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phyic, (13) that they may know the tempers, the humours, the seasons, and how to manage a crudity; which he who can wisely and timely do, is not only a great physician to himself and to his friends, but also may, at some time or other, save an army by this frugal and expenseless means only; and not let the healthy and stout bodies of young men rot away under him for want of this discipline; which is a great pity, and no less a shame to the commander.('4) To set forward all these
virtue and the hatred of vice,” &c. vide below, S. 14. Now let us see whether Socrates be for Milton or Johnson. In the Phædrus, where he exalts the wisdom and eloquence of Pericles above those of his contemporaries, he is led to explain to his enthusiastic companion by what arts and pursuits the great statesman had acquired his power, and the consummate skill with which he wielded it; and amongst those means, next after the vast genius which nature had bestowed on hini, Socrates reckons the knowledge of physics acquired under Anaxagoras of Clazomenæ. “For, from these studies,” says he,“ proceed loftiness of mind, and the power to accomplish whatever may be undertaken : Tò ydp út náóvovv TOŪTO kai navTY TELEOLOVPyòv ŽOLKE V ŠVTEūCév modɛv eloleval.- Platon. Oper. i. 87. edit. Bekk. He undoubtedly considered civil wisdom superior to scientific knowledge, and so did Milton.
(13) Like Locke, Milton is said to have been fond of the study of medicine, and, by unskilfully tampering with it, to have injured his sight. But this report appears to rest on no good foundation.
(14) That quaint and enthusiastic soldier, Le Cointe, in his “ Commentaire sur la Retraite des Dix Mille,” enumerating the studies of a military man, does not set down a knowledge of medicine, unless, indeed, it be included in the word “physique,” which strictly signifies “natural philosophy.” In the early ages of the world, before science had branched off into numerous divisions, a good general was both a physician and a soldier ;
proceedings in nature and mathematics, what hinders but that they may procure, as oft as shall be needful, the helpful experience of hunters, fowlers, fishermen, shepherds, gardeners, apothecaries; (15) and in the other sciences, architects, engineers, mariners, anatomists; who doubtless would be ready, some for reward, and some to favour such a hopeful seminary. And this will give them such a real tincture of natural knowledge, as they shall never forget, but daily augment with delight. Then also those poets (16) which are now counted most hard, will be both facile and pleasant, Orpheus, Hesiod, Theocritus, Aratus, Nicander, Oppian, Dionysius; and in Latin, Lucretius, Manilius, and the rural part of Virgil.
14. By this time, years and good general precepts, will have furnished them more distinctly with that act of reason which in ethics is called Proairesis; that they may with some judgment contemplate upon moral good and evil. Then will be required a special reinforcement of constant and sound indoctrinating, to set them right and firm, instructing them more amply in the knowledge of virtue and the hatred of vice; while their
and, to say the least, the knowledge of physic might not be wholly useless to the commander of an army even in our own days.
(15) Baron Fellenberg has, to a certain extent, realized Milton's system at Hoffwyll.
(16) These poets, though they seem to make up a formidable list of authors, might in reality, by any one familiar with the Greek and Latin languages, be read in a very short time. None of them are voluminous ; and several, the language once mastered, might be read in a day.
young and pliant affections are led through all the moral works of Plato, Xenophon, Cicero, Plutarch, Laertius, and those Locrian remnants; () but still to be reduced in their nightward studies wherewith they close the day's work, under the determinate sentence of David or Solomon, or the evangelists and apostolic Scriptures. Being persect in the knowledge of personal duty, they may then begin the study of economics. (18) And either now or before this, they may have easily learned, at any odd hour, the Italian tongue. And soon after, but with wariness and good antidote, it would be wholesome enough to let them taste some choice comedies, Greek, Latin, or Italian ; those tragedies also, that treat of household matters, as Trachiniæ, Alcestis, and the like.
15. The next removal must be to the study of politics; to know the beginning, end, and reasons
(17) Timæus of Locris, who flourished about 390 B. C. was one of the masters of Plato. There remains, under his name, a treatise written in the Doric dialect, IIepi fuxãç koopov kai dúolog: that is, “On the Soul of the World, and Nature.” Its authenticity has been much disputed. In 1762, the Marquis d'Argens published at Berlin the Greek text, accompanied by a French translation, with philosophical dissertations.
(18) The works here alluded to are, 1. the 'Olkovouiròs ·lóyos, of Xenophon, a Socratic dialogue, containing instructive details on Greek agriculture, and several anecdotes of the younger Cyrus. Cicero translated the work into Latin. 2. The Oikovopikd, attributed to Aristotle, but falsely, according to Schneider, who published a new edition of it, in 1815, at Leipsic. And, 3. The Tewtovikà of Cassianus Bassus, which, amidst much that is worthless, contains many curious and interesting particulars.
of political societies ;(19) that they may not, in a dangerous fit of the commonwealth, be such poor, shaken, uncertain reeds, of such a tottering conscience, as many of our great counsellors have lately shown themselves, but steadfast pillars of the state. After this, they are to dive into the grounds of law, and legal justice; delivered first and with best warrant by Moses; and as far as human prudence can be trusted, in those extolled remains of Grecian lawgivers, Lycurgus, Solon, Zaleucus, Charondas, and thence to all the Roman edicts and tables with their Justinian: and so down to the Saxon and common laws of England, and the statutes.
16. Sundays also and every evening may be now understandingly spent in the highest matters of theology, and church history, ancient and modern; and ere this time the Hebrew tongue at a set hour might have been gained, that the Scriptures may be now read in their own original ; whereto it would be no impossibility to add the Chaldee and the Syrian dialect.(?) When all these employments are well conquered, then will the choice histories, heroic poems, and Attic tragedies of stateliest and most regal argument, with all the famous political orations, offer themselves; which if they were not only read, but some of them got by me
(19) Politics were studied as a science in Milton's age; and the taste appears to be reviving in England.
(20) He here recommends nothing but what he himself understood.
mory, (o) and solemnly pronounced with right accent and grace, as might be taught, would endue them even with the spirit and vigour of Demosthenes or Cicero, Euripides or Sophocles.
17. And now, lastly, will be the time to read with them those organic arts, which enable men to discourse and write perspicuously, elegantly, and according to the fittest style, of lofty, mean, or lowly. Logic, (22) therefore, so much as is useful, is to be referred to this due place with all her wellcouched heads and topics, until it be time to open her contracted palm into a graceful and ornate rhetoric, taught out of the rule of Plato, Aristotle, Phalereus, Cicero, Hermogenes, Longinus. (93) To which poetry would be made subsequent, or indeed rather precedent, as being less subtile and fine, but more simple, sensuous, and passionate. I mean not here the prosody of a verse, which they
(21) From the Phædrus we learn it was the practice among the young men of Athens to commit entire speeches to memory. Xenophon, in the Memorabilia, introduces a youth who could repeat the whole Iliad; Cicero, De Oratore, speaks with commendation of this kind of mental exercise ; and it may be observed, generally, that the science of mnemonics was cultivated much more carefully among the ancients than it has ever been in modern times.
(22) In 1672, Milton himself published a work on Logic, entitled “Artis Logicæ Plenior Institutio, ad Petri Rami Methodum Concinnata, Adjecta est Praxis Analytica, et Patri Rami Vita. Libris Duobus.”
(23) To these should undoubtedly be added Quinctilian and Vossius, the latter of whom has, by his compendious Rhetoric, done good service to the cause of eloquence. Of this work the second and best edition was published at Leyden, 1637.