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"Hactenus de mundo ipfo, fideribufque, nunc reliqua coeli memorabilia, namque et hoc cœlum appellavere majores, quod alio nomine aëra omne quod inani fimile, vitalem hunc fpiritum fundit, infra lunam hæc fedes, multoque inferior." "I have hitherto difcourfed of the world itself, and of the ftars; it now remains to treat of other particulars worthy to be related of heaven, for our ancestors called that heaven, which diffusing a vital fpirit round, is commonly known by the name of air,"
9. And God faid, let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear, and it was fo.
Anaxagoras has given us a defcription of the primary arrangement and adjustment of matter in thefe words, New μεν αρχήν κινήσεώς των δε σωμαίων τα μεν βαρία, τον κατα τόπον, ως την γην, τα δε κεφα τον ανω επισχειν ως το πυρ, υδωρ δε και τον αέρα. "An intelligent mind, the origin of motion, caused heavy bodies to defcend to a lower station; and fuch as were light, as fire, water, and air, to rife to fuperior ftations."
10. And God called the dry land, earth;
and the gathering together of the waters called he feas, and God faw that it was good.".
II." And God faid, let the earth bring forth the tender grafs, Nw win the herb yielding feed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whofe feed is in itself upon the earth, and it was fo."
Strabo fays, that Nature and Providence co-operating in creation, arranged Matter in its prefent order. That having formed the earth in the midft of the water, from the latter was formed all forts of fish; and that as man was to be made of a nature capable of enjoying both land and water, Providence hollowed great portions of the earth into which he poured the waters, fo as to make the land appear, which was afterwards furnished with fuitable living creatures.
That beautiful paffage of Arrianus in Epictetus, fhould not here be omitted. Τεταγμένως, καθαπερ εκ προςαγματος Θεό, όταν εκείνος είπη, TOL φυτοις ανδειν ανθει. οταν ειπη Ελασανειν, βλαςανει, όταν εκφέρειν τον κάμπον, εκφερει οταν πεπαινειν, πεπαίνει. “In regular order, as by divine command, when he fays to the plants, flourish, they flourish; when he fays germinate, they germinate; when bear fruit, they bear it; when come to maturity, they ripen."
The following lines which Cicero quotes and his own remarks, in his firft Book of Tufculan Queftions, are fo fimilar and beautifully picturesque, that I must insert them.
Non intermittit fuo tempore,
"Tum multitudinem pecudum partim ad vefcendum partim ad cultus agrorum, partim ad vehendum, partim ad corpora veftienda hominemque ipfum quafi contemplatorem cæli ac deorum, ipforumque cultorem, atque hominis utilitati agros omnes & maria parentia, &c.
Nor intermits each feafon of the year,
The joyful vines luxuriant vintage yield,
“Then when we behold the multitude and diversity of cattle, fome defigned to cultivate the land, fome to carry burdens, and others to supply cloathing; and when we behold
man himself, formed as it were to contemplate the Heaven, and adore the Gods, and both land and water fubfervient to his use; I fay, when we behold these, and innumerable other things, how is it poffible not to acknowledge fome divine Maker!" And thus we must acknowledge
"The earth brought forth grafs, and the herb yielding feed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whofe feed is in itfelf; and God faw that it was good."
The words of Arrianus on Epictetus are an excellent counterpart to these words.
13. "And the evening and the morning were the third day."
14. “ And God faid let there be lights in the firmament of Heaven, to divide the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for feafons, and for days and for years."
The alternate change from light to darknefs, which is obvious to the moft illiterate, would never have been fufficient for an accurate determination of time; for this purpose a reference must be made, not merely to the fun and moon, but alfo to the fixt ftars, without which all obfervations would be
be fruitlefs and it is but in thefe latter ages that mankind became fully fenfible of the force and propriety of the words of Mofes ; yet we can, among the Gentile philosophers, find fhrewd gueffes, efpecially in the works of Plato :-χρονος δεν μετ ουρανου γεγονεν, ινα αμα γενηθέντες, αμα και λυθωσιν. Ηλιος και Σεληνη και πέντε αλλα αερα, επίκλην έχοντα πλανητες, εις διοριςμον και φυλακην αρίθμων προνυ γεγόνε και "Time therefore originated with heaven, and as they both came into existence together, they may also be deftroyed together. The fun and the moon, and the five other stars which are called planets, were made for an accurate diftinction, and commemoration of time."
I fhall close this with the words of Claudian:
Ille pater rerum qui tempora dividit aftris.
15. "And let them be for lights in the firmament of heaven, to give light upon the carth, and it was fo."
16." And God made two great lights, the greater light to rule the day, and the leffer light to rule the night - he made the stars alfo."
Pliny, in the fixth chapter of his fecond book of Natural Hiftory, has expreffed him