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With many a sinuous bay and island green,
At less expense of labor and of land,
Will give thee equal beauty : seldom art
Can emulate that broad and bold extent
Which charms in native lakes ; and, failing there,
Her works betray their character and name,
And dwindle into pools.

Not that our strain,
Fastidious, shall disdain a small expanse
Of stagnant fluid, in some scene confined,
Circled with varied shade, where, through the leaves,
The half-admitted sunbeam trembling plays
On its clear bosom ; where aquatic fowl
Of varied tribe and varied feather sail ;
And where the finny race their glittering scales
Unwillingly reveal : there, there alone
Where bursts the general prospect on our eye,
We scorn these watery patches : Thames himself,
Seen in disjointed spots, where sallows hide
His first bold presence, seems a string of pools :
A chart and compass must explain his course.

That mound to raise alike demands thy toil, Ere Art adorn its surface. Here adopt That facile mode which his inventive powers ! First planned who led to rich Mancunium's mart His long-drawn line of navigated stream. Stupendous task ! in vain stood towering hills Opposed ; in vain did ample Irwell pour Her tide transverse : he pierced the towering hill, He bridged the ample tide, and high in air, And deep through earth, his freighted barge he bore. This mode shall temper ev'n the lightest soil Firm to thy purpose. Then let Taste select The unhewn fragments, that may give its front A rocky rudeness ; pointed some,

that there The frothy spouts may break; some slanting smooth That there in silver sheet the wave may slide. Here too infix some moss-grown trunks of oak Romantic, turned by gelid lakes to stone, Yet so disposed as if they owed their change To what they now control. Then open wide Thy flood-gates ; then let down thy torrent : then Rejoice ; as if the thundering Tees ? himself Reigned there amid his cataracts sublime.

HOW TO FORM A RIVER. He, who would seize the river's sovereign charm, Must wind the moving mirror through his lawn Ey'n to remotest distance ; deep must delve The gravelly channel that prescribes its course ; Closely conceal each terminating bound By hill or shade opposed ; and to its bank Lifting the level of the copious stream, Must there retain it. But, if thy faint springs Refuse this large supply, steel thy firm soul With stoic pride ; imperfect charms despise : Beauty, like Virtue, knows no grovelling mean.




Who but must pity that penurious taste, Which down the quick-descending vale prolongs, Slope below slope, a stiff and unlinked chain Of flat canals ; then leads the stranger's eye To some predestined station, there to catch Their seeming union, and the fraud approve ? Who but must change that pity into scorn, If down each verdant slope a narrow flight Of central steps decline, where the spare stream Steals trickling ; or, withheld by cunning skill, Hoards its scant treasures, till the master's nod Decree its fall : then down the formal stairs It leaps with short-lived fury; wasting there, Poor prodigal ! what many a summer's rain And many a winter's snow shall late restore.

And thou hast cause for triumph! Kings themWith all a nation's wealth, an army's toil, (selves, If Nature frown averse, shall ne'er achieve Such wonders : Nature's was the glorious gift ; Thy art her menial handmaid. Listening youths ! To whose ingenuous hearts I still address The friendly strain, from such severe attempt Let Prudence warn you. Turn to this clear rill, Which, while I bid your bold ambition cease, Runs murmuring at my side : O'er many a rood Your skill may lead the wanderer ; many a mound Of pebbles raise, to fret her in her course Impatient : louder then will be her song : For she will 'plain, and gurgle, as she goes, As does the widowed ring-dove. Take, vain Pomp ! Thy lakes, thy long canals, thy trim cascades, Beyond them all true taste will dearly prize This little dimpling treasure. THE NAIAD LINEIA. CAVES. -- STALACTITES.

Mark the cleft, Through which she bursts to day. Behind that rock A Naiad dwells : Lineia 3 is her name ;

1 The allusion is to Brindley, who made the Bridgewater canal to Manchester (Mancunium); the first in England. He invented puddling,' for dams, without clay.

2 The fall of the Tees, near Middleton, in Yorkshire, is deemed one of the greatest in England.

3 The Lin, whence Lineia is formed, is a little trout-stream on an estate of the author's friend, at Papplewick, on the edge of Sherwood forest, in Nottinghamshire, England.


Learn that, whene'er, in some sublimer scene, Imperial Nature of her headlong floods Permits our imitation, she herself Prepares their reservoir ; concealed perchance In neighboring hills, where first it well behoves Our toil to soarch, and studiously augment The watery store with springs and sluices drawn

And she has sisters in contiguous cells,
Who never saw the sun. Fond Fancy's eye,
That inly gives locality and form
To what she prizes best, full oft pervades
Those hidden caverns, where pale chrysolites
And glittering spars dart a mysterious gleam
Of inborn lustre, from the garish day
Unborrowed. There, by the wild Goddess led,
Oft have I seen them bending o'er their urns,
Chanting alternate airs of Dorian mood,
While smooth they combed their moist cerulean locks
With shells of living pearl. Yet, let me own,
To these, or classic deities like these,
From very childhood was prone to pay
Harmless idolatry,

Reflecting to the sun bright recompense
For every beam he lends, but reads thy soul
A generous lecture. Not a pansy pale,
That drinks its daily nurture from that rill,
But breathes in fragrant accents to thy soul,
So, by thy pity cheered, the languished head
Of poverty might smile. Whoe'er beheld
Our humble train forsake their native vale
To climb the haughty hill ? Ambition, speak !
He blushes, and is mute. When did our streams,
By force unpent, in dull stagnation sleep?
Let Sloth unfold his arms and tell the time.
Or, if the tyranny of Art infringed
Our rights, when did our patient foods submit
Without recoil ? Servility retires,
And clinks his gilded chain. 0, learn from us,
And tell it to thy nation, British bard !
Uncurbed Ambition, unresisting Sloth,
And base Dependence, are the fiends accurst
That pull down mighty empires. If they scorn
The awful truth, be thine to hold it dear.
So, through the vale of life, thy flowing hours
Shall glide serene ; and, like Lineia's rill,
Their free, yet not licentious course fulfilled,
Sink in the Ocean of Eternity.




My infant eyes First opened on that bleak and boisterous shore, Where Humber weds the nymphs of Trent and Ouso To his and Ocean's Tritons : thence full soon My youth retired, and left the busy strand To Commerce and to Care. In Margaret's grove,' Beneath whose time-worn shade old Camus sleeps, Was next my tranquil station : Science there Sat masing; and for those that loved the loro Pointed, with mystic wand, to truths involved In geometric symbols, scorning those, Perchance too much, who wooed the thriftless muse. Here, though in warbling whisper oft I breathed The lay, were wanting, what young Fancy deems The life-springs of her being, rocks, and caves, And huddling brooks, and torrent-falls divine. In quest of these, at Summer's vacant hour, Pleased would I stray ; when, in a northern vale, So chance ordained, a Naiad sad I found Robbed of her silver vase ; I soothed the nymph With song of sympathy, and cursed the fiend Who stole the gift of Thetis. Hence the cause Why, favored by the blue-eyed sisterhood, They soothe with songs my solitary ear.


Nor yet, divine Simplicity, withdraw That aid auspicious, which, in Art's domain, Already has reformed whate'er prevailed Of foreign, or of false ; has led the curve That Nature loves through all her sylvan haunts ; Has stolen the fence unnoticed that arrests Her vagrant herds ; given lustre to her lawns, Gloom to her groves, and, in expanse serene, Devolved that watery mirror at her foot, O'er which she loves to bend and view her charms.








Nor is Lineia silent - Long,' she cries,
• Too long has man waged sacrilegious war
With the vexed elements, and chief with that,
Which elder Thale and the bard of Thebes,
Held first of things terrestial ; nor misdeemed :
For, when the Spirit creative deigned to move,
He moved upon the waters. O revere
Our power : for were its vital force withheld,
Where then are Vegetation's vernal bloom,
Where its autumnal wealth ? but we are kind
As powerful ; 0 let reverence lead to love,
And both to emulation ! Not a rill,
That winds its sparkling current o'er the plain,

i St. John's College, in Cambridge, founded by Margaret, Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VII.

2 Alluding to Mason's Ode to a Water Nymph, written a year or two after his admission to the university.

And tell me, thou, whoe'er hast new-arranged By her chaste rules thy garden, if thy heart Feels not the warm, the self-dilating glow Of true benevolence? Thy flocks, thy herds, That browse luxurious o'er those very plots Which once were barren, bless thee for the change; The birds of air — which thy funereal yews Of shape uncouth, and leaden sons of earth, Antæus and Enceladus, with clubs Uplifted, long had frighted from the scene – Now pleased return ; they perch on every spray, And swell their little throats, and warble wild Their vernal minstrelsy ; to Heaven and thee It is a hymn of thanks : do thou, like Heaven, With tutelary care reward their song,



Erewhile the muse, industrious to combine Nature's own charms, with these alone adorned

The Genius of the scene ; but other gifts
She has in store, which gladly now she brings,
And he shall proudly wear. Know, when she broke
The spells of Fashion, from the crumbling wreck
Of her enchantments sagely did she cull
Those relics rich of old Vitruvian skill,
With what the sculptor's hand in classic days
Made breathe in brass or marble ; these the hag
Had purloined, and disposed in Folly's fane ;
To him these trophies of her victory
She bears ; and where his awful nod ordains
Conspicuous means to place. He shall direct
Her dubious judgment, from the various hoard
Of ornamental treasures, how to choose
The simplest and the best ; on these his seal
Shall stamp great Nature's image and his own,
To charm for unborn ages. Fling the rest
Back to the beldame, bid her whirl them all
In her vain vortex, lift them now to-day,
Now plunge in night, as, through the humid rack
Of April cloud, swift fits the trembling beam.

Let every structure needful for a farm
Arise in castle-semblance ; the huge barn
Shall with a mock portcullis arm the gate,
Where Ceres entering, o'er the flail-proof floor
In golden triumph rides ; some tower rotund
Shall to the pigeons and their callow young
Safe roost afford ; and every buttress broad,
Whose proud projection seems a mass of stone,
Give space to stall the heifor, and the steed.
So shall each part, though turned to rural use,
Deceive the eye with those bold feudal forms
That Fancy loves to gaze on.'



This achieved, Now nearer home he calls returning art To hide the structure rude where Winter pounds In conic pit his congelations hoar, That Summer may his tepid beverage cool With the chill luxury ; his dairy, too, There stands of form unsightly : both to veil, He builds of old disjointed moss-grown stone A time-struck abbey. An impending grove Screens it behind with reverential shade ; While bright in front the stream reflecting spreads, Which winds a mimic river o'er his lawn. The fane conventual there is dimly seen, The mitred window, and the cloister pale, With many a mouldering column ; ivy soon Round the rude chinks her net of foliage spreads ; Its verdant meshes seem to prop the wall.


But precepts tire, and this fastidious age Rejects the strain didactic : try we, then, In livelier narrative the truths to veil We dare not dictate. Sons of Albion, hear ! The tale I tell is full of strange event, And piteous circumstance ; yet deem not ye, If names I feign, that therefore facts are feigned : Nor hence refuse (what most augments the charm Of storied woe) that fond credulity Which binds the attentive soul in closer chains.

At manhood's primo Alcander's duteous tear Fell on his father's grave. The fair domain, Which then became his ample heritage, That father had reformed ; each line destroyed Which Belgic dulness planned ; and Nature's self Restored to all the rights she wished to claim.


Crowning a gradual hill his mansion rose
In ancient English grandeur : turrets, spires,
And windows, climbing high from base to roof
In wide and radiant rows, bespoke its birth
Coëval with those rich cathedral fanes
(Gothic ill-named) where harmony results
From disunited parts ; and shapes minute,
At once distinct and blended, boldly form
One vast, majestic whole. No modern art
Had marred with misplaced symmetry the pile.

THE OCEAN FRITH; THE GROTTO. One native glory, more than all sublime, Alcander's scene possest : 'T was Ocean's selfHe, boisterous king, against the eastern cliffs Dashed his white foam ; a verdant vale between Gave splendid ingress to his world of waves. Slanting this vale the mound of that clear stream Lay hid in shade, which slowly laved his lawn : But there set free, the rill resumed its pace, And hurried to the main. The dell it passed Was rocky and retired : here art with ease Might lead it o'er a grot, and, filtered there, Teach it to sparkle down its craggy sides, And fall and tinkle on its pebbled floor. Here then that grot he builds, and conchs with spars, Most petrified with branching corallines, In mingled mode arranges : all found here Propriety of place ; what viewed the main Might well the shelly gifts of Thetis bear. Not so the inland cave : with richer store [yield Than those the neighboring mines and mountains To hang its roof, would seem incongruous pride, And fright the local genius from the scene.



Alcander held it sacred : on a height, Which westering to its site the front surveyed, He first his taste employed : for there a line Of thinly-scattered beech too tamely broke The blank horizon. Draw we round yon knoll,' Alcander cried, 'in stately Norman mode, A wall embattled ; and within its guard

One vernal morn, as urging here the work Surrounded by his hinds, from mild to cold The season changed, from cold to sudden storm, From storm to whirlwind. To the angry main



Swiftly he turns, and secs a laden ship
Dismasted by its rage. Hie, hie we all,'

Down to the south the glade by Nature leaned ; Alcander cried, 'quick to the neighboring beach.'

Art formed the slope still softer, opening there They flew ; they came, but only to behold,

Its foliage, and to each Etesian gale Tremendous sight! the vessel dash its poop

Admittance free dispensing ; thickest shade Amid the boiling breakers. Need I tell

Guarded the rest. — His taste will best conceive What strenuous arts were used, when all were used, The new arrangement, whose free footsteps, used To save the sinking crew? One tender maid

To forest haunts, have pierced their opening dells, Alone escaped, saved by Alcander's arm,

Where frequent tufts of sweetbrier, box, or thorn, Who boldly swam to snatch her from the plank

Steal on the green sward, but admit fair space To which she feebly clung ; swiftly to shore, For many a mossy maze to wind between. And swifter to his home, the youth conveyed So here did Art arrange her flowery groups His clay-cold prize, who at his portal first

Irregular, yet not in patches quaint, By one deep sigh a sign of life betrayed.

But interposed, between the wandering lines

Of shaven turf which twisted to the path

Gravel, or sand, that in as wild a wave
A maid so saved, if but by Nature blessed

Stole round the verdant limits of the scene ; With common charms, had soon awaked a flame

Leading the eye to many a sculptured bust, More strong than pity, in that melting heart

On shapely pedestal, of sage, or bard, Which pity warmed before. But she was fair

Bright heirs of fame, who, living, loved the haunts As poets picture Hebe, or tho Spring ;

So fragrant, so sequestered. Many an urn Graceful withal, as if each limb were cast

There too had place, with votive lay inscribed In that ideal mould whence Raphael drew

To Freedom, Friendship, Solitude, or Love. His Galatea :' yes, th' impassioned youth Felt more than pity when he viewed her charms. DESCRIPTION OF THE BOWER OF FLORA. - A CONSERVATORY Yet sho (ah, strange to tell), though much he loved, Suppressed as much that sympathetic fame

And now each flower that bears transplanting Which love like his should kindle : Did he kneel Or blooms indigenous, adorned the scene : [change, In rapture at her feet? she bowed the head, Only Nerina's wish, her woodbine bower, And coldly bade him rise; or did he plead, Remained to crown the whole. Here, far beyond In terms of purest passion, for a smile ?

That humble wish, her lover's genius formed She gave him but a tear : his manly form,

A glittering fane, where rare and alien plants His virtues, ev'n the courage that preserved Might safely flourish ; where the citron sweet, Her life, beseemed no sentiment to wake

And fragrant orange, rich in fruit and flowers, Warmer than gratitude ; and yet the love

Might hang their silver stars, their golden globes, Withheld from him she freely gave his scenes ; On the same odorous stem : yet scorning there On all their charms a just applause bestowed ; The glassy penthouse of ignoble form, And, if she e'er was happy, only then [played. High on Ionic shafts he bade it tower When wandering where those charms were most dis- A proud rotunda ; to its sides conjoined

Two broad piazzas in theatric curve, As thro'a neighb'ring grove, where ancient beech

Ending in equal porticos sublime. Their awful foliage flung, Alcander led

Glass roofed the whole, and sidelong to the south The pensive maid along, “Tell me,' she cried,

'Twixt every fluted column lightly reared • Why, on these forest features all intent,

Its wall pellucid. All within was day,

Was genial Summer's day, for secret stoves
Forbears my friend some scene distinct to give
To Flora and her fragrance? Well I know

Through all the pile solstitial warmth conveyed. That in the general landscape's broad expanse

These led through isles of fragrance to the dome, Their little blooms are lost; but here are glades,

Each way in circling quadrant. That bright space Circled with shade, yet pervious to the sun,

Guarded the spicy tribes from Afric's shore, Where, if enamelled with their rainbow hues,

Or Ind, or Araby, Sabæan plants
The eye would catch their splendor : turn thy taste,

Weeping with nard, and balsam.
Even in this grassy circle where we stand,
To form their plots; there weave a woodbine bower,

In the midst
And call that bower Nerina's.' At the word A statue stood, the work of Attic art ;
Alcander smiled ; his fancy instant formed

Its thin light drapery, cast in fluid folds, The fragrant scene she wished ; and Love, with Art Proclaimed its ancientry ; all save the head, Uniting, soon produced the finished whole.

Which stole (for love is prone to gentle thefts)

The features of Nerina ; yet that head, 1 Raphael, when painting his celebrated Galatea, tells Count Castiglione, in a letter, that. essendo carestia di belle

So perfect in resemblance as its air donne, io mi servo di certa idea che viene alla mente.' So tenderly impassioned ; to the trunk,






Which Grecian skill had formed, so aptly joined, Beheld her still more pensive ; inward pangs, Phidias himself might seem to have inspired

From grief's concealment, hourly seemed to forco The chisel, bribed to do the amorous fraud.

Health from her cheek, and quiet from her soul. One graceful hand held forth a flowery wreath, Alcander mourned the change, yet still he hoped ; The other pressed her zone ; while round the base For Love to Hope his flickering taper lends, Dolphins, and Triton shells, and plants marine, When Reason with his steady torch retires : Proclaimed that Venus, rising from the sea,

Hence did he try, by ever-varying arts, Had veiled in Flora's modest vest her charms. And scenes of novel charm, her grief to calm.

Nor did he not employ the siren powers

Of Music and of Song ; or Painting, thine, Such was the fane, and such the deity

Sweet source of pure delight! But I record Who seemed, with smile auspicious, to inhale Those arts alone which form my sylvan theme. That incense which a tributary world, From all its regions, round her altar breathed : And yet, when to the shrine Alcander led His living goddess, only with a sigh, And starting tear, the statue and the dome

At stated hours, full oft had he observed, Reluctantly she viewed. And why,' she cried, She fed with welcome grain the household fowl • Why would my best preserver here erect,

That trespassed on his lawn ; this waked a wish With all the fond idolatry of love,

To give her feathered favorites space of land, A wretch's image whom his pride should scorn And lake appropriate : in a neighboring copse (For so his country bids him)? Drive me hence, He planned the scene ; for there the crystal spring, Transport me quick to Gallia's hostile shore, That formed his river, from a rocky cleft Hostile to thee, yet not, alas ! to her,

First bubbling, broke to day; and spreading there Who there was meant to sojourn : there, perchance, Slept on its rushes. Here my delving hinds,' My father, wafted by more prosperous gales,

He cried, “shall soon the marshy soil remove, Now mourns his daughter lost ; my brother there And spread, in brief extent, a glittering lake, Perhaps now soothes that venerable age [chance Checkered with isles of verdure ; on yon rock He should not soothe alone. Vain thought ! per- A sculptured river-god shall rest his urn; Both perished at Esopus — do not blush,

And through that urn the native fountain flow. It was not thou that lit the ruthless flame;

Thy wished-for bower, Nerina, shall adorn It was not thou, that, like remorseless Cain, The southern bank ; the downy race, that swim Thirsted for brother's blood : thy heart disdains The lake, or pace the shore, with livelier charnis, The savage imputation. Rest thee there,

Yet no less rural, here will meet thy glance, And, though thou pitiest, yet forbear to grace Than flowers inanimate.' Full soon was scooped A wretched alien, and a rebel deemed,

The watery bed, and soon, by margin green, With honors ill-beseeming her to claim.

And rising banks, enclosed ; the highest gavo
My wish, thou know'st, was humble as my state ; Site to a rustic fabric, shelving deep
I only begged a little woodbine bower,

Within the thicket, and in front composed
Where I might sit and weep, while all around Of three unequal arches, lowly all,
The lilies and the blue-bells hung their heads The surer to expel the noontide glare,
In seeming sympathy.' “Does, then, the scene Yet yielding liberal inlet to the scene ;
Displease ?’ the disappointed lover cried ;

Woodbine with jasmine carelessly entwined
* Alas! too much it pleases,' sighed the fair : Concealed the needful masonry, and hung
• Too strongly paints the passion which stern fate In free festoons, and vested all the cell.
Forbids me to return.' • Dost thou, then, love Hence did the lake, the islands, and the rock,
Some happier youth ?' *No, tell thy generous soul A living landscape spread; the feathered fleet,
Indeed I do not. More she would have said, Led by two mantling swans, at every creek
But gushing grief prevented. From the fane Now touched, and now unmoored ; now on full sail,
Silent he led her; as from Eden's bower

With pennons spread and oary feet they plied The sire of men his weeping partner led,

Their vagrant voyage ; and now, as if becalmed, Less lovely, and less innocent, than she.

'Tween shore and shore at anchor seemed to sleep. Yet still Alcander hoped what last she sighed Around those shores the fowl that fear the stream Spoke more than gratitude ; the war might end ; At random rove : hither hot Guinea sends Her father might consent; for that alone

Her gadding troop; here, midst his speckled dames, Now seemed the duteous barrier to his bliss. The pigmy Chanticleer of bantam winds Already had he sent a faithful friend

His clarion ; while, supremo in glittering state, To learn if Franco the reverend exile held : The peacock spreads his rainbow train, with eyes That friend returned not. Meanwhile every sun Of sapphire bright, irradiate each with gold. Which now (a year elapsed) diurnal rose

Meanwhile from every spray the ringdoves coo,

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