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attempted to be poisoned, when too late in life to be replaced by new affections. I had for sometime observed in the public papers, dark hints and mysterious innuendoes of a correspondence of yours with a friend, to whom you had opened your bosom without reserve, and which was to be made public by that friend or his representative. And now it is said to be actually published. It has not yet reached us, but extracts have been given, and such as seemed most likely to draw a curtain of separation between you and myself. Were there no other motive than that of indignation against the author of this outrage on private confidence, whose shaft seems to have been aimed at yourself more particularly, this would make it the duty of every honorable mind to disappoint that aim, by opposing to its impression a seven-fold shield of apathy and insensibility. With me, however, no such armor is needed. The circumstances of the times in which we have happened to live, and the partiality of our friends at a particular period, placed us in a state of apparent opposition, which some might suppose to be personal also; and there might not be wanting those who wished to make it so, by filling our ears with malig. nant falsehoods, by dressing up hideous phantoms of their own creation, presenting them to you under my name, to me under yours, and endeav. oring to instil into our minds things concerning each other the most destitute of truth. And if there had been, at any time, a moment when we were off our guard, and in a temper to let the whispers of these people make us forget what we had known of each other for so many years, and years of so much trial, yet all men who have attended to the workings of the human mind, who have seen the false colors under which passion sometimes dresses the actions and motives of others, have seen also those passions subsiding with time and reflection, dissipating like mists before the rising sun, and restoring to us the sight of all things in their true shape and colors. It would be strange, indeed, if, at our years, we were to go back an age to hunt up imaginary or forgotten facts, to disturb the repose of affections so sweetening to the evening of our lives. Be assured, my dear sir, that I am incapable of receiving the slightest impression from the effort now made to plant thorns on the pillow of age, worth and wisdom, and to sow tares between friends who have been such for near half a century. Beseeching you, then, not to suffer your mind to be disquieted by this wicked attempt to poison its peace, and praying you to throw it by among the things which have never happened, I add sincere assurances of my unabated and constant attachment, friendship, and respect.

MONTICELLO, 12 October, 1823.

Declaration of Independence.

“In Congress, July 4, 1776."



[Written by Thomas Jefferson. After certain Amendments, adopted in its present form

by the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled at Philadelphia, on Thursday, 4 July, 1776.- The following text, punctuation excepted, is from the Fac-Simile of the original Document.]

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WIEN, in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for

one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume, among the Powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights; that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That, to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, - That, whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Govern. ment, laying its foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and, accordingly, all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to

uffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But, when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies, and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world:

He has refused his Assent to Laws the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and press

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When in the course of human events it heermes recepsary for preople to

Fac-simile of Jefferson's Revised Draft of the Declaration

of Independence.

a Declaration ly the Representatives of the UNTED STATES OF AMERICA. in General Congress assembled

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to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with

her and thing as sume among the powers of the earth the parate and equal tout station to which the laws of nature & of nature s god entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the top reparation

We hold these truths to be a hood sorodot;, that all men an created equal, finskayportant, that

is regnetoneel they dermed on their inherent Binalienable among Hayopata life liberty, & the pressuit of happiness, that to secure these rings, go. wernments are institited

among deriving their just powers from






the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government

These becomes destituie of these ends, it is the night of the people te allen corto abolish it, fto instituti new government, laying it's foundation

rech principles & organising it's powers in such form, as to them thell veem most likely to effect their safety & happrirew. friedener indeed will dichate that governments long established whoreld not be changed for light transient causes: and accordingly all expenence hath shown that mankind are more

disposed to suffer while wils are sufferable, than to right themselvesly abolishing the forms to which they are sccustomed when a long train of abuses & usurpations, [began at a distinguished period & pursuing invariably

same mjeet

object, evinces a desin to radijat reduce them tenker at it is their right, it is their duty to throws off such government H to provide new quards for their future veeunty

. voch har been the patient sufferance of these colonces, & such is now the nece which constrains them to fumprunget their former systems of government.

now the necessity thing of Gred Britain the history of his present requity history oflenremittendinguries and usurpations, Caming which, sprean pres velisan fact

to contradict the

uniform tenor of the rest, att of the Ravelin direct object the
cobablishment of an absolute Tyranny over these states to prove this, bet factube
submitted to a candid world for the truth I which we pledge a faith
yot unsullied by falsehood
he has refused his awent to laws the most wholesome and necessary for the pred
kehas fortidden his governors to prasilaus feinmediate Xpressingisyporhence,

wnlus vus pended in their operation till his assent should be dtained,
and whervo suspended, he has the flecked steady to attend to them.



-lic goods

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he has refused to pass other lows for the accomodation flange district. I people

imlers those people would relinquish the rights repreventation, a right

inestimable to them & formidable to tyrants only: he has called together legiólshisi boties at placeó unusual, uncomfortable, & distant from

the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance

with his measures; he has dissolved Representative houses repeatedly continually for opposing with

manly firmness his invasions on the nights of the people: strated he has refused for a long grace and to cause others to be elect] Whereby the leziolative power, mapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise, the olate remaining in the meantine

exposed to all the dangers of invasion from withoret & comerilerons within he has endeavored to prevent the population of these stater; for that purpose destructing the laws for naturalization of forciqners; refusing to press others

their migrations hither, & raising the conditions ofreu op. .promationeraf lands: he has not yet read the admirishatin 1 justiettäily to cease insene

ale per refusing his assent to lows for cetablishing giudiciary prowers he has made Lour] puedges dependant on his will alone, for the tenure of their office

& paynent and amount of their salaries: he has erected a multitude of office[by a self-rasumb power]bvent ke-ther swarme d Oficis to harass our people & eat out their substance.


without the consent of ourn he has kept among us in times of peace wiarding armies 8-whipe dlwang he has affected to render the military

, independent qI superior to the civil prower: he has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreignto our constatar

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