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according agriculture allowed American annual appear arising average births calculation causes checks to population China circumstances classes common consequence considerable considered constant continue course cultivation custom deaths destroyed difficulty effect emigration encourage England equal estimate Europe evident extreme famine France frequent give given greater habits human improvement increase industry inhabitants islands Italy kind labor land late laws less Lettres live lower manner marriages marry means means of subsistence mentioned misery mode mortality nature nearly necessary Norway observed occasioned operate parish particularly perhaps period persons poor present prevail principal probably produce proportion proportion of births provinces reason registers remain respect returns Russia savage says scarcity seems society soil sufficient supply suppose taken tend tion towns tribes villages wars whole women
Página 112 - Is not the whole land before thee? separate thyself, I pray thee, from me: if thou wilt take the left hand, then I will go to the right; or if thou depart to the right hand, then I will go to the left.
Página 16 - ... himself possessed ? Does he even feel secure that, should he have a large family, his utmost exertions can save them from rags and squalid poverty, and their consequent degradation in the community? And may he not be reduced to the grating necessity of forfeiting his independence, and of being obliged to the sparing hand of charity for support? These considerations are calculated to prevent, and certainly do prevent, a great number of persons in all civilized nations from pursuing the dictate...
Página 12 - In the next period, the population would be eighty-eight millions, and the means of subsistence just equal to the support of half that number. And at the conclusion of the first century, the population would be...
Página 11 - In the next twenty-five years, it is impossible to suppose that the produce could be quadrupled. It would be contrary to all our knowledge of the properties of land.
Página 4 - The effects of this check on man are more complicated. Impelled to the increase of his species by an equally powerful instinct, reason interrupts his career, and asks him whether he may not bring beings into the world for whom he cannot provide the means of support.
Página 19 - Promiscuous intercourse, unnatural passions, violations of the marriage bed, and improper arts to conceal the consequences of irregular connections, are preventive checks that clearly come under the head of vice.
Página 2 - To enter fully into this question, and to enumerate all the causes that have hitherto influenced human improvement, would be much beyond the power of an individual. The principal object of the present essay is to examine the effects of one great cause intimately united with the very nature of man, which, though it has been constantly and powerfully operating since the commencement of society, has been little noticed by the writers who have treated this subject.
Página 2 - The cause to which I allude is the constant tendency in all animated life to increase beyond the nourishment prepared for it. It is observed by Dr. Franklin that there is no bound to the prolific nature of plants or animals but what is made by their crowding and interfering with each other's means of subsistence.
Página 8 - ... population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every twentyfive years, or increases in a geometrical ratio.