« AnteriorContinuar »
attempted to be poisoned, when too late in life to be replaced by new affections. I had for sometime observed in the public papers, dark hints and mysterious innuendoes of a correspondence of yours with a friend, to whom you had opened your bosom without reserve, and which was to be made public by that friend or his representative. And now it is said to be actually published. It has not yet reached us, but extracts have been given, and such as seemed most likely to draw a curtain of separation between you and myself. Were there no other motive than that of indignation against the author of this outrage on private confidence, whose shaft seems to have been aimed at yourself more particularly, this would make it the duty of every honorable mind to disappoint that aim, by opposing to its impression a seven-fold shield of apathy and insensibility. With me, however, no such armor is needed. The circumstances of the times in which we have happened to live, and the partiality of our friends at a particular period, placed us in a state of apparent opposition, which some might suppose to be personal also; and there might not be wanting those who wished to make it so, by filling our ears with malig nant falsehoods, by dressing up hideous phantoms of their own creation, presenting them to you under my name, to me under yours, and endeavoring to instil into our minds things concerning each other the most destitute of truth. And if there had been, at any time, a moment when we were off our guard, and in a temper to let the whispers of these people make us forget what we had known of each other for so many years, and years of so much trial, yet all men who have attended to the workings of the human mind, who have seen the false colors under which passion sometimes dresses the actions and motives of others, have seen also those passions subsiding with time and reflection, dissipating like mists before the rising sun, and restoring to us the sight of all things in their true shape and colors. It would be strange, indeed, if, at our years, we were to go back an age to hunt up imaginary or forgotten facts, to disturb the repose of affections so sweetening to the evening of our lives. Be assured, my dear sir, that I am incapable of receiving the slightest impression from the effort now made to plant thorns on the pillow of age, worth and wisdom, and to sow tares between friends who have been such for near half a century. Beseeching you, then, not to suffer your mind to be disquieted by this wicked attempt to poison its peace, and praying you to throw it by among the things which have never happened, I add sincere assurances of my unabated and constant attachment, friendship, and respect.
MONTICELLO, 12 October, 1823.
Declaration of Independence.
"In Congress, July 4, 1776."
"THE UNANIMOUS DECLARATION OF THE THIRTEEN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA."
[Written by Thomas Jefferson. After certain Amendments, adopted in its present form by the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled at Philadelphia, on Thursday, 4 July, 1776.—The following text, punctuation excepted, is from the Fac-Simile of the original Document.]
HEN, in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume, among the Powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights; that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That, to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,--That, whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and, accordingly, all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But, when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies, and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world: He has refused his Assent to Laws the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and
Fac-simile of Jefferson's Revised
Draft of the Declaration
A Declaration by the Representatives of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, in General Congress assembled
When in the course of human events it beermes necey.
for to people to
with another, and to
dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to of to) as dodati hink they bunch theate eparate and equal
the powers of the earth the mall stoportant station to which the laws of nature & of nature's god entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation
We hold these bruths to be self-evident that all men are
they are endowed by this creator with a created equal, findspondant; that from that equal creation they derive rights; that rights inherent inalienable, among which are the
life liberty, & the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these mines,
-vernments are institited
men, deriving their just powers from
the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government Should becomes destrective of these ends, it is the right of the people to alles or to abolish it, &to institute new government, laying it's foundation on such principles Vorganising it's powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety & happiness. predence indeed will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light & transient causes: and accordingly all expenence hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer white wils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed but when a long train of abuses &'usurpations [begun at adistinguished previed 8] pursuing invariably the same
object, evinces a design to radijo reduce absolute Despotion it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such
ther. tombes, government & to provide new quards for their future security, such has
been the patient sufferance of these colonces, & such is now the necessity which constrains them to [expunge their former systems of government.
the history of his present_wisqunty,
usurpations, [among which appear for any party to contra
uniform tenor of the rest, falt of which [have] in direct object the cstablishment of an absolute tyranny over these states. to prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world, [ for the truth of which we pledge a faith yot unsullied by falsehood]
he has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and necessary for the pub -lic good:
he has forbidden his governors to passlaws of immediate & pressing importance,
unless suspended in their operation till his assent should be obtained,
and whenvo suspended, he has neglected stoly to attend to them.
he has refused to press other laws for the accomodation of large districts of people
in the legislature.
imbers those people would relinquish the right of representation, a right
inestimable to them & formidable to tyrants only:
he has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, & distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance
with his measures;
he has dissolved Representative houses repeatedly [& continually for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the nights of the people:
ed, he has refused for a long opas of time to cause others to be cleared wherely the legislative power, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise, the state remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without & convrilsions within: he has endeavored to prevent the population of these states; for that purpose dstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners; refusing to pass others encourage their migrations their migrations hither, & raising the conditions of new ap. -propriations, of lands:
he has suffered the administration of justice [totally to cease in some of these
and amount of their salaries :
he has erected a multitude of. offices [by a self-assumed power] & vent hi-
Legislatures without the consent of our
he has kept among us in times of peace, sanding armies & ships of war] he has affected to render the military, independent of & superior to the civil prower: he has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitu