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in every possible direction, among a variety of evergreen shrubs, wild sage, hanging ivy, moss, and creeping herbage.
Enormous plane trees waved their vast branches above the torrent.
As we approached its deep gulph, we beheld several cascades all of foam, pouring impetuously from chasms in the naked face of a perpendicular rock. It is said the same magnificent cataract continues during all seasons of the year, wholly unaffected by the casualties of rain or melting snow. That a river so ennobled by ancient history should at the same time prove equally eminent in circumstances of natural dignity, is a fact worthy of being related. Its origin is not like the source of ordinary streams, obscure and uncertain; of doubtful locality and undetermined character; ascertained with difficulty, among various petty subdivisions, in swampy places, or amidst insignificant rivulets, falling from different parts of the same mountain, and equally tributary: it bursts at once from the dark womb of its parent in all the greatness of the divine origin assigned to it by Homer. The early Christians who retired or fled from the haunts of society to the wilderness of Gargarus, seem to have been fully sensible of the effect produced by grand objects, in selecting, as the place of their abode, the scenery near the source of the Scamander, where the voice of nature speaks in her most awful tone, where, amidst roaring waters, waving forests, and broken precipices, the mind of man becomes impressed as by the influence of the present Deity.” P. 143---4.
From the Dardanelles, Dr. Clarke and his companions finally sailed, towards the conclusion of the month of March, in a small skiff which was carrying provisions to the British army, then encamped before Alexandria. On such an expedition, it is not to be supposed that much time could be afforded for a survey of the shores and mountains of the lovely islands by which he passed. “ Barrels of Adrianople tongues, candles, tea, sugar, cheese, onions, and biscuit," appear to have engrossed the whole attention of the captain of their vessel, who, it should seem, beheld without the least remorse all the pains he inflicted on his passengers, by passing unvisited the lands where “Eolian lyres were strung in every valley, and every mountain was consecrated by the breath of inspiration.“ P. 182.
The voyage, however, was happily interrupted, by the detention of their vessel at the islands of Cos (the modern Stanchio) and Rhodes, and at the gulph of Glaucus, in Asia Minor. The gulph of Glaucus, or, as it is now called, the bay of Macri, lying on the confines of the ancient provinces of Caria and Lycia, is remarkable for the grandeur of its scenery, its pestilential climate, and the beautiful remains of antiquity in its immediate vicinity. The modern town of Macri is built on the site, and amidst the ruins of Telmessus. The ancient theatre was an enormous pile, erected on the side of a lofty
mountain sloping to the sea. In the construction of the building, the architect had laboured to throw into the perspective all the sublime landscape by which he was surrounded. will be found, indeed, that the artists of Greece were generally careful in the construction of their public edifices, to make " the beauties of nature subservient to those of art." Of this, endless examples may be found in the remains of the numerous temples and theatres, commanding the tall cliffs, or rising in the hollows of the mountains, which spread along the whole southern and western shores of the lesser Asia. The neighbourhood of Telmessus abounds with Soroi, and other monuments of its former greatness, inferior, indeed, to its theatre in splendour, but well deserving a patient and careful examination. We have not room at present, however, even for a short notice of the most remarkable ;-nor can we afford space for any abridgment of the detailed account given by our author of the early part of the campaign in Egypt.
After visiting Cyprus, Dr. Clarke proceeded in the Romulus frigate to Acre. The ship having been despatched from the fleet off Aboukir, to take in a cargo of bullocks for the supply of the army, Dr. Clarke was engaged to act as interpreter for his friend Captain Culverhouse, who commanded the vessel, in negotiating this important affair with Djezzar Pacha, the tyrant of Acre,
The portrait exhibited of this savage is curious, accurate, and instructing. Possessed of Herculean vigour of body, and a large share of natural shrewdness, profoundly ignorant of all the advantages of literature, and literally despising them, he gave full indulgence to the most bloodthirsty and brutal temper, with the most perfect defiance and contempt of all human and divine authority. Grievous as it is to reflect that such a monster should have existed in our own days, gratifying, without restraint, for more than twenty years, his stupid and malevolent passions, it is not amiss to contemplate the picture steadily and in detail. We are all, more or less, the slaves of pomp and circumstance, and it will not, perhaps, be without its use, to study the workings of those passions in the mind of a paltry Pacha of Acre, which have stimulated more powerful tyrants to desolate the world. This man, at an early period of life, sold himself to a merchant at Constantinople; and, from the situation of a Mameluke, has risen to the high dignity of Governor of Cairo. At the time to which the book before us refers, he was Pacha of Seide, the ancient Sidon ; " lord of Damascus, of Berytus and Tyre; and, with the exception of a revolt among the Druses, might be considered master of all Syria.” Though nominally subject to the Porte, he was in fact wholly independent of its au:
thority. His appellation of Djezzar signifies butcher. Dr. Clarke saw, as he tells us, several persons standing by the door of his apartment, some without a nose-others without an arm-with one ear only, or one eye.” At one period of the Pacha's life, having reason to suspect the fidelity of his wives, he put seven of them to death with his own hands. While the Romulus lay off Acre a disturbance had arisen, in conse: quence of some stones having been thrown into the ship's boat by some of the Pacha's people. Dr. Clarke instantly proceeded to the palace of the tyrant to complain of this inso lence. The manner of his reception is thus related.
“Nothing could exceed the expression of fury visible in Djezzar's countenance at this intelligence. It might have been said of him as of Nebuchadnezzar, the form of his visage was changed. Drawing his dagger he beckoned the officer--as Bertocino trembling, said to us, now you will be satisfied. What, said I, is he going to do? To put to death that poor man, added he; and scarcely were the words uttered, than I, more terrified than any of the party, caught hold of the Djezzar's arm; the midshipman adding his entreaties to mine, and every one of us earnestly supplicating pardon for the poor victim. All we could obtain was permission from the Pacha to have the punishment suspended until Captain Culverhouse was informed of the circumstance, who, coming on shore, saved the man's life." P. 388.
We are tempted, though the extract is long, to transcribe, for the amusement of our readers, the following curious passage, from the account of another interview between our author and this summary dispenser of vindictive justice.
“ We found him scated on a mat, in a little chamber, destitute even of the meanest article of furniture, excepting a coarse, porous, earthen-ware vessel, for cooling the water he occasionally drank. He was surrounded by persons maimed and disfigured in the manner before described. He scarcely looked up to notice our entrance, but continued his employment of drawing upon the floor, for one of his engineers, a plan of some works he was then constructing. His form was athletic, and his long white beard entirely covered his breast; his habit was that of a common Arab, plain but clean, consisting of a white camblet, over a cotton cassock. His turban was also white. Neither cushion nor carpet decorated the naked boards of his divan. In his girdle he wore a poniard set with diamonds; but this he apologized for exhibiting, saying it was his badge of office as governor of Acre, and therefore could not be laid aside.' The conversation began by a request from the Pacha, that English captains, in future, entering the bay of Acre, would fire only one gun, rather as a signal than as a salute upon their arrival. * There can be no good reason,' said he, "for such a waste of gunpowder in ceremony between friends. Besides," he added, " I am too old to be pleased with ceremony : among forty.
tbree Pachas of three tails, now living in Turkey, I am the senior. My occupations are consequently as you see very important,' taking out a pair of scissors, and beginning to cut figures in paper, which was his constant employment when strangers were present; these he afterwards stuck upon the wainscot. I shall send each of you away,' said he, with good proof of old Djezzar's ingenuity. There,' addressing himself to Captain Culverhouse, and offering a paper cannon, there is a symbol of your profession.' While I was explaining to the captain the meaning of this singular address, he offered me a paper flower, denoting, as he said, “a florid interpretation of blunt speech.' As often as we endeavoured to introduce the business of our visit, he affected to be absorbed in these trifling conceits, or turned the conversation by allegorical sayings, to whose moral we could find no possible clew. His whole discourse was in parables, proverbs, truisms, and oriental apologues. One of his tales lasted nearly an hour, about a man who wished to enjoy the peaceful cultivation of a small garden, without consulting the lord of the manor, whenever he removed a tulip, alluding, perhaps, to his situation with reference to the Grand Seignior. There was evidently much cunning and deep policy in his pretended frivolity. Apparently occupied in regulating the shape of a watch paper with his scissors, he was all the while deeply attentive to our words and even to our looks, anxious to discover whether there was any urgency in the nature of our visit.” P. 370.
There is much more to the same purpose in Dr. Clarke's book; but our reader will probably be satisfied.
While the Romulus was taking in her stores at Acre, our author proceeded, with a strong party of Europeans, and with a guard of the Djezzar's cavalry, to Nazareth. We shall endeavour to compress into the remaining part of this article, some of the more interesting of the many valuable remarks which occur in this volume, respecting the natural history and antiquities of the Holy Land, and the illustrations of scripture which the activity and learning of Dr. Clarke enabled him to discover.
The village of Nazareth standing at the foot of lofty hills, is still inhabited by some of the wretched subjects of the Pacha of Acre, to whose mandates an instant and terrible obedience is exacted. The conversation of the Arabs was full of complaint against their governors. One of them said, “Beggars in England are happier and better than we poor Arabs. “Why better ?” said one of our party,
“ Happier," replied the Arab,“ in a good government: better, because they will not endure a bad one. P. 440.
The situation of the town is very distinctly marked in St. Luke's Gospel. “ They led him unto the brow of a hill whereon their city was built.” Its modern appearance exactly corresponds to this description. This solitary spot, so
often honoured as the residence of the Redeemer of mankind, is sunk into the most debased state of political subjection, as well as into the grossest superstition and ignorance. At the lower part of the town there is a Franciscan convent, where the friars show what they call the kitchen and fire place of the virgia: they have also a miraculous self-suspended pillar of granite.
The well-intentioned zeal of the Empress Helena, aided by the labours of a whole generation of opulent and powerful devotees, has covered with churches, and monasteries, and altars, almost every spot in the Holy Land, which tradition has pointed out as the scene of any of the transactions of our Saviour's life. Helena was the mother of the Emperor Constantine the first. In her eightieth year she commenced a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. The youthful spirit and enterprise of the undertaking are truly marvellous; but activity unattended by good sense, not only loses all its value, but often becomes positively pernicious. As a specimen of the discretion with which her improvements were conducted, it will be sufficient to refer to the structure, to which, for many centuries the name of the Holy Sepulchre has been affixed. The church by which this consecrated place is covered stands nearly in the centre of the modern city, and all travellers and writers on the subject, from the days of Eusebius down to those of Mons. de Chateaubriand, concur in bearing testimony to the identity of this spot with that in which the body of the Redeemer was deposited. The long existence of this opinion seems, however, to be the only evidence of its truth. The fabric to which the name of the Holy Sepulchre is now given, is built in the principal aisle of the church, and beneath the main dome," and resembles, says Dr. Clarke, “ a huge pepper box.” The pilgrims by whom it is visited, are first introduced into a kind of antechapel, where is exhibited a block of white marble lying before the door of the interior chamber--the actual tomb, as Helena supposed, of the Saviour. This block is pointed out as that on which the angel sat; but corresponds “neither with the mouth of the sepulchre, nor with the substance from which it must have been hewn”--the rocks of Jerusalem consisting all, as Dr. Clarke informs us, of common compact limestone. From the account given by the Evangelists of the tomb of the Messiah, it seems unquestionable that it was formed by the excavation of a rock. Matthew, Luke and Mark, mention this circumstance. From St. John's gospel it appears that the sepulchre was immediately adjoining the place of crucifixion: ην δε εν τω τόπω, όπε εσαυρώθ, κηπος, και εν τω κηπω