Lasers in the Preservation of Cultural Heritage: Principles and Applications

Portada
With the maturation of laser technology in diagnostic and conservation applications, conservation scientists, archeologists, art historians, researchers, and advanced science-oriented students now have the tools necessary for preserving the future of our past-our cultural heritage. Presenting recent developments in the field, Lasers in the Preservation of Cultural Heritage: Principles and Applications addresses the basic concepts of laser applications and supplies case studies of analytical, structural diagnostic, and laser cleaning applications. The book provides a comprehensive presentation of the fundamental principles and applications of modern laser technology in the analysis of composition, diagnostics of structural integrity, and conservation of artworks and antiquities.

Beginning with an introduction to the basic techniques used in art conservation and archeology, the book describes the fundamental aspects of laser-matter interactions, emphasizing laser diagnostics and laser processing applications. The next few chapters focus on laser-based spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of the composition of materials in art and archaeology, including laser-induced breakdown, Raman, and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The book proceeds to highlight nondestructive diagnostic techniques, laser processing applications, laser applications for the cleaning of paintings and stone, and methods for the removal of encrustations. It concludes with case studies for the conservation of materials like parchment, paper, metal, ivory, and wood, and includes conservation approaches for modern paintings.

Bridging science with art, Lasers in the Preservation of Cultural Heritage presents a systematic overview of the fundamentals and applications of laser techniques in artwork conservation and archeological science.
 

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Índice

Introduction
1
13 LASER INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS
4
14 TYPES OF LASER APPLICATIONS IN CULTURAL HERITAGE
8
15 BRIEF HISTORY OF LASER USE IN PRESERVING CULTURAL HERITAGE
14
16 STRUCTURE OF THIS BOOK
20
Fundamentals of the Laser Diagnostics and Interactions with Matter
25
222 ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
26
223 EXCITATION PROCESSESFLUORESCENCE
28
534 SPECKLE PATTERN INTERFEROMETRY
167
54 RELATED TECHNIQUES
170
542 LASER DOPPLER VIBROMETRY
172
55 COMPLEMENTARY INTEGRATION LASERACT
174
56 SUMMARY
175
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
176
REFERENCES
177
Overview of Laser Processing and Restoration Methods
183

224 LIGHT SCATTERING PROCESSES
31
REFLECTOGRAPHY
32
23 DESCRIPTION OF LASERINDUCED PROCESSES
34
231 THERMAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS
35
2312 Temperature Measurements
36
Implications
37
232 PHOTOMECHANICAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS
38
2322 Diagnostics and Implications
40
2331 Thermally Activated Reactions
41
2333 Chemical Processes upon Pulsed Laser Irradiation
42
24 DELINEATION OF PROCESSES WITH INCREASING LASER IRRADIANCE
45
REFERENCES
50
LaserInduced Breakdown Spectroscopy LIBS Cultural Heritage Applications
53
32 PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES
55
33 INSTRUMENTATION
56
34 ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS AND METHODOLOGY
60
342 IRRADIATIONDETECTION PARAMETERS
61
343 ANALYZING OBJECTS OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
62
344 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
64
35 EXAMPLES OF LIBS ANALYSIS IN ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY
66
352 POTTERY
73
353 MARBLE STONE GLASS AND GEOLOGICAL SAMPLES
75
354 METALS
77
355 BIOMATERIALS
79
36 LIBS IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER TECHNIQUES
81
361 LIBS AND RAMAN MICROSCOPY
82
363 LIBS AND MASS SPECTROMETRY
84
37 CONCLUDING REMARKS
86
REFERENCES
87
A Raman Spectroscopy in Cultural Heritage
95
42 PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES
99
43 INSTRUMENTATION
102
44 EXAMPLES OF RAMAN ANALYSIS IN ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY
105
441 PIGMENTS
106
442 ORGANIC AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS
111
443 POTTERY
112
445 METALS
114
45 RAMAN ANALYSIS IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER TECHNIQUES
115
452 RAMAN MICROSCOPY AND LIBS
116
46 CONCLUDING REMARKS
117
Laser Interferometry for Direct Structural Diagnostics
125
DEFINITION OF TERMS
126
512 INTERFEROMETRY WITH DIFFUSE ARTWORK SURFACES
129
513 SUITABILITY PROVISIONS
131
52 HOLOGRAPHY PRINCIPLES
135
521 OPTICAL APPARATUS FOR HOLOGRAPHIC INTERFEROMETRY
136
522 RECORDING PRINCIPLE
138
53 HOLOGRAPHIC INTERFEROMETRY NOT FOR DIRECT ASSESSMENT OF STRUCTURAL CONDITION OF ARTWORKS
141
531 LOCALIZED FRINGE PATTERNS
142
532 WHOLEBODY FRINGE PATTERNS
143
5322 Preventive Conservation
144
533 CHOICE OF INVESTIGATION PROCEDURE
145
Characteristics Parameters Features
152
Defect Detection and Identification Procedures
155
5333 Preventive Applications
164
62 LASERINDUCED MATERIAL EJECTION
184
63 ABLATION METRICS
186
632 LIMITATIONS AND CAVEATS
187
633 ABLATION ENTHALPY AND EFFICIENCY
189
64 CLEANING METHODOLOGIES
190
642 SELECTIVE MATERIAL REMOVAL
191
643 PARTICLE REMOVAL TECHNIQUES
192
644 LIQUIDASSISTED MATERIAL REMOVAL
194
65 ASSESSMENT OF THE LASERINDUCED PROCESSES AND EFFECTS
195
651 PHOTOEXCITATION PROCESSES
196
6522 Illustrations and Implications
198
6523 Introduction to Explosive Boiling
200
6532 Illustrations and Implications
202
654 CHEMICAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS
206
6542 Factors Affecting Chemical Effects in the Substrate
207
66 ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF PARAMETERS
208
662 WAVELENGTH DEPENDENCE AND IMPORTANCE OF ABSORPTIVITY
211
663 DEPENDENCE ON NUMBER OF LASER PULSES
214
664 FEMTOSECOND ABLATION
216
67 ABLATION PLUMEPLASMA DYNAMICS
217
POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS
218
682 EXAMINATION OF EJECTION PROCESS
219
69 EXPERIMENTAL SETUPS
220
REFERENCES
223
Laser Cleaning of Polymerized Substrates Removal of Surface Resin from Paintings
229
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
230
73 ABLATION EFFICIENCY STUDIES
231
74 LIGHT TRANSMISSION STUDIES
236
75 CHEMICAL ALTERATION OF SUBSTRATE
240
76 LASER ABLATION OF AGED RESIN LAYERS FROM PAINTINGS
243
77 LASER ABLATION OF PAINT LAYERS FROM COMPOSITE MATERIALS
253
YAG LASER IN THE REMOVAL OF SURFACE LAYERS
256
79 CONCLUSIONS
257
REFERENCES
258
Laser Cleaning of Encrustations
263
82 MAJOR OPERATIVE MECHANISMS AND ASSOCIATED OPTICAL PHENOMENA
265
821 LASERINDUCED YELLOWING EFFECT
271
YAG LASER
276
823 DEPENDENCE OF ABLATION SIDE EFFECTS ON PULSE WIDTH
278
824 OTHER LASER CLEANING METHODS
279
825 DISCOLORATION OF POLYCHROMES
283
TEST CASE STUDIES
284
831 FUNDAMENTAL AND THIRDHARMONIC TEST CASE STUDIES
287
832 TEST CASE STUDY USING SHORTFREERUNNING LASER PULSES
289
84 CONCLUSIONS
291
REFERENCES
292
Laser Cleaning of Other Materials
299
921 CLEANING OF PARCHMENT
300
922 CLEANING OF SOILED PAPER
301
923 REMOVAL OF FUNGI
303
93 METAL
306
94 CONCLUSIONS
314
REFERENCES
315
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