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cruelly massacred the whole family, diately informed him, with all the sleeping securely in their beds, sus- feeling of an old servant and dependpecting no harm. This done, he ant of the family, of his birth and seized upon his possessions, which misfortune. The young gentleman were the most extensive of any gen- listened with the utmost concern, and tleman's in that county.

being sensibly touched at the barbarNear the murdered gentleman's ous treatment of his parents, he burst place lived an old man, who held a out into tears, and poured out his soul small piece of land of him, for which in the bosom of his faithful guardian. he only paid a bonnet vearly. His Being now fully acquainted with what master always give him his old bon- had happened, he grew impatient for net when he received the new one; the recovery of his birth-right, and for which reason that piece of land is the punishment of the perpetrators of still called the Bonnet Croft, and the the massacre. It is scarce credible tenant thereof was called the Bigstone what pleasure the old man felt at Carle, because he built his house be- finding the dear object of his care now side a large stone, which served as a ready to accompany him to his own side or gable to his house. The above country. They both solicited his reold man wondered how his master's lations for a select band of warriors to place could be so quiet, and, perceiv- march against his enemy, who were ing no smoke in the morning after the soon prevailed upon to grant their reslaughter, went at last to know the quest. Accordingly, twenty-four able cause. He no sooner entered, than he men, well armed, were raised, who saw some of their mangled bodies ly- immediately set out and arrived at his ing lifeless on the floor. Astonished grandfather's, who joined them with at such a shocking spectacle, he exa- other eight. From thence they bemined them all over, in expectation of took themselves to the wood of Little finding some remains of life, but in Uvrard, where they remained very vain. Overwhelmed with grief, he quiet until they received intelligence turned the cradle in search of an from Hugh's nurse. Calling at her infant, who was known by the name door, she asked who it was at such a of Dwindling Hugh, and, to his no late hour. He replied that he was small joy, found him alive, but almost Hugh M‘Intosh.

It is like your erushed to death with the weight of voice, says she, but if you'll breathe the cradle and clothes. He eagerly in through the key-hole, I'll know for seized the child, and carried him to certain whether you are my Hugh, his grandfather by the mother's side, which he instantly did, and she knowMacglashan of Innervack, who sent ing his breath immediately let him in, him to a near relation in Argyllshire, and congratulated him on his safe arof the name of Campbell, in order to rival. His nurse was sent to learn be out of Cuming's way, where he something of Cuming, and returned was carefully brought up. The old with the news of his going to the man who carried him thither came of- bridge of Tilt, about a mile off, to diten to see him, but, on account of the vert himself with his troop. Upon greatness of the Cumings every where this information they set out in two in Scotland, it was thought prudent divisions, one of which being comto conceal his birth from him, until he manded by Macglashan, went to keep was of age to make head against them. him from returning to his castle; and Though he was long weakly, he at the other, commanded by Hugh, aclength recovered and grew up to man- companied by the old man, went in hood, was a very promising youth, search of him. As soon as they were and an excellent bowman, which made perceived by Cuming to be enemies, his aged conduetor entertain hopes of he fled towards his castle, when he his being some time or other able to was met by the other division, who, revenge the murder of his fanily. after killing several about the castle Coming one time to see him, and per- walls, pursued them up a narrow val. -ceiving his dexterity at hitting the ley called Glen Tilt, killing and mark, he told him, that the breast of wounding many in the pursuit,-the the man who killed his father was nose being shot off one at a rivulet much broader, --which greatly sure bearing his name,--another was shot prised the youth, who knew nothing through the belly at Alt na Maraq, of it before. The old man imme. i. p. "the pudding rill,” because his


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entrails came out. While they were standard of beauty? I do not think thus hotly pursued up the Glen by so. Every man has his peculiar taste, Macglashan, the other division, com- and every soil its peculiar production. manded by Hugh, took a near cut The verdant landscapes of England round a mountain, and was a consi- cannot but appear delightful to each derable way beyond them, and waited true friend of nature, though they are for their coming up. It is said, that not adorned by the fragrant orangethe old man was always the foremost of bowers of Italy; and the Alpine scenes his company, and when he saw them of desolation have beauties unknown approach, he prepared himself, and in in the luxuriant plains of the Ganges. a fierce warlike tone, said to the young In order to judge truly whether a gentleman, “Here comes the great work of literature is perfect in its Cuming riding foremost ; if you kind, we must, therefore, first conlet him escape, you deserve a coward's sider whether the everlasting rules of death.” On which Hugh instantly nature, which are the same all over drew an arrow and shot Cuming the surface of the globe, have been prethrough the heart from the other side served in it; and secondly, whether of a small lake called Loch-loch. He those rules have been well adapted to fell upon a broad stone at the road the language in which the work has side, where, according to custom, a been written, and the nation for whom heap of stones was raised in remem- it was written. brance thereof, still to be seen, called In mentioning the everlasting rules Cuming's Cairn. Such monuments of nature, I do not mean to speak at are called by the Highlanders Cairne the rules of tragedy as laid down by folachd, i. e. Cairns of hatred. Aristotle. Whether or not the uni.

ties of time, place, and action, conti. DEFENCE OF RACINE'S PHEDRE,

bute to the perfection of a dramatic

performance, is a point I shall for the In answer to the Remarks on Greek present lay aside, although I am of and French Tragedy, inserted in opinion that the preservation of these the Magazine for December 1817.

rules is highly important, I am ever MR EDITOR,

ready to acknowledge that they are In your Magazine for December, not dictated by nature, but by ari. which has lately reached me here, I I do not intend, however, to give any have read, with a considerable degree person a right to conclude, from what of surprise, some remarks which are I have said against the observation of intended as a comparison of Greek the unities. The number of moduli and French tragedy in general, and contained in a Corinthian pillar has more particularly of the Hippolytus of nothing to do with nature, and still Euripides, and the Phedre of Racine. its exact observation, with some small It is not the illiberality of that com- varieties, is necessary tn the effect of parison that caused my surprise. I a fine piece of architecture. know that criticisms on works of fo But to return to the rules of nature reign nations are scarcely ever dictat- in a tragedy, they are, in my opinion, ed by a spirit of true impartiality, and as follows: are, consequently, of little service to 1. The author must have an aim to the literary world. The chief reason wards the attaining of which every of the false judgments which are usu- thing in his piece must lead. ally passed on foreign productions is, 2. He must never in any scene de that the critic does not take care, from viate from that aim. the beginning, to place himself in the 3. The different episodes must all true point from whence he might be have a direct influence on the plot. enabled to judge with rectitude. Set 4. They must be put together in ting out on a false principle, his con- such a manner, as to create the highsequences never can be true. Bred est interest possible. from his cradle to a blind admiration 5. The events must be in the ordiof the masterpieces which his own nary course of possible things, or if language has produced, every work miraculous, must be authorized by the which departs more or less from that history or legends of the time. standard of beauty, in his eyes, must 6. The characters must be such a unavoidably appear more or less de- are to be found amongst mankind. fective. Is there, in fact, a true 7. Every person must keep up to

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the end the character he has develop If Theseus had returned in time, ed from the beginning, and all his ac- Phedre would have been saved. There tions be consequential and reasonable begins the interest the audience feel according to his given character. in her fate. Then comes the news

8. The customs of the age and that Theseus is dead. The first feelcountry wherein the action is suppos- ing we have is the forlorn state of ed to happen, must be faithfully pre- Phedre, without a single friend to adserved throughout the piece, in the vise her. The critic in your review, actions and speeches of the dramatis after quoting the verses which Oenone persona.

addresses to Phedre, Let us examine Racine's Phedre, according to these rules.

Votre flamme devient une flamme ordiI shall begin by observing a point naire, of great importance concerning Phe- Thésée en expirant vient de rompre les dre; a point which most of Racine's næuds critics seem to have forgot, when they Qui faisoient tout le crime et l'horreur de compared his tragedy to the Hippo

vos feux, lytus of Euripides. I mean that Racine has called his piece Phedre, and exclaims, “ This is French morality not Hippolytus, shewing clearly by expressed with all the graces of French that that his intention was to throw poetry!" I beg leave to explain here the chief interest upon the wife, and what the critic seems not to have unnot upon the son of Theseus. He derstood. Oenone's speeches are by made use of the work of Euripides, no means French morality. The most and still more, perhaps, of Seneca's, depraved among the French know but only so far as was consistent with very well that love for a son-in-law his plan. It is, therefore, quite an is an incestuous passion, and, howuseless chicane to inquire whether the ever depraved a nation may be, they character of Hippolytus is precisely never suffer immoral maxims to be such as Euripides painted it. His proclaimed on a public stage. character in Racine is natural; he that is in no way the case here. The acts rationally and consequentially sense is clear to any one who reads or throughout the piece ; that is all we

listens to it with impartiality. The have to consider.

character of Oenone represents a coure But let me not anticipate my own tier always ready to justify, by the arguments. I have said that an au- vilest pretences, all his master's weakthor must have an aim, towards the nesses, and that of Phedre, a guilty attaining of which every thing in his heart, happy to find an excuse for its piece must lead. Racine's aim in crime, however shallow the excuse Phedre was to show that a guilty may be. thought may sometimes enter into an

The advice of Oenone is still not innocent breast ; that, in such a case, sufficient to induce Phedre to give entrue virtue resists and conquers, but tirely way to her passion. Her only weakness wavers,-lends an ear to

answer is, perfidious counsels,-is guided by cir. Hé bien ! à tes conseils je me laisse entrâ. cumstances,-falls, -and is drawn, at

iner. last, to lengths at which the heart Vivons, si vers la vie on peut me ramener, would have shuddered a short time Et si l'amour d'un fils, en ce moment fu. before. Such is the case with Phe.

neste, dre. She is young, handsome, and De mes foibles esprits peut ranimer le reste. virtuous, until she falls in love with Hippolytus.

She tries to conquer She promises to live, for the sake her love. Had she conquered it, in- of her child; but, in the meanwhile, deed, the tragic event would never she hears that Hippolytus is ready to have taken place. Had she fallen set off for Athens. The interest of immediately, she would have excited that same child obliges her to have a nothing but disgust, whereas the au- conversation with him, and in that thor intended to make the audience conversation, imitated and embellishpity, while they blame her. In the ed from Seneca, she is drawn, by defirst act we see her struggle. She grees, to an acknowledgment of h shows plainly that she is able to con- love. Here I beg leave to observe, quer, provided circumstances aid her. that the line blamed by your critic,

On ne voit point deux fois le rivage des I ask every impartial reader, whemorts,

ther it was possible to shew, in a truer is an elegant translation of Seneca. light, all the divers motions and feelNon unquam amplius

ings of a heart in the situation wheri.

in Phedre's must be, according to Convexa tetigit supera, qui mersus semel Adiit silentem nocte perpetuâ domum.

her supposed character ? (Hyppolitus, Act 1. Scene 11.) Here I must once more shew the

illiberality of your critic's observaIn the third act, Theseus returns,

tions. The following are his words: and Phedre, stung by remorse and

“ Racine has put the accusation into shame, knows not how to meet her the mouth of the nurse, and suys, husband. She says,

J'ai cru que la calomnie avait quel Juste ciel ! qu'ai-je fait aujourd'hui ? que chose de trop bas et de trop noir Mon époux va paroitre et son fils avec pour la mettre dans les bouche d'une lui !

princesse. Cette bassesse m'a paru

plus convenable à une nourrice. It Il me semble déjà que ces murs, que ces was likely enough that such trash as voûtes

this should issue from the courtly syVont prendre la parole, et, prêts à m'accu-cophants of that age. The truth is, ser,

that, in such cases, princes and prinAttendent mon époux pour le désabuser.

cesses are mere men and women," &e. Your critic quotes half-a-dozen

What idea can your readers form of lines, which he pretends to be the on a critic who, to find an opportunity ly poetical ones in the piece. He has of insulting a poet and his whole naprobably overlooked the preceding, tion, makes a false quotation from which, in my opinion, are admirable.

that same poet's works. The phrase in Phedre concludes by saying,

Racine's preface is as follows: “ J'ai Mourons : De tant d'horreurs qu’un trépas cru que la calomnie avoit quelque me delivre !

chose le trop bas et de trop noir pour Est-ce un malheur si grand que de cesser la mettre dans la bouche d'une prin

de vivre ? La mort aux malheureux ne cause point nobles et si vertucur. Cette bassesse

cesse, qui à d'ailleurs des sentimens si d'effroi ; Je ne crains que le nom que je laisse après m'a paru plus convenable à une nourmoi.

rice, qui pouvoit avoir des inclinations Oenone then ventures the proposaltreprend cette fausse accusation que

plus serviles, et qui néanmoins n'erof accusing Hippolytus; Phedre rejects it with horror. I trust the reader pour sauver la vie et l'honneur de sa

maitresse.” Where is now the sycowill pardon me, if I quote a few lines phantic courtiership with which your inore, which may give an idea of the critic chooses to brand Racine, one of art of Racine. Oenone says,

the noblest characters that ever exMon zele n'a besoin que de votre silence, isted, equally celebrated for his piety, Tremblante comme vous, j'en sens quelques patriotism, loyalty, and talents ? remords.

I have said above that it was Rs. Vous me verriez plus prompte affronter cine's aimn to paint Phedre as a weak

mille morts.. Mais, puisque je vous perds sans ce triste character, guilty against her will, and remède,

drawn forth by circumstances. It Votre vie est pour moi d'un prix à qui was, therefore, to be supposed that tout cede.

she would not long persevere in her Je sarlerai. Theseé, aigri par mes avis,

crime. Accordingly, as soon as Bornera sa vengeance à l'exil de son fils. she is acquainted with the terrible Un père, en punissant, Madame, est tou- wrath of Theseus, she joins him with jours pere, &c.

an intention to exculpate Hippolytus; At that moment Hippolytus ap- but at that moment she learns, from pears, and Phedre exclaims,

her husband's own mouth, that the Ah ! je vois Hippolyte ;

young huntsman, whose coldness she Dans ses yeux insolents je vois ma perte excused as long as she supposed he was écrite.

cold to every other woman, is actually Fais ce que tu voudras, je m'abandonne à in love with Aricia. Jealousy then toi.

joins her tortures to rejected love, and Dans le trouble ou je suis, je ne puis tien she retires without having discovered

any thing. When Hippolytus is

pour moi.

dead, she owns her crime and dies. may, therefore, be defective in hishistoThe motive your critic gives for her rical character, but it is evidently well silence in Éuripides, is a just and connected with the plot, and serves true one; but I must, in my turn, most effectually to render the characobserve, that Racine has not invent- ter and situation of Phedre interest. ed her tardy remorse.

That scene is ing. imitated from Seneca, and is, conse Thus have I justified Racine as quently, not in opposition to the cus to my 2d, 3d, and ith rule; the 5th toms of the ancients.

and 8th reinain, and here my surI have now sufficiently proved that prise at your critic's observations has Racine has remained true to the 1st, been carried to the highest pitch. 6th, and 7th rule laid down in the be- He says, “ The story of the seaginning:

monster raised by Neptune, in answer The love of Hippolytus for Aricia to the prayers of Theseus, is tolerable is an episode which has been blamed, in Euripides, because it is within the not only by yours, but by several first superstitious belief of the country; rate critics in France. Arnault and but surely a Christian poet might have Fenelon found it defective. Boileau devised simpler means of overturning and La Harpe, on the contrary, were a chariot than the agency of a heathen favourable to it. I might perhaps say god.” Never was there, in my opi. here,

nion, any thing more absurd' than Who shall decide when doctors disagree ?

such an accusation. Ought Racine,

because he was a Christian poet, to But I think it not superfluous have introduced Christianity in a to mention shortly what La Harpe 'Greek subject? Or ought he wholly says in support of his opinion. We to have abandoned the subject? The have seen above that Racine's aim first supposition is ridiculous; accord was to excite pity towards Phedre. ing to the second we ought also to abHe was, therefore, obliged to make stain from treating of either Turkish, her as miserable as possible; and cer- American, or Chinese subjects. No tainly if Hippolytus had only reject- Roman hero ought to appear on our ed her out of virtue, and because, stage. The story of the death of Hipbeing a lover of Diana's sports, his heart polytus is adapted to the customs of the had never felt the passion of love, times. History mentions that he was Phedre would not have been nearly overturned in his chariot by his horses so unfortunate as she is represented taking fright on seeing a sca-monster. in Racine's tragedy. Phedre being Neptune does not appear in Racine's his main character, (in which he dif- tragedy, but it is natural that Therafers from Euripides,) he had un- mene, who was a heathen, and acdoubtedly a right to deviate slightly quainted with Theseus's imprecation, from history in regard to Hippolytus, should attribute the appearance of the whom he considers only as a second sea-monster to Neptune. How true

dary personage. Critics ought never has not Racine remained to the man. to lose sight of the manner in which ners of the age, and, at the same time,

an author has considered the subject to probability, in the following two he treats, if they wish to do full jus- lines of Theramene? tice to his efforts. Oenone says to Phedre,

On dit qu'on a vu même en ce désordre af.

freux, Il a pour tout le sexe une haine fatale, Un dieu qui d'aiquillons pressoit leurs flancs to which Phedre answers,

poudreus. Je ne me verrai point préférer de rivale. His whole speech is suitable to This is translated from Seneca,

his character, and the spirit of the

times. Your critic might as well Genus omne profugit-Pellicis careo have blamed Phedre for mentioning

her father Minos and her grandfather On which La Harpe very truly ob- the Sun. But Phedre speaks as Phes serves, that that line which in Sene- dre must evidently have spoken, and ca's tragedy is only a burst of passion, that is one of the greatest perfections in Racine is teeming with an import- in the style of an author. Racine ant situation, on which the denouement possesses the great art of putting partly rests. The love of Hippolytus himself aside, and never shewing the


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