeps with a sickly face ; Bring clover-grass ; and from the marshy land Too weak the clouds and mighty fogs to chase, Salt herbage for the foddering rack provide, When up the skies he shoots his rosy head,

To fill their bags, and swell the milky tide :


These raise their thirst, and to the taste restore When he, renewed in all the speckled pride
The savor of the salt, on which they fed before. Of pompous youth, has cast his slough aside,

Some, when the kids their dams too deeply drain, And in his summer livery rolls along,
With gags and muzzles their soft mouths restrain. Erect, and brandishing his forky tongue,
Their morning milk the peasants press at night; • Leaving his nest and his imperfect young ;
Their evening meal before the rising light

And, thoughtless of his eggs, forgets to rear To market bear; or sparingly they steep

The hopes of poison for the following year. With seasoning salt, and, stored, for Winter keep. THE CARE OF DOGS ; WATCH-DOGS ; DOGS OF CHASE. The causes and the signs shall next be told,

Of every sickness that infects the fold. Nor, last, forget thy faithful dogs : but feed

A scabby tetter on their pelts will stick, With fattening whey the mastiff's generous breed ;

When the raw rain has pierced them to the quick ; And Spartan race : who, for the fold's relief,

Or searching frosts have eaten through the skin ; Will prosecute with cries the nightly thief :

Or burning icicles are lodged within ;
Repulse the prowling wolf, and hold at bay
The mountain robbers, rushing to their prey.

Or when the fleece is shorn, if sweat remains
With cries of hounds, thou mayst pursue the fear

Unwashed, and soaks into their empty veins ;

When their defenceless limbs the brambles tear, Of Aying hares, and chase the fallow deer;

Shorn of their wool, and naked from the shear. Rouse from their desert dens the bristled rage Of boars, and beamy stags in toils engage.

Good shepherds after shearing drench their sheep,

And their flock's father (forced from high to leap) HOW TO EXPEL' SNAKES, ETC. — KILLING A SNAKE. Swims down the stream, and plunges in the deep. With smoke of burning cedar scent thy walls ; They oint their naked limbs with mothered oil ; And fume with stinking galbanum thy stalls :

Or from the founts where living sulphurs boil, With that rank odor from thy dwelling-place (race. They mix a medicine to foment their limbs ; To drive the viper's brood, and all the venomed With scum that on the molten silver swims. For often under stalls, unmoved, they lie,

Fat pitch, and black bitumen, add to these, Obscure in shades, and shunning heaven's broad eye;

Besides, the waxen labor of the bees ; And snakes, familiar, to the hearth succeed, And hellebore, and squills deep rooted in the seas. Disclose their eggs, and near the chimney breed. Receipts abound ; but, searching all thy store, Whether to roofy houses they repair,

The best is still at hand, to lance the sore, Or sun themselves abroad in open air,

And cut the head ; for, till the core be found, In all abodes, of pestilential kind

The secret vice is fed, and gathers ground ; To sheep and oxen, and the painful hind.

While making fruitless moan the shepherd stands, Take, shepherd, take a plant of stubborn oak, And, when the lancing knife requires his hands, And labor him with many a sturdy stroke ;

Vain help, with idle prayers, from heaven demands. Or, with hard stones, demolish from afar

FEVERS, YrRRAIN, ETC. His haughty crest, the seat of all the war :

Deep in their bones when fevers fix their seat, Invade his hissing throat, and winding spires,

And rack their limbs, and lick the vital heat ; Till, stretched in length, th' unfolded foe retires.

The ready cure to cool the raging pain, He drags his tail, and for his head provides ;

Is underneath the foot to breathe a vein. And in some secret cranny slowly glides ; [sides.

This remedy the Scythian shepherds found :
But leaves exposed to blows his back and battered

The inhabitants of Thracia's hilly ground,

The Gelons use it, when for drink and food
In fair Calabria's woods a snake is bred,

They mix their curdled milk with horses' blood. With curling crest, and with advancing head :

But when thou seest a single sheep remain Waving he rolls, and makes a winding track ;

In shades aloof, or couched upon the plain ; His belly spotted, burnished is his back.

Or listlessly to crop the tender grass ; While springs are broken, while the southern air

Or late to lag behind, with truant pace ; And dropping heavens the moistened earth repair,

Revenge the crime, and take the traitor's head, He lives on standing lakes, and trembling bogs ;

Ere in the faultless flock the dire contagion spread. He fills his maw with fish, or with loquacious frogs.

On winter seas we fewer storms behold, But when in muddy pools the water sinks,

Than foul diseases that infect the fold. And the chapped earth is furrowed o'er with chinks,

Nor do those ills on single bodies prey ; He leaves the fens, and leaps upon the ground,

But oftener bring the nation to decay, And, hissing, rolls his glaring eyes around.

And sweep the present stock and future hope away. With thirst inflamed, impatient of the heats,

AN EPIDEMIC DISEASE AMONG CATTLE, ETC., IN SWITZERLAND, He rages in the fields, and wide destruction threats. 0, let not sleep my closing eyes invade

A dire example of this truth appears : In open plains, or in the secret shade,

When, after such a length of rolling years,



We see the naked Alps, and thin remains
Of scattered cots, and yet unpeopled plains :

The steer, who to the yoke was bred to bow, Once filled with grazing flocks, the shepherds happy Studious of tillage and the crooked plough, reigns.

Falls down and dies ; and dying spews a flood Here, from the vicious air and sickly skies,

Of foamy madness, mixed with clotted blood. A plague did on the dumb creation rise :

The clown, who, cursing Providence, repines, During the autumnal heats the infection grew, His mournful fellow from the team disjoins ; Tame cattle and the beasts of nature slew ;

With many a groan forsakes his fruitless care, Poisoning the standing lakes, and pools impure ; And in the unfinished furrow leaves the share. Nor was the foodful grass in fields secure.

The pining steer no shades of lofty woods Strange death ! for when the thirsty fire had drunk Nor flowery meads can ease ; nor crystal floods Their vital blood, and the dry nerves were shrunk ; Rolled from the rock : his flabby flanks decrease ; When the contracted limbs were cramped, ev'n then His eyes are settled in a stupid peace. A wat'rish humor swelled and oozed again :

His bulk too weighty for his thighs is grown; Converting into bane the kindly juice,

And his unwieldy neck hangs drooping down. Ordained by nature for a better use.

Now what avails his well-deserving toil,

To turn the glebe, or smooth the rugged soil ! THE EFFECTS OF THE SWISS EPIDEMIC ON OXEN, CALVES, And yet he never supped in solemn state, DOGS, SWINE.

Nor undigested feasts did urge his fate ; The victim ox, that was for altars pressed, [drest, | Nor day to night luxuriously did join ; Trimmed with white ribbons, and with garlands

Nor surfeited on rich Campanian wine. Sunk of himself, without the gods' command ;

Simple his beverage, homely was his food; Preventing the slow sacrificer's hand.

The wholesome herbage, and the running flood ; Or, by the holy butcher if he fell,

No dreadful dreams awaked him with affright; The inspected entrails could no fates foretell :

His pains by day secured his rest by night. Nor, laid on altars, did pure flames arise ; [fice.

A SCARCITY OF OXEN OCCASIONED BY THE EPIDEMIC; ITS But clouds of smouldering smoke forbade the sacri- EFFECTS ON WOLVES, DEER, FISH, SEALS, SNAKES, BIRDS. Scarcely the knife was reddened with his gore, 'T was then that buffaloes, ill-paired, were seen Or the black poison stained the sandy floor.

To draw the car of Jove's imperial queen, The thriven calves in meads their food forsake,

For want of oxen ; and the laboring swain And render their sweet souls before the plenteous

Scratched with a rake a furrow for his grain : rack.

And covered, with his hand, the shallow seed again. The fawning dog runs mad ; the wheezing swine

He yokes himself, and, up the hilly height, With coughs is choked, and labors from the chine :

With his own shoulders draws the wagon's weight.

The nightly wolf, that round the enclosure prowled, THE EFFECTS OF THE PLAGUE ON TILE HORSE; REMEDY.

To leap the fence, now plots not on the fold The victor horse, forgetful of his food,

Tamed with a sharper pain : the fearful doe

And flying stag amidst the greyhounds go ; [foe. The palm renounces, and abhors the flood.

And round the dwellings roam of man, their fiercer He paws the ground, and on his hanging ears A doubtful sweat in clammy drops appears :

The scaly nations of the sea profound Parched is his hide, and rugged are his hairs.

Like shipwrecked carcasses are driven aground : Such are the symptoms of the young disease ;

And mighty phocæ, never seen before

In shallow streams, are stranded on the shore. But in time's process, when his pains increase, He rolls his mournful eyes, he deeply groans

The viper dead within her hole is found ;

Defenceless was the shelter of the ground.
With patient sobbing, and with manly moans.
He heaves for breath; which from his lungs supplied,

The water-snake, whom fish and paddocks fed, And fetched from far, distends his laboring side.

With staring scales, lies poisoned in his bed :

The birds their native heavens contagious prove, To his rough palate his dry tongue succeods ;

From clouds they fall, and leave their souls above. And ropy gore he from his nostrils bleeds. A drench of wine has with success been used,

THE DOCTORS' SKILL VAIN ; TISIPHONE, THE FURY, TRIUMPHAnd through a horn the generous juice infused :

ANT; THE CARCASSES. Which timely taken oped his closing jaws ;

Besides, to change their pasture 't is in vain ; But, if too late, the patient's death did cause. Or trust to physic; physic is their bane. For the too-vigorous dose too fiercely wrought; The learned leaches in despair depart; And added fury to the strength it brought.

And shake their heads, desponding of their art. Recruited into rage, he grinds his teeth

Tisiphone, let loose from under ground, In his own flesh, and feeds approaching death. Majestically pale, now treads the round; Ye gods, to better fate good men dispose,

Before her drives diseases, and affright; And turn th impious error on our foes !

And every moment rises to the sight :

Aspiring to the skies, encroaching on the light.
The rivers, and their banks, and hills around,
With lowings, and with dying bleats, resound.
At length, she strikes an universal blow;
To death at once whole herds of cattle go :
Sheep, oxen, horses, fall; and, heaped on high,
The differing species in confusion lie.
Till, warned by frequent ills, the way they found
To lodge their loathsome carrion under ground;
For useless to the currier were their hides ;
Nor could their tainted flesh with ocean tides
Be freed from filth ; nor could Vulcanian flame
The stench abolish, or the savor tame.
Nor safely could they shear their fleecy store,
Made drunk with poisonous juice, and stiff with

gore, —
Or touch the web ; but if the vest they wear,
Red blisters rising on their paps appear,
And flaming carbuncles, and noisome sweat,
And clammy dews, that loathsome lice beget;
Till the slow creeping evil eats his way, [prey.
Consumes the parching limbs, and makes the life his

The painted lizard, and the birds of prey,
Foes of the frugal kind, be far away.
The titinouse, and the pecker's hungry brood,
And Progne, with her bosom stained in blood :
These rob the trading citizens, and bear
The trembling captives through the liquid air,
And for their callow young a cruel feast prepare.
But near a living stream their mansion place,
Edged round with moss, and tufts of matted grass :
And plant (the winds' impetuous rage to stop)
Wild olive-trees, or palms, before the busy shop.
That when the youthful prince, with proud alarm,
Calls out the venturous colony to swarm ;
When first their way through yielding air they wing,
New to the pleasures of their native spring ;
The banks of brooks may make a cool retreat
For the raw soldiers from the scalding heat :
And neighboring trees, with friendly shade, invite
The troops, unused to long laborious flight.




THYME, SAVORY, ROSEMARY. Then o'er the running stream, or standing lake, A passage for thy weary people make ; With osier floats the standing water strew ; Of massy stones make bridges, if it flow : That basking in the sun thy bees may lie, And resting there their flaggy pinions dry ; When late returning home, the laden host By raging winds is wrecked upon the coast. Wild thyme and savory set around their cell ; Sweet to the taste, and fragrant to the smell ; Set rows of rosemary with flowering stem, And let thy purple violets drink the stream.

Virgil has taken care to raise the subject of each Georgic.

In the first he has only dead matter on which to work. In the second he just steps on the world of life, and describes that degree of it which is to be found in vegetables. In the third he advances to animals. And in the last singles out the bee, which may be reckoned the most sagacious of animals, for his subject.

In this Georgic he shows us what station is most proper for the bees, and when they begin to gather honey : how to call them home when they swarm; and how to part them when they are engaged in battle. From hence he takes occasion to discover their different kinds ; and, after an excursion, relates their prudent and politic administration of affairs, and the several diseases that often rage in their hives, with the proper symptoms and remedies of each disease. In the last place, he lays down a method of repairing their kind, supposing their whole breed lost, and gives at large the history of its invention.

HOW TO MAKE A BEEHIVE. Whether thou build the palace of thy bees With twisted osiers, or with barks of trees ; Make but a narrow mouth : for as the cold Congeals into a lump the liquid gold ; So 't is again dissolved by summer's heat, And the sweet labors both extremes defeat. And, therefore, not in vain the industrious kind With dauby wax and flowers the chinks have lined. And, with their stores of gathered glue, contrive To stop the vents and crannies of their hive. Not bird-lime, or Idean pitch, produce A more tenacious mass of clammy juice.

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Nor bees are lodged in hives alone, but found
In chambers of their own, beneath the ground :
Their vaulted roofs are hung in pumices,
And in the rotten trunks of hollow trees.

But plaster thou the chinky hives with clay,
And leafy branches o'er their lodging lay.
Nor place them where too deep a water flows,
Or where the yew their poisonous neighbor grows ;
Nor roast red crabs to offend the niceness of their


Nor near the steaining stench of muddy ground ;

Nor hollow rocks that render back the sound, And doubled images of voice rebound.

HABITS OF BEES IN SPRING ; THEIR YOUNG. For what remains, when golden suns appear, And under earth have driven the winter year : The wingéd nation wanders through the skies, And o'er the plains and shady forest flies ; Then stooping on the meads and leafy bowers, They skim the floods, and sip the purple flowers. Exalted hence, and drunk with secret joy, Their young succession all their cares employ : They breed, they brood, instruct and educate, And make provision for the future state ; They work their waxen lodgings in their hives, And labor honey to sustain their lives.

With gorgeous wings, the marks of sovereign sway,
The two contending princes make their way ;
Intrepid through the midst of dangers go ;
Their friends encourage, and amaze the foe.
With mighty souls in narrow bodies prest,
They challenge, and encounter breast to breast;
So fixed on fame, unknowing how to fly,
And obstinately bent to win or die,
That long the doubtful combat they maintain,
Till one prevails ; for only one can reign.
Yet all those dreadful deeds, this deadly fray,
A cast of scattered dust will soon allay,
And undecided leave the fortune of the day.
When both the chiefs are sundered from the fight,
Then to the lawful king restore his right.
And let the wasteful prodigal be slain,
That he who best deserves alone may reign.



But when thou seest a swarming cloud arise, That sweeps aloft, and darkens all the skies ; The motions of their hasty flight attend, [bend. And know to floods, or woods, their airy march they Then melfoil beat, and honeysuckles pound, With these alluring savors strew the ground, And mix with tinkling brass the cymbal's droning

sound. Straight to their ancient cells, recalled from air, The reconciled deserters will repair.


With ease distinguished is the regal race ; One monarch wears an honest open face ; Shaped to his size, and godlike to behold, His royal body shines with specks of gold, And ruddy scales ; for empire he designed, Is better born, and of a nobler kind. That other looks like nature in disgrace, Gaunt aré his sides, and sullen is his face : And like their grisly prince appears his gloomy race: Grim, ghastly, rugged, like a thirsty train That long have travelled through a desert plain, And spit from their dry chaps the gathered dust The better brood, unlike the bastard crew, (again. Are marked with royal streaks of shining hue ; Glittering and ardent, though in body less : From these at 'pointed seasons hope to press Huge, heavy honeycombs, of golden juice, Not only sweet, but pure, and fit for use : To allay the strength and hardness of the wine, And with old Bacchus new metheglin join.

But if intestine broils alarm the hive,-
For two pretenders oft for empire strive,-
The vulgar in divided factions jar,
And murmuring sounds proclaim the civil war.
Inflamed with ire, and trembling with disdain,
Scarce can their limbs their mighty souls contain.
With shouts, the coward's courage they excite,
And martial clangors call them out to fight :
With hoarse alarms the hollow camp rebounds,
That imitates the trumpet's angry sounds :
Then to their common standard they repair ;
The nimble horsemen scour the fields of air.
In form of battle drawn, they issue forth,
And every knight is proud to prove his worth.
Prest for their country's honor, and their king's,
On their sharp beaks they whet their pointed stings,
And exercise their arms, and tremble with their

Full in the midst the haughty monarchs ride ;
The trusty guards come up, and close the side ;
With shouts the daring foe to battle is defied.


But when the swarms are eager of their play, And loathe their empty hives, and idly stray, Restrain the wanton fugitives, and take A timely care to bring the truants back. The task is easy, — but to clip the wings Of their high-flying, arbitrary kings : At their command the people swarm away ; Confine the tyrant, and the slaves will stay. Sweet gardens, full of saffron flowers, invite The wandering gluttons, and retard their flight. Besides, the god obscene, who frights away With his lath sword the thieves and birds of prey, With his own hand, the guardian of the bees, For slips of pines may search the mountain trees; And with wild thyme and savory plant the plain, Till his hard, horny fingers ache with pain ; And deck with fruitful trees the fields around, And with refreshing waters drench the ground.


Thus, in the season of unclouded Spring, To war they follow their undaunted king : Crowd through their gates, and in the fields of light The shocking squadrons meet in mortal fight : Headlong they fall from high, and wounded wound, And heaps of slaughtered soldiers bite the ground. Hard hailstones lie not thicker on the plain ; Nor shaken oaks such showers of acorns rain.

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