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our ports, and bad ones. First see that the ship is classed in Lloyd's Register Al.

“ We abridge the following from Lloyd's Register,' a mysterious volume, which is issued annually to subscribers only, and posted up in London from month to month:

First Class.-A 1 is a title granted to ships built in the best manner, and kept in a state of complete efficiency. To retain the title they must be surveyed at certain fixed periods. N.B. The “ Lloyd's Register” of the year contains the name of every seaworthy vessel, and is in the possession of every respectable ship and insurance broker.

666* Æ, printed in red, and commonly called the red-diphthong, is granted to such ships as shall be found, on survey, to be of a superior description, being fit for the safe conveyance of dry and perishable goods to and from all parts the world. To claim this distinction, the ship must undergo a special survey by two surveyors, to be appointed by Lloyd's Committee.

«Æ in black ink, without the asterisk, is inferior to the preceding. N.B. The government emigration commissioners never take up any vessel classed below the red diphthong.

. Second Class.-E designates ships, on survey, found unfit for carrying dry cargoes, but perfectly fit for the conveyance on any voyage of cargoes not in their nature subject to sea damage.

« Third Class.I. Ships, on survey, fit for conveyance on short voyages (not out of Europe) of cargoes in their nature not subject to sea damage.'

There are not less than one thousand four hundred ships in ' Lloyd's Register' which have no character assigned to them.

“There is no especial advantage in a very large ship over a moderate size_say from five hundred to seven hundred tons register—if there be a height of not less than six feet between decks, seven feet being better. Ships are sometimes advertised so many tons burden, instead of register; this is a mere clap-trap deception.

Tons burden refer to cargoes of coal, or ore packed in bulk; tons register are the measurement affecting live freight. The next point is ventilation. Taking a berth in a ship to Australia is like taking apartments with no exit for four months. No man would consent to live for four months in a room without a window, and without a chimney for the escape of foul air. Many fine ships go to sea with passengers whose berths have no windows; that is to say, in sea language, scuttles opening upon them, and no air-pipes, so that, when the hatchways are shut down in rough weather, the passengers stand the risk of being, if not quite stifled, half poisoned.

“By a very simple contrivance, at a trifling expense, pipes may be, and are in some ships, arranged to bring in the pure air, and carry off the foul air, of two hundred souls, eating, drinking, and sleeping down stairs,' as ladies call the 'tween decks. Attention to this point is essen

tial to the health of passengers, but especially to that of young children; and young children are great incentives to emigration. Ships carrying patent fuel and other foul cargoes are not healthy for intermediate passengers, as proved by an arrival last year in Adelaide of a shipload of sick passengers.

“A wicker-covered stone or glass bottle will be found handy for keeping the supply of water. Thirst is better removed by washing out the mouth and lips than by drinking, when water is scarce. Fathers of families, when making bargains for their children, must take care or they will get only half or quarter rations for growing boys and girls, and the same space for the same proportion of price. In the tropics the children are constantly crying for drink.

“A written engagement with the broker is advisable, specifying the name of ship; date at which it is to sail from London and Plymouth, or other port; the exact berth or cabin; and the scale of provisions and the quantity of luggage allowed, exclusive of the space in the cabin or berth, which ought not to be charged for. All this, if settled with a respectable broker, will save many disputes. Parties have been put to much expense by being compelled to stay, day after day, at the port of embarkation at an hotel or lodging, after the date fixed by advertisement for the sailing of the ship. The amount of luggage allowed each passenger is calculated by superficial feet, a mysterious mode of measurement to the uninitiated. A gentleman lately found a man in his cabin measuring not only his cot and violin-case, but his packets of lamp candles.

Among extra stores for comfort on the voyage, it is well to name effervescing powders, a few pickles, a bottle of really good lime juice (that usually supplied to emigrants is horrible stuff), a few boxes of sardines or anchovies or potted herrings, and a little tea and sugar of the best quality, for use when the cook or steward is not ready to serve any out.

“On the day the ship sails there is often so much confusion, and the cook is frequently so drunk, that there are no meals to be had. It is therefore well to provide a sort of pic-nic provision in a basket for the first day's dinner and supper."

It is essential for the health of the passengers that a certain space should be left for their exercise ; the poop is reserved for the cabin passengers; and not unfrequently the space between decks, which the passenger when he takes his passage finds all clear, is almost filled up with additional cabins when he goes on board.

Inquire where and how the crew are accommodated: if they are not comfortable, and completely separated from the passengers, the

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passengers, especially those intermediate and steerage, will suffer in more ways than one. The cooking arrangements ought to be in proportion to the number of the passengers.

The quality and supply of water and the number of water-closets are most important points.

With respect to provisions, the scale of the Family Colonization Society is a good guide for intermediate and steerage passengers. Cabin passengers should have a written agreement. Indeed, in all cases, a distinct written agreement, leaving nothing to be understood, would save a world of disputes and disappointments.

Cabin passengers who take live sea stock will find ducks stand a voyage better than fowls. Fowls intended for sea should be cooped a week or ten days previously, and the most mopy ones draughted out : all cockerels and no hens are best. In any case poultry require a great deal more attention than they usually get, and especially more water, and to be kept clean.

It does no harm to inquire who the surgeon is; very often a mere boy or a scamp is engaged at the last moment.

The comfort of the passengers depends greatly on the character and temper of the captain ; but on that point, unless from the report of friends who have gone before, it is impossible to obtain any reliable evidence. The man who is most amiable in port is often a perfect brute at sea.

But, brute or no, unless in very extreme cases, it is neither proper nor prudent to resist the authority of the captain, who is, and ought to be, for the safety of the ship under his charge, an autocrat at sea.

Many persons lay out elaborate plans of study to be executed on a voyage; few have resolution enough to execute them; too many spend their whole time in eating, drinking, smoking, card-playing, and scandalizing. To warn against such idle waste of time would be useless. A number of one-volume double-columned editions of standard works will often be gradually digested at sea by even the most frivolous skimmer of novels and romances. Having useful books at hand and nothing to do often leads to a course of study.

Passengers' baggage should be divided into three parts: one including a good bag of leather or carpet for use in cabin ; another for use on voyage, which will go into the hold and be brought up occasionally; and the third to be stowed away until the end of the voyage.

Very large chests are inconvenient to get on shore, and to convey up the country. Most emigrants of any means encumber themselves with too much baggage.

Letters of Introduction. Letters of introduction, except to introduce a rich man, are seldom of much use in any country: in an Australian colony they are especially useless, because repectable residents are overwhelmed with them. The system is often as follows :-Jack Johnson, jun., being about to emigrate, Johnson père speaks to Thompson, who knows Jenkins, who has a third cousin, Thompson, at Adelaide ; and Jack becomes the bearer of a sheet of Bath post addressed to Tomkins. Tomkins may or may not remember his cousin ; at any rate he dismisses the Johnson fils in half a dozen commonplace sentences, and at best, but that is rare, asks him to dinner, and there the business ends.

Letters to the governor, the bishop, or the chief justice, obtained at third hand, are even injurious : they excite expectations which are never realized, and put the bearer to the expense of an elaborate costume which is quite wasted.

The only useful introductions are from a personal friend of the emigrant to a personal friend. In nine cases out of ten the merchants and others resident in Australian towns are not to be trusted as advisers for investments. They generally have some hard bargains to dispose of—a bad run, a flock of scabby sheep, or a mob of wild cattle.

It is better, therefore, to have no letters than sham letters, or letters that lead the introduced straight into the den of some fox. The letter of credit is the best letter, if a man knows how to take care of it. Well-authenticated certificates of character are of great value.

Sea Sickness. Although there is no cure, eating simple food for a week before going on board, avoiding what is greasy or rich, and a little blue pill, so as to get rid of any bilious tendency, will do wonders.





THE first thing that emigrants generally do on landing is to make

themselves ill by a jollification, followed by stuffing in fish and fruit for a week or two, and then to fall into very desponding spirits, and write home despairing letters.

The wise plan is to commence by taking a series of baths, warm or cold according to the season, to eat very sparingly of fresh meat, bread, and fruit, and other viands too delicious to the sea-traveller wearied of salt junk, preserved meat, and all the makeshifts, for the produce of gardens and pastures. Walks or rides, or both, will be found much needed to get rid of extra flesh accumulated in sixteen weeks' idleness. Neither mind nor body is worth much when out of condition.

The capitalist will commence a round of visits and dinner parties preparatory to a tour of exploration.

The family man of small capital will take a cheap cottage or unfurnished rooms for his family before deciding on future progress. During the present rush to the diggings parties going to Port Phillip require a tent. If possible he will engage a cottage as soon as he leaves the ship, so as to save the extravagant charges of inns and hotels. The single man of moderate means will take refuge in a boarding-house. All, no matter whether they have ten thousand or one hundred pounds to invest, will, if they are wise, allow at least one year to elapse before deciding on any investment, however tempting.

Although it is more possible to do without money in a colony than in an old country, money is more valuable and increases faster in a colony, and therefore it is a great point to save as much as possible ; in fact, it is one of the great advantages of cutting off the entail of old connections by emigration, that it enables you

to save. To this end the newly-arrived colonist cannot begin too soon. According to our experience, it is very seldom worth while, even in England, to lay out half or a quarter, even ten, per cent. of your fortune, unless you belong to a plate-glass window trade, or genteel profession, in keeping up appearances. Some strenuously advise gentlemen obliged by “the pressure from without” to keep up the

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