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swer, “I wist not, brethren, that he was a holy and religious prelate;" for evil is written of those who would be prelates. And finding him thus in disguise without his superscription or phylactery either of holy or prelate, it were no sin to serve him as Longchamp bishop of Ely (30) was served in
(30) He here alludes to a curious adventure, slightly mentioned by Smectymnuus, p. 88, and related at length by Holinshed. This proud prelate, who, on the departure of Richard the First for the Holy Land, was entrusted, as Lord Chancellor of England, with great authority in the government of the kingdom, conducted himself in a haughty tyrannical manner, riding about attended by a body of a thousand horse, lodging forcibly in the abbeys and other places, and committing other acts of oppression, which at length terminated in a civil war. Unable to meet his enemies in the field, Longchamp shut himself up in the Tower, from whence, after a long siege, he was compelled to effect his escape. “This done,” says the chronicler, “he hasted to Canterbury, where he promised to receive the cross of a pil. grim to go into the Holy Land, and to render up the cross of his legateship, which he had usurped a year and a half after the death of Pope Clement, to the prejudice of the church of Rome, and to the detriment and great hinderance of the English church. For there was not any church within the realm, which had not been put to fine and ransom by that cross, nor any ecclesiastical person went free, but the print of the cross appeared in him and his purse. From Canterbury he got him to Dover to his brother-in-law, and finally seeking means to pass over into France, and doubting to be discovered, he apparelled himself in woman's raiment; and got a web of cloth on his arm, as though he had been some housewifely woman of the country: but by the untowardly folding and uncunning handling of his cloth, (or rather by a lewd fisherman that took him for a harlot,) he was suspected and searched so narrowly, that he was discovered to be a man, and at length known, attached, and committed to prison, after he had been reproachfully handled by them that found him, and by the wives of the town, in such unseemly apparel.” Chronicles of England, &c. vol. ii. p. 228. edit. of 1807.
his disguise at Dover: he hath begun the measure nameless, and when he pleases we may all appear as we are. And let him be then what he will, he shall be to me so as I find him principled. For neither must prelate or arch prelate hope to exempt himself from being reckoned as one of the vulgar, which is for him only to hope whom true wisdom and the contempt of vulgar opinions exempts, it being taught us in the Psalms, that he who is in honour and understandeth not, is as the beasts that perish.
34. And now first “the manner of handling that cause,” which I undertook, he thinks is suspicious, as if the wisest and the best words were not ever to some or other suspicious. But where is the offence, the disagreement from Christian meekness, or the precept of Solomon in answering folly? When the Remonstrant talks of froth and scum, I tell him there is none, and bid him spare his ladle: when he brings in the mess with keal, beef, and brewess, what stomach in England could forbear to call for flanks and briskets ? (31) Capon
(31) In the Animadversions there occurs a curious passage which our historical gastronomers would appear to have overlooked. “ Nothing will cure this man's understanding but some familiar and kitchen physic, which, with pardon, must for plainness' sake be administered to him. Call hither your cook. The order of breakfast, dinner, and supper, answer me, is it set or not? Set. Is a man therefore bound in the morning to poached eggs and vinegar, or at noon to brawn or beef, or at night to fresh salmon, and French kickshose ? (quelque chose.) May he not make his meals in order, though he be not bound to this or that viand ? Doubtless the neat-fingered artist will answer yes, and help us out of this great controversy without more trouble.”
and white broth having been likely sometimes in the same room with Christ and his apostles, why does it trouble him, that it should be now in the same leaf, especially where the discourse is not continued, but interrupt ? And let him tell me, is he wont to say grace, doth he not then name holiest names over the steam of costliest superfluities? Does he judge it foolish or dishonest, to write that among religious things, which, when he talks of religious things, he can devoutly chew ? Is he afraid to name Christ where those things are written in the same leaf, whom he fears not to name while the same things are in his mouth ? Doth not Christ himself teach the highest things by the similitude of old bottles and patched clothes ? Doth he not illustrate best things by things most evil? his own coming to be as a thief in the night, and the righteous man's wisdom to that of an unjust steward ? He might therefore have done better to have kept in his canting beggars, and heathen altar, to sacrifice his threadbare criticism of Bomolochus to an unseasonable goddess fit for him called Importunity, and have reserved his Greek derivation till he lecture to his freshmen, for here his itching pedantry is but flouted.
35. But to the end that nothing may be omitted, which may farther satisfy any conscionable man, who, notwithstanding what I could explain before the Animadversions, remains yet unsatisfied concerning that way of writing which I there defended, but this confuter, whom it pinches, utterly disapproves; I shall assay once again, and perhaps with more success. If therefore the question were in oratory, whether a vehement vein throwing out indignation or scorn upon an object that merits it, were among the aptest ideas (32) of speech to be allowed, it were my work, and that an easy one, to make it clear both by the rules of best rhetoricians, and the famousest examples of the Greek and Roman orations. But since the religion of it is disputed, and not the art, I shall make use only of such reasons and authorities, as religion cannot except against. It will be harder to gainsay, than for me to evince, that in the teaching of men diversely tempered, different ways are to be tried. The Baptist, we know, was a strict man, remarkable for austerity and set order of life. Our Saviour, who had all gifts in him, was Lord to express his indoctrinating power in what sort him best seemed; sometimes by a mild and familiar converse; sometimes with plain and impartial home-speaking, regardless of those whom the auditors might think he should have had in more respect; otherwhile, with bitter and ireful rebukes, if not teaching, yet leaving excuseless those his wilful impugners.
36. What was all in him, was divided among many others the teachers of his church ;(33) some
(32) The word idéa, is here used according to its primitive signification, for “ form,” and not in the philosophical sense in which it was afterwards employed by Locke.
(33) In no treatise that we have seen of pulpit oratory is there any thing for power and truth comparable to this. The personification of zeal approaches, in poetical daring, whatever is
to be severe and ever of a sad gravity, that they may win such, and check sometimes those who be of nature over-confident and jocund; others were sent more cheerful, free, and still as it were at large, in the midst of an untrespassing honesty ; that they who are so tempered, may have by whom they might be drawn to salvation, and they who are too scrupulous, and dejected of spirit, might be often strengthened with wise consolations and revivings: no man being forced wholly to dissolve that groundwork of nature which God created in him, the sanguine to empty out all his sociable liveliness, the choleric to expel quite the unsinning predominance of his anger; but that each radical humour and passion, wrought upon and corrected as it ought, might be made the proper mould and
tues. Some also were indued with a staid moderation and soundness of argument, to teach and convince the rational and soberminded; yet not therefore that to be thought the only expedient course of teaching, for in times of opposition, when either against new heresies arising, or old corrup
boldest and most elevated in Paradise Lost;” and the graphic description of the many various styles of preaching, originating in the personal character and physical organization of the ministers, bespeaks a skill and an acuteness of discrimination worthy of Aristotle himself. His conception of the manner of Luther, which perfectly agrees with what Bossuet, in his “Histoire des Variations,” relates of the fiery eloquence of that great reformer, differs very little from the idea which a just critic must form of his own style; and, indeed, he appears to have felt the resemblance.