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favour to him (that had been her mother's chaplain) being once above the reft greatly feafted; at her parting from thence, the archbishop and his wife being together, the gave him very fpecial thanks, with gratious and honourable termes, and then looking on his wife, and you (faith fhe) madam, I may not call you, and Mrs. I am afhamed to call you, fo I know not what to call you, but yet I do thank you.

It is true, the mifliked marriage in bishops, and was not very forward to allow that, in fome of the layety; for I knew one of good place about her, that had contracted himself to a rich widdow, and yet would not adventure to marry her, till he had gotten the queen to write, for that, which he had obtained before, to the intent, that the queen, reputing that as her benefit, might not diflike with her own act. But for clergymen, cæteris paribus, and fometime imparibus too, the prefered the fingle man, before the married.

Of Archbishop EDMOND GRINDALL.

Of Mr. Edmond Grindall, whereas my authour writes he was blind, I have heard by fome (that knew fomewhat in thofe dayes) that he kept his houfe upon a ftrange occafion, the fecret whereof is known to few, and the certainty is not eafie to find out, but thus I was told, that

There was an Italian doctor (as I take that of phyfick) that having a known wife a lyar, yet bearing himself on the countenance of fome great lord, did marry another gentlewoman, (which to do now, is by moft godly laws fince made felony). This good archbishop, not winking at fo publick a fcandall, convented him for that, and proceeded by ecclefiaftical cenfures against him; letters were prefently written by this great lord, to the archbishop, to ftop the proceeding, to tolerate, to difpenfe, or to mitigate the cenfure; but the bishop remained ftill unmoved and unmoveable; when no fubjects entreaty could be found to prevail, they intreat the foveraign to write in the Doctors behalf; but this John Baptift not only perfifted in his non licet habere eam, but also in a reverent fashion, required an account of her majefties faith, in that the would feem to write in a manner that (if he were truly informed) was exprefly against the word of God. The queen in a gracious difpofition, was purposed to have yielded an account in writing; but the great Lord not onely diffwaded her from that, as too great an indignity; but incenfed her exceedingly against him; whereupon he was privately commanded to keep his houfe; where because he was fome what troubled with fore eyes, his friends gave out that he was blind. But if he were blind, that was like to the foothfayer Tyrefias that forefaw and told Pentheus ruine, as Ovid writes,

Et veniet, nec enim dignabere numen honore,
Meq; fub his tenebris nimium vidiffe quereris.

For that lord, that fo perfecuted this prelate about his phyfitian's two wives, dying twenty years fince, left two wives behind him, that can hardly be yet agreed which was his lawfull wife; and fo much for archbifhop Grindall.

Doctor WHITEGYFTE.

Upon the deceafe of archbishop Grindall, the ftate defirous to have a learned and discreet perfon, in fo eminent a place; and the queen refolved to admit none, but a fingle man; choyce was made of Doctor Whitegyfte, then bishop of Worcester, a man in many respects very

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happy, and in the beft judgments very worthy. He was noted for a man of great learning in Cambridge, and he was grown to his full ripeness of reading and judgment; even then, when thofe that they called Puritans (and fome meerely define to be Proteftants fear'd out of their wits) did not begin by the plot of fome great ones, but by the pen of Mr. Cartwright, to defend their new difcipline.

Their endeavour as was pretended to reduce all, in fhow, at least to the purity, but indeed to the poverty, of the primitive churches.

Thefe books of Mr. Cartwright, not unlearnedly written, were more learnedly answered by Doctor Whitegyfte. Both had their reward; for Mr. Cartwright, was by private favour placed about Coventry, where he grew rich, and had great maintenance to live on, and honoured as a patriarck, by many of that profeffion. Doctor Whitegyfte was made bishop of Worcester, and there having a great good report of houfkeeping, and governing the marches of Walles, he was (as my authour hath told, called unto Canterbury. While he was bifhop of Worcester, though the revenew of that be not very great, yet his cuftom was to come to the parliament very well attended, which was a fashion the queen liked exceeding well. It happened one day bifhop Elmer of London, meeting this bishop with fuch an orderly troop of tawny coats, and demanding of him, how he could keep fo many men, he answered, it was by reafon he kept fo few women.

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Being made archbishop of Canterbury, and of the privy councel, he carried himself in that mild, and charitable courfe, that he was not onely approved greatly by all the clergy of England, but even fome of thofe, whom with his pen he might feem to have wounded; mean these called Puritans, of whom he won divers by sweet perfwafions to conformity. In the ftar-chamber, he used to deliver his fentence in good fashion, ever leaning to the milder cenfure as beft became his calling. He was a great ftay in court and councel, to all oppreffions of the church, though that current was fome time fo violent, as one man's force could not stop that.

He founded an hofpitall in or nigh Croyden, and placed poor men therein, in his own life time, and being grown to a full age, that he might fay with St. Paul, Bonum certamen certavi, curfum confeci, &c. he was fo happy as to give to his fovereign and preferrer, the laft fpirituall comfort the took in this world (I hope to her eternall comfort) and after that, he not onely joined with the other lords, for the proclaiming of King James, but on St. James his day following, did fet the crown on his head, and anointed him with oyl; and fo having first seen the church fetled under a religious king, and the crown established in a hopefull fucceffion, he fell into a palfey, to which he had been formerly subject, and with no long and painfull ficknefs, he yielded to nature, deferving well this epitaph, written by a young scholar of Oxford, who was with me at the writing hereof.

& omen,

Candida dona tibi Whitegyfte, funt nomen,
Candidiora tuis munera nemo dedit.

Nomen habes niveis infcriptum nunc ergo lapillis,
Et ftola, pro meritis redditur alba tuis.

Doctor RICHARD BANCROFT.

Upon the death of archbishop Whiteguift, divers worthy men were named in the vacancy.

His majesty not after the manner of fome

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princes, feeking to keep that vacant, but rather haftning to fill that. The bifhops of Durham and Winchester were, as it were, voce populi, made competitors with the bishop of London, rather by their eminence of merit and learning, than by any known defire, or endeavour of them or their friends. Wherein methinks, by the way, envy it felf cannot but gratulate the church of England, that is fo furnished with learned bishops, as if choyce had been to be made, not by a judicious prince, but by the fortune of a lot among thofe three, and many more beside, that could not have fallen amifs. But his majefty had long fince understood of his writing against the Genevifing, and Scotizing minifters; and though fome imagined he had therein given the king fome diftafte, yet finding him, in the difputations at Hampton Court, both learned and ftout, he did more and more increafe his liking to him; fo that although in the common rumour, Thoby Matthew then bishop of Durhain, was likelieft to have carried that; fo learned a man, and so affiduous a preacher, qui in concionibus dominatur as his emulous and enemy wrote of him, yet his majefty in his learning knowing, and in his wisdom, weighing, that this fame ftrict charge Pafce oves meos feed my fheep, requires as well a paftorall courage of driving in the ftray fheep, and driving out the infectious, as of feeding the found, made efpeciall choyce of the bishop of London, as a man more exercised in affaires of the ftate. I will add alfo my own conjecture out of some of his majeftie's own fpeeches, that in refpect he was a fingle man, he fuppofed him the fitter according to Queen Elizabeth's principles of state; upon whofe wife foundations, his majesty doth daily erect more glorious buildings.

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But I lofe labour to repeat these things, to your highneffe better known, than to myfelfe. I thould onely speak of the former times.

Of his beginning therefore, and rifing, I will boldly fay that, which I would I might as truly of all that follow in this treatife, viz. that he came to all his preferments very clearly, without prejudice or spoile

of his churches.

He was tutor in Cambridge, to the Lord Comwell, who had caufe to with, and (as I have heard) hath wifht, he had ftaid with him longer, though he were fharp and auftere. My Lord Chancellor Hatton made fpeciall choyce of him, to be his examiner.

Eft aliquid de tot Graiorum millibus unum a Diomede legi.

By his means Queen Elizabeth came to take knowledge of his wifdome and fufficiency. He both wrote, as I touched before, and laboured earneftly by all good means for the fuppreffing of the fantafticall novelllifts. After the ftrange and frantick attempts of Hacket and his fellows; which practice, though the branches thereof were eafily cut off, yet was it thought to have a more dangerous and fecret root. But, for thefe his travels, as the queen and ftate favoured him, fo the feditious fectaries (to ufe Judge Popham's word, that would not have them called puritanes) they I fay, no leffe maligned him in libels and rimes, (for they were void of reafons) laying the imputation of papiftry unto him; fome of them were punished in the ftar-chamber, namely, one Darling, the last star-chamber day in Queen Elizabeth's time, was tharply cenfured. And it is no wonder, if they loved him not, for indeed he had ftoutly oppofed their chiefeft darlings. As for the imputation of papistry, which they lay on all men that croffe their defignes, he

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is fo free from it, that I can truly affirme, the greateft blow the Papifts received in all Queen Elizabeth's time, came from his hand, or at leaft from his head. For having wifely obferved the emulation, ambition, and envy, that lurked in the minds of their fecular priefts, and the Jefuits one against another, he found the means, by the fame policy, and with the like fpirit, that St. Paul fet the Pharifees against the Sadduces to fet the priests against the jefuits, Watfon against Parfons (impar greffus) but yet thereby he fo divided their languages, as fcantly they co underftand one another as yet. These things acted, before the king your father's happy entry, I thought good to touch, tho more fparingv than my particular affection and his juft deferts do give me occafion Of his late imployments, of his great care, in fetting forward and fett. forth all his majefties godly proceedings, thou I know much, if I fhould fay all I know, perhaps it is leffe then your highnee knowes; therefore I will conclude with that which the truth, rather than my kindness enforceth me to fay, that no bishop fince I can remember hath been counted more vigilant in looking to his charge, Ne quid Ecclefia detrimenti capiat.

SACRED CRITICISM, No. IV*.

A CRITIQUE, ON THE INTRODUCTION OF THE EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS.

TO THE EDITORS OF THE ORTHODOX CHURCHMAN'S MAGAZINE. GENTLEMEN,

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CCORDING to promife, in my laft letter, (No. III.) I now proceed to examine the fublime introduction of THE EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS, in which is cited that notable atteftation to the divinity of CHRIST: 66 Thy throne, O God, &c." Pf. 45, 6. and on fome future occafions, fhall review (GoD willing) that entire pfalm, and alfo the 2d, the 110th, the 89th, the 97th, and the 102d, &c. From all which, important authorities are adduced by the apoftle, to establish the dignity of Jesus as (6 THE CHRIST, the SON OF GOD" upon prophetic evidence, in the courfe of the INTRODUCTION; which properly terminates, (according to Bowyer's judicious divifion, in his edition of the Greek Teftament) chap. 2, 4.

By this analytical procefs, a wide and important field of SACRED CRITICISM, will be opened to investigation, upon furer grounds and more fcientific principles; upon the exclufive application of thefe pfalms, to the MESSIAH OF CHRIST, in this Introduction, as well as in other parts of THE NEW TESTAMENT; which altogether, furnishes the moft admirable commentary, that ever was framed, on the prophecies of THE OLD, For, furely, nothing can be more injurious to the SCRIPTURE OF TRUTH, than trivial or curfory ftrictures upon fingle texts of Scripture, detached from the context, without fufficiently attending to the occafions which gave them birth, and their relation, and connexion, (whether nearer or more remote) with the whole tenor of Holy Writ; in that myflerious fcheme of REVEALED WISDOM, of which fuch texts exhibit merely the prominent features. In SACRED CRITICISM, above all,

Vol. II. Churchm. Mag. Jan. 1802.

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* No. I. and II. "On the Refloration of Balaam's Prophecy, Numb. xxiv. 7." occur p. 269, and 369; and No. III.A Critique en Pfalm XVI.” p. 464; of the foregoing volume of this mifcellany.

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"A LITTLE LEARNING is a dangerous thing:
Drink deep, or tafte not THE PIERIAN SPRING."

For, as an infpired apoftle moft juftly remarks, the great "Apostle of the circumcifion," PETER; in the prophetic fcriptures, and especially in PAUL'S epifiles, are "fome things (dvovonta) hard to be understood, which the unlearned and unstable wrest to their own deftruction.". 2 Pet. 3, 16. And PAUL himself acknowledges, that his copious and profound argument refpecting the royal priesthood of CHRIST, was (dvoεpunevт) hard to be interpreted" or explained, to thofe that are "dull of hearing." Heb. 5, 10-11.

I affume, with the ableft critics, ancient and modern, Clemens Alexandrinus, Eufebius, Origen, &c. Michaelis, Wetstein, Lardner, &c. fupporting the decifion of our church, that this masterly epiftle, (which has won the admiration of the profoundeft fcholars and foundeft divines, and even extorted the commendation of the most learned Jewish Rabbins) was the compofition of that great mystagogue PAUL;-addreffed, in the firft inftance, to the native Jewith converts in Jerufalem and Palestine, who are called HEBREWS, Acts 6, 1. to keep them ftedfaft in the, faith of CHRIST. Compare Heb. 2, 1-4. and 3, 1. and 6. 1-9. and 10, 23-27. and 13, 17-24.-written from Rome, or fome part of Italy, about, or fhortly after the clofe of his two years confinement, ending A.D. 63. Compare Acts 28, 30. and Heb. 13, 23-24. with 2 Tim. 4, 9. 2 Cor. 1, 1. Coloff. 1, 1. Philem. 1.-And like all his other epiftles, in Greek, the univerfal language of that age. And it is ftrange, how fuch refpectable fcholars as Grotius, and Michaelis, with feveral in their train, Hallet, Wakefield, Newcome, Paley, &c. could adopt a notion of fome of the earlier fathers, Clemens Alexandrinus, Origen, &c. that because the epiftle was addressed to the Hebrews, it must have been originally written in Hebrew; and was afterwards tranflated by Luke, the Evangelift, Clemens Romanus or fome other, into Greek! A fancy fo unfounded, and fo difgraceful to this mighty mafter of Grecian as well as Jewish literature, under whofe aufpices, his affiftant Luke, the faithful companion of his latter travels, and of his refidence at Rome, 2 Tim. 4, 11. might much rather be fuppofed to have derived his own proficiency in the Greek language. See Owen, Whitby, Wetstein, and Lardner, who have ably vindicated the originality of the prefent Greek epiftle. And, indeed, the remarkable coincidence in expreffion and phrafeology, as well as in fentiment and doctrine, between this and the latest and nobleft of Paul's epiftles, furnishes internal evidences the most decifive and fatisfactory thereof; fuch as THE GOD OF PEACE," Heb. 18. found alfo, Rom. 15, 33.; and 16, 20.; 2 Cor. 13, 11., Phil. 4, 9. 1 Theff. 5, 23. JESUS, THE MEDIATOR,' ," Heb. 8, 6. and 9, 15. and 12, 24.; found alfo, Galat. 8, 19-20. 1 Tim. 2, 5. and no where else in the NEW TESTAMENT.

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Why this epiftle is anonymous in respect of its author; why PAUL did' not ftile himself " an Apostle," as in his other epiftles, addreffed to the Gentile converts; (though he evidently did not wish to conceal himself; from his ftiling Timothy, o adeno," the brother," as in his acknowledged epiftles; and alfo from his concluding with the ufual falutation: "Grace be with you all, Amen" as elsewhere, 2 Theff. 3, 17-18.) is beft explained perhaps, by Clemens Alexandrinus.-" Because OUR LORD, was pre-eminently, THE APOSTLE OF THE HEBREWS, fent by THE

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