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Sweeps thro' each kindred vista ; groves to groves ? Fruitage, and flowers of every blush, and scent, Nod their fraternal farewell, and expire.
Each varied season yields ; to you they bring And now, elate with fair-earned victory,
The fragrant tribute ; ye, with generous hand, The bard retires, and on the bank of Thames Diffuse the blessing wide, till Albion smile Erects his flag of triumph ; wild it waves
One ample theatre of sylvan grace.
STORED AND AMENDED, NOT DEFORMED. - TASTE SOT IN.
CONSISTENT WITH THRIFT.-USE AND BEAUTY INSEPARABLE. Worked with the living hues that Nature lent,
- USE AN ELEMENT OF TRUE ART. And realized his landscapes. Generous he,
Hail to the art that teaches Wealth and Pride Who gave to painting, what the wayward nymph How to possess their wish, the world's applause, Refused her votary, those elysian scenes,
Unmixt with blame ! that bids Magnificence Which would she emulate, her nicest hand
Abate its meteor glare, and learn to shine Must all its force of light and shade employ.
Benevolently mild ; like her, the Queen On thee, too, Southcote, shall the muse bestow
Of Night, who, sailing through autumnal skies, No vulgar praise : for thou to humblest things Gives to the bearded product of the plain Couldst give ennobling beauties ; decked by thee,
Her ripening lustre, lingering as she rolls,
Which fills the fields with plenty. Hail that art, The harlotry of Art. Nor, Shenstone, thou
Ye swains ! for, hark ! with lowings glad, your herds Shalt pass without thy meed, thou son of peace ! Proclaim its influence, wandering o'er the lawns Who knew'st, perchance, to harmonize thy shades
Restored to them and Nature ; now no more Still softer than thy song ; yet was that song Shall fortune's minion rob them of their right, Nor rude, nor inharmonious, when attuned
Or round his dull domain with lofty wall To pastoral plaint, or tale of slighted love.
Oppose their jocund presence. Gothic Pomp Him too, the living leader of thy powers,
Frowns and retires, his proud behests are soorned ; Great Nature ! him the muse shall hail in notes
Now Taste inspired by Truth exalts her voice, Which antedate the praise true genius claims
And she is heard. “O, let not man misdeem; From just posterity : bards yet unborn
Waste is not grandeur, Fashion ill supplies Shall pay to Brown that tribute, fitliest paid
My sacred place, and Beauty scorns to dwell In strains the beauty of his scenes inspire.
Where Use is exiled. At the awful sound EXHORTATION TO THE LIBERAL CULTIVATION OF TRUE TASTE
The terrace sinks spontaneous ; on the green, IN GARDENING. -- REYNOLDS. --GARRICK.
Broidered with crispéd knots, the tonsile yews Meanwhile, ye youths ! whose sympathetic souls Wither and fall ; the fountain dares no more Would taste those genuine charms, which faintly To fling its wasted crystal through the sky, In my descriptive song, 0 visit oft
(smile But pours salubrious o'er the parchéd lawn The finished scenes, that boast the forming hand Rills of fertility. O, best of arts, Of these creative Genii! feel ye there
That works this happy change ! true alchemy, What Reynolds felt, when first the Vatican
Beyond the Rosicrusian boast, that turns Unbarred her gates, and to his raptured eye
Deformity to grace, expense to gain, Gave all the godlike energy that flowed
And pleased restores to earth's maternal lap From Michael's pencil ; feel what Garrick felt,
The long-lost fruits of Amalthea's horn. When first he breathed the soul of Shakspeare's
LONG STRAIGHT LINES AND
When such the theme, the poet smiles secure
Resumes his reed Ascræan ;? eager he Each grace appropriate ; to your active eye
To ply its warbling stops of various note Shall dart that glance prophetic, which awakes In Nature's cause, that Albion's listening youths, The slumbering wood-nymphs ; gladly shall they rise Informed erewhile to scorn the long-drawn lines Oread, and Dryad, from their verdurous beds, Of straight formality, alike may scorn And fling their foliage, and arrange their stems, Those quick, acute, perplexed, and tangled paths, As you and beauty bid : the Naiad train,
That, like the snako crushed by the sharpened spade, Alike obsequious, from a thousand urns
Writhe in convulsive torture, and full oft, Pour their crystalline tide ; while, hand in hand, Through many a dank and unsunned labyrinth, Vertumnus and Pomona bring their stores,
1 An allusion to the supposed favorable effects of the 1 See Pope's Epistle on False Taste, to the Earl of Bur- harvest-moon. lington.
2 Hesiod, the earliest poet of rural economics, was of the 2 Mr. Southcote first introduced the Ferme orné.'
Greek village of Ascra ; hence · Ascræan' is put for rural.'
LABYRINTHIXE TRICKS TO BE
Mislead our step ; till giddy, spent, and foiled,
THE OX-FURROW; THE TEAM-RUT; THE MILK-MAID's PATH; THE COURSE OF THE HARE ; THE STREAM.
These Fancy prized erroneous, what time Taste, An infant yet, first joined her to destroy The measured platform ; into false extremes What marvel if they strayed, as yet unskilled To mark the form of that peculiar curve, Alike averse to crooked and to straight, Where sweet Simplicity resides ; which Grace And Beauty call their own ; whose lambent flow Charms us at once with symmetry and ease. 'Tis Nature's curve, instinctively she bids Her tribes of being trace it. Down the slope Of yon wide field, see, with its gradual sweep, The ploughing steers their fallow ridges swell; The peasant, driving through each shadowy lane His team, that bends beneath the incumbent weight Of laughing Ceres, marks it with his wheel ; At night and morn, the milk-maid's careless step Has, through yon pasture green, from stile to stile, Impressed a kindred curve; the scudding hare Draws to her dew-sprent seat, o'er thymy heaths, A path as gently waving ; mark them well ; Compare, — pronounce, that, varying but in size, Their forms are kindred all ; go then, convinced That Art's unerring rule is only drawn From Nature's sacred source ; a rule that guides Her every toil ; or, if she shape the path, Or scoop the lawn, or gradual lift the hill. For not alone to that embellished walk, Which leads to every beauty of the scene, It yields a grace, but spreads its influence wide, Prescribes each form of thicket, copse, or wood, Confines the rivulet, and spreads the lake. CONTRAST THIS CURVE WITH OTHER LINES ; AVOID MONOT
OXY; STUDY VARIETY AND FREEDOM.
CAN DO THE SAME.
Yet fair Variety with all her powers
OF THE PLACE.' – LET ART ADAPT ITSELF TO THE CHAR-
Him, then, that sovereign Genius, monarch sole, Who, from creation's primal day, derives His right divine to this his rural throne, Approach with meet obeisance ; at his feet Let our awed art fall prostrate. They of Ind, The Tartar tyrants, Tamerlane's proud race, Or they in Persia throned, who shake the rod Of power o'er myriads of enervate slaves, Expect not humbler homage to their pride Than does this sylvan despot. Yet to those Who do him loyal service, who revere His dignity, nor aim, with rebel arms, At lawless usurpation, is he found Patient and placable, receives well pleased Their tributary treasures, nor disdains To blend them with his own internal store.
HOW TO MANAGE A LANDSCAPE WHOSE PREVAILING CHARAC
TERISTIC IS DESOLATION, AND SAVAGE HORROR, CHANGED TO BOLD AND WILD GRANDEUR.
Stands he in blank and desolated state, Where yawning crags disjointed, sharp, uncouth, Involve him with pale horror? In the clefts, Thy welcome spade shall heap that fostering mould Whence sapling oaks may spring; whence cluster
On some plain
TO GIVE VARIETY. HOW FAR ART
Amid its intertwisted foliage driven,
MAY BE RECONCILED WITH BEAUTY - HOW TO SOFTEN A
But chief consult him ere thou dar'st decide The appropriate bounds of Pleasure, and of Use ; For Pleasure, lawless robber, oft invades Her neighbor's right, and turns to idle waste Her treasures : curb her then in scanty bounds, Whene'er the scene permits that just restraint. The curb restrains not Beauty ; sovereign she Still triumphs, still unites each subject realm, And blesses both impartial. Why then fear Lest, if thy fence contract the shaven lawn, It does her wrong? She points a thousand ways, And each her own, to cure the needful ill. Where'er it winds, and freely must it wind, She bids, at every bend, thick-blossomed tufts Crowd their inwoven tendrils : is there still A void ? Lo, Lebanon her cedar lends ! Lo, all the stately progeny of pines Come, with their floating foliage richly decked, To fill that void ! meanwhile across the mead The wandering flocks that browse between the shades Seem oft to pass their bounds; the dubious eye Decides not if they crop the mead or lawn.
Darts inspiration, and impels the song
CONTRAST OF THE PRESENT AGE. THE LAMB AXD HONEY
SUCKLE ; MISCHIEF.
BROWSING SHEEP KEEP THE GRASS SHORT AND VERDANT.
The flocks, to whom the grassy lawn was given, Fed on its blades contented ; now they crush Each scion's tender shoots, and, at its birth, Destroy, what, saved from their remorseless tooth, Had been the tree of Jove. E'en while I sing, Yon wanton lamb has cropt the woodbine's pride, That bent beneath a full-blown load of sweets, And filled the air with perfume ; see it falls ; The busy bees, with many a murmur sad, Hang o'er their honey loss. Why is it thus ? Ah, why must Art defend the friendly shades She reared to shield you from the noontide beam ? Traitors, forbear to wound them ! say, ye fools ! Does your rich herbage fail? do acrid leaves Afford you daintier food ? I plead in vain ; For now the father of the fleecy troop Begins his devastation, and his ewes Crowd to the spoil, with imitative zeal.
Browse then your fill, fond foresters ! to you Shall sturdy Labor quit his morning task Well pleased ; nor longer o'er his useless plots Draw through the dew the splendor of his scythe. He, leaning on that scythe, with carols gay Salutes his fleecy substitutes, that rush In bleating chase to their delicious task, And, spreading o'er the plain, with eager teeth Devour it into verdure. Browse your fill, Fond foresters ! the soil that you enrich Shall still supply your morn and evening meal With choicest delicates ; whether you choose The vernal blades, that rise with seeded stem Of hue purpureal ; or the clover white, That in a spiked ball collects its sweets ; Or trembling fescue : every favorite herb Shall court your taste, ye harmless epicures !
THE ART OF MAKING FENCES. - NECESSARY DEFECTS.
Since then, constrained, we must expel the flock From where our saplings rise, our flowerets bloom, The song shall teach, in clear preceptive notes, How best to frame the fence, and best to hide All its foreseen defects ; defective still, Though hid with happiest art. Ingrateful sure, When such the theme, becomes the poet's task : Yet must he try, by modulation meet Of varied cadence, and selected phrase, Exact yet free, without inflation bold, To dignify that theme, - must try to form Such magic sympathy of sense with sound As pictures all it sings ; while Grace awakes
SHEEP GIVE THE CHARM OF LIFE TO THE LANDSCAPE, -A
REMINISCENCE OF PRIMEVAL INNOCENCE, - THE GOLDEN AGE DESCRIBED,
Meanwhile permit that with unheeded step I pass beside you, nor let idle fear Spoil your repast, for know the lively scene, That you still more enliven, to my soul
At each blest touch, and, on the loftiest things, Scatters her rainbow hues.
Up yonder hill to wind thy fragrant way,
DISADVANTAGES OF A STRING-FENCE. --MAX ALONE BROOKS
THRALDOM. -- ELM AXD OAK FENCE.
THE SUNKEN FENCE; FOR DEER ; FOR SHEEP.
The first and best Is that, which, sinking from our eye, divides, Yet seems not to divide the shaven lawn, And parts it from the pasture ; for if there Sheep feed, or dappled deer, their wandering teeth Will, smoothly as the scythe, the herbage shave, And leave a kindred verdure. This to keep Heed that thy laborer scoop the trench with care ; For some there are who give their spade repose, When broad enough the perpendicular sides Divide, and deep descend : to form perchance Some needful drain, such labor may suffice, Yet not for beauty : here thy range of wall Must lift its height erect, and o'er its head A verdant veil of swelling turf expand ; While smoothly from its base, with gradual ease, The pasture meets its level, at that point Which best deludes our eye, and best conceals Thy lawn's brief limit. Down so smooth a slope The fleecy foragers will gladly browse ; The velvet herbage free from weeds obscene Shall spread its equal carpet, and the trench Be pasture to its base. Thus form thy fenco Of stone, for stone alone, and piled on high, Best curbs the nimble deer, that love to range Unlimited; but where tame heifers feed, Or innocent sheep, an humbler mound will serve, Uplined with stone, and but a green-sward trench. Here midway down, upon the nearer bank Plant thy thick row of thorns, and, to defend Their infant shoots, beneath, on oaken stakes, Extend a rail of elm, securely armed With spiculated palings, in such sort As, round some citadel, the engineer Directs his sharp stoccade. But when the shoots Condense, and interweave their prickly boughs Impenetrable, then withdraw their guard, They've done their office ; scorn thou to retain, What frowns like military art, in scenes (stroyed, Where Peace should smile perpetual. These deMake it thy vernal care, when April calls New shoots to birth, to trim the hedge aslant, And mould it to the roundness of the mound, Itself a shelving hill ; nor need we here The rule or line precise, a casual glance Suffices to direct the careless shears.
Still must the swain, who spreads these corded
guards, Expect their swift decay. The noontide beams Relax, the nightly dews contract the twist. Oft, too, the coward hare, then only bold When mischief prompts, or wintry famine pines, Will quit her rush-grown form, and steal, with ear Up-pricked, to gnaw the toils ; and oft the ram And jutting steer drive their entangling horns Through the frail meshes, and, by many a chasm, Proclaim their hate of thraldom. Nothing brooks Confinement, save degenerate man alone, Who deems a monarch's smile can gild his chains. Tired 'then, perchance, of nets that daily claim Thy renovating labor, thou wilt form, With elm and oak, a rustic balustrade Of firmest juncture ; happy could thy toil Make it as fair as firm ; yet vain the wish, Aim but to hide, not grace its formal line.
TAWDRY PAINTED FENCES.
THE WIRE FENCE. -THE HILL-SIDE PATH. - DEER CHECKED BY A HORIZONTAL STRING AND FEATHERS. -- FANCIFUL FEARS.
Yet learn, that each variety of ground Claims its peculiar barrier. When the foss Can steal transverse before the central eye, "Tis duly drawn ; but, up yon neighboring hill That fronts the lawn direct, if labor delvo The yawning chasm, 't will meet, not cross our view; No foliage can conceal, no curve correct, The deep deformity. And yet thou mean'st
Let those, who weekly, from the city's smoke, Crowd to each neighboring hamlet, there to hold Their dusty Sabbath, tip with gold and red The milk-white palisades, that Gothic now, And now Chinese, now neither, and yet both, Checker their trim domain. Thy sylvan sceno Would fade, indignant at the tawdry glare.
'Tis thine alone to seek what shadowy hues Tinging thy fence may lose it in the lawn;
1 The twine string has generally feathers tied along it. Virgil alludes to it in Georgics, Book III., line 368 ; also in his fifth Æneid, line 749.
And these to give thee Painting must descend Ev'n to her meanest office ; grind, compound, Compare, and by the distanced eye decide.
HOW TO PREPARE A PAINT PROPER FOR A FENCE. - OLIVE
For this she first, with snowy ceruse, joins The ocherous atoms that chalybeate rills Wash from their mineral channels, as they glide, In flakes of earthy gold ; with these unites A tinge of blue, or that deep azure gray, Formed from the calcined fibres of the vine ; And, if she blends, with sparing hand she blends That base metallic drug then only prized, When, aided by the humid touch of Time, It gives a Nero's or some tyrant's cheek Its precious canker. These, with fluent oil Attempered, on thy lengthening rail shall spread That sober olive-green which Nature wears E'en on her vernal bosom : nor misdeem, For that, illumined with the noontide ray, She boasts a brighter garment; therefore Art A livelier verdure to thy aid should bring. Know when that Art, with every varied hue, Portrays the living landscape ; when her hand Commands the canvas plane to glide with streams, To wave with foliage, or with flowers to breathe, Cool olive tints, in soft gradation laid, Create the general herbage : there alone, Where darts, with vivid force, the ray supreme, Unsullied verdure reigns; and tells our eye It stole its bright reflection from the sun.
That, skilled in Nature's heraldry, thy art
who first shall reach the lawn,
Want, alas ! Has o'er their little limbs her livery hung, In many a tattered fold, yet still those limbs Are shapely; their rude locks start from their brow, Yet, on that open brow, its dearest throne, Sits sweet Simplicity. Ah, clothe the troop In such a russet garb as best befits Their pastoral office ; let the leathern scrip Swing at their side, tip thou their crook with steel, And braid their hat with rushes, then to each Assign his station; at the close of eve, Be it their care to pen in hurdled cote The flock, and when the matin prime returns, Their care to set them free ; yet watching still The liberty they lend, oft shalt thou hear Their whistle shrill, and oft their faithful dog Shall with obedient barkings fright the flock From wrong or robbery. The livelong day Meantime rolls lightly o'er their happy heads; They bask on sunny hillocks, or disport In rustic pastime, while the loveliest grace, Which only lives in action unrestrained, To every simple gesture lends a charm.
THE EFFECT OF PAINT COMPARED TO A MIST.-THE COT.
COUNTRY CHILDREN COMPARED TO SPRING. -THE FOUR SEA
SONS OF MAN.
The paint is spread ; the barrier pales retire, Snatched, as by magic, from the gazer's view. So, when the sable ensign of the night, Unfurled by mist-impelling Eurus, veils The last red radiance of declining day, Each scattered village, and each holy spire That decked the distance of the sylvan scene, Are sunk in sudden gloom : the plodding hind, That homeward hies, kens not the cheering sito Of his calm cabin, which, a moment past, Streamed from its roof an azure curl of smoke, Beneath the sheltering coppice, and gave sign Of warm domestic welcome from his toil.
Pride of the year, purpureal Spring! attend, And in the cheek of these sweet innocents Behold your beauties pictured. As the cloud That weeps its moment from thy sapphire heaven, They frown with causeless sorrow; as the beam, Gilding that cloud, with causeless mirth they smile. Stay, pitying Time ! prolong their vernal bliss. Alas! ere we can note it in our song, Comes manhood's feverish summer, chilled full soon By cold autumnal care, till wintry age Sinks in the frore severity of death.
RETIREMENT. SELF-IMPROVEMENT. -SELF-CONTENT.
THE COTTER'S HEALTHY CHILDREN. - HIRE TIEM AS A LIV
ING FENCE. THE ROSE OF INNOCENCE. Nor is that cot, of which fond fancy draws This casual picture, alien from our theme. Revisit it at morn ; its opening latch, Though penury and toil within reside, Shall pour thee forth a youthful progeny Glowing with health and beauty (such the dower Of equal Heaven): see, how the ruddy tribe Throng round the threshold, and, with vacant gaze, Salute thee ; call the loiterers into use, And form of these thy fence, the living fence That graces what it guards. Thou think'st, per
Ah ! who, when such life's momentary dream, Would mix in hireling senates, strenuous there To crush the venal Hydra, whose fell crests Rise with recruited venom from the wound ! Who, for so great a conflict, would forego Thy sylvan haunts, celestial Solitude ! Where self-improvement, crowned with self-content, Await to bless thy votary.
STORY OF PRINCE ABDOLOXYMUS.
Nurtured thus In tranquil groves, listening to Nature's voice,