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in their behaviour exceedingly rational FOR THE DISCOVERY OF A NORTH- and sensible. They were of small PASSAGE,

OBSERVA- stature; their countenance broad and TIONS ON THE PROSPECTS or suce flat; their eyes small ; their legs CESS FOR THE PRESENT EXPEDI- short; their knees bent outwards; in

running and leaping they displayed (Continued from Page 403.)

the utmost agility. They were cover.

ed from head to foot with rein-deer The Dutch, on their return, hav- skins, to which a few of the chiefs ing reported that there was a prospect added some fragments of cloth and of a passage through the Waygatz, furs. Amid all their politeness, the the States General and Prince Mau- strongest marks of distrust were virice, in the following year, caused a sible. When, after a pretty long acnew expédition of seven vessels to be quaintance, a sight of one of their fitted out.

bows was requested, it was refused The fileet set sail from the Texel, with visible dissatisfaction. The king, at sunrise, on the 2d of June 1595, which title, according to the immemoand, on the 14th, came in sight of the rial usage of travellers, is conferred coast of Norway. On the 22d one of on the most noted personage in the the vessels came so close upon a large groupe, kept a jealous watch over whale which lay sleeping in the wa- all their proceedings. Their alarm ter, that, had she not been awakened became much greater when they by the sailors' cries, and made off, witnessed, for the first time, the disthe ship must have gone over her. charge of a musket; they then "ran It was the 23d of August when they ar- and danced like madmen.” The rived at the Strait of Waygatz. Here Dutch, however, having explained they met with a Russian fishing-ves, that no harm was intended, and that sel formed of the bark of trees sewed these instruments were merely used together, on its way to the mouth of instead of their bows, their terrors the Obi, where the crew were to win- subsided, -- and they even formed ter. The Russians presented them themselves into rows, to view the exwith a number of fat eider ducks, and ercise of firing at a mark. in return were offered meal, butter, A cordial parting then took place, and cheese, which they rejected, but the Dutch sounding trumpets and eagerly received pickled herrings, waving their bonnets, while the nawhich they devoured entire, without tives replied by their national tokens any exception of head, skin, or tail. of cordiality. But scarcely had they They assured the Dutch, that, for embarked, when they saw a man runtwo inonths, or two and a half, the ning violently up to them, with every Strait would not be entirely shut. symptom of rage and reproach. On The Dutch then landed on the coast inquiring the motive of his wrath, it of Asia, here occupied by the Sa- proved to be a piece of stone rudely moiedes. After marching some time cut into some semblance of a human without seeing any one, a mist sud- figure, and which, it seems, was one denly clearing up, they found theme of their national idols. One end, in selves close to a party of twenty na- fact, was a little rounded, to give it tives. The wildness of their aspect the appearance of a head. It had in and dress induced a pause, till the in- front a little prominence to represent terpreter advancing, one of them drew a nose, two little holes above for the his bow, with visible intent to dis- eyes, and one below for the mouth. charge an arrow at him. The inter- The Dutch had seen many of these aa preter, almost frantic with alarm, long the coast; and at one point no less

“ Stop, we are friends." than a hundred, from which circumThe Samoiede then laid down his arms, stance they gave it the name of the and placed himself in the attitude of Cape of Idols. Before them appeared speech. The interpreter, having again heaps of ashes and rein-deer bones, said, we are friends," the other re whence it was inferred, that the naplied, “ you are then welcome.” An a- tives had been employed in offering micable communicationwas immediate sacrifices to these uncouth divinities. ly established, and the Dutch found The Dutch now landed on Nova that their new acquaintances, though Zembla ; and a party of them enanswering externally every idea which gaged in the search of a species of they had formed of savage men, were sparkling stones, which bear some re.

called out,

semblance to the diamond. Two of a consultation whether they should rethe number, fatigued with the exer new their efforts; but, as the council cise, lay down near each other, when was sitting, a forinidable array of ice one of them suddenly called out, mountains was seen entering the Way“Who is that taking me by the gatz, and bearing down upon them; neck?”. His companion, raising his the view of which cut short their de eyes, exclaimed, * Oh! my friend, liberations, and made them turn their it is a bear.” The monster was in- sails, with all speed, to the westward. stantly seen darting his tusks into the After this failure, the Dutch gohead of his victim, and licking the vernment would engage in no farther blood which streamed from the undertakings; but the Council of wound. The other ran, and with Amsterdam equipped two more ships, loud cries implored the aid of his com- with Heemsherk as master, and Bapanions, who hastened to the spot, rentz as pilot. They set sail in the besixteen in number, armed with pikes ginning of May 1596, and after passing and muskets. The animal, undis- Norway, steered farther to the north mayed by this crowd of opponents, than usual. On the 5th of June, those rushed forward with incredible fury, on deck called out, “What a multitude --seized another, carried him off, and of swans are swimming." Others, soon reduced him to the same deplor- however, observed : “ These swans able condition as his companion. At have much the appearance of icebergs. this horrible spectacle, the hearts of This last remark proved true; they the stoutest failed; all took to flight, soon found themselves in the heart of and ran with precipitation to the the ice, and sailed through it, as beboats. Here a consultation was held, tween two coasts. Continuing their whether they should venture on a course northwards, they arrived first at fresh attack, and many urged, that Bear Island, and then at Spitzbergen, the fate of the sufferers being now and were probably the first navigators sealed, such a step would only be in- who visited that great mass of polar curring new danger, without any ra- land; but finding that this was not Nova tional motive. Yet the united impulse Zembla, and that they were too far of rage and valour plucked forth three north, they changed their direction, champions, who determined, since and came in sight of the southern they could not save their comrades, at part of Nova Zembla. They coasted least to avenge them. They found the its western shore, having much ice to monster so busied with his horrible struggle against. At length they carmeal, that he did not even observe ried the northern point, which they their approach ; but, as they kept still named Cape Desire, and seeing the at a respectful distance, the first three land now stretching to the south-east, shots failed ; when one advancing and the water to be free from ice, nearer, lodged a ball in the head. The they began to entertain great hopes of bear, without quitting his hold, merely success, Soon, however, the ice belifted up his head, raising with it the gan to collect and thicken around body in whose neck his tusks were them, and they were obliged to put still fixed; but, as he soon grew visi- into a port which they called Icy bly faint from loss of blood, the sail- Harbour,--and to which, after a vain ors rushed forward and covered him attempt to proceed southward, they with sabre wounds ; and at length were forced to return. The icebergs one of them, leaping on his back, se now bore down from all sides, and vered the head from the body. To soon completely inclosed them; so the last moment, however, he never that, after some time, they gave up quitted hold of his prey. The sailors all hopes of reaching home that seathen collected and interred the mang- son, and resigned themselves to the led remnants of their ill-fated compa- terrible prospect of wintering in Nova nions.

Zembla. The ice soon heaved up the The damp which this incident threw vessel, sometimes so much on one side upon their spirits, was soon increased as to threaten to overturn it; but the by the appearance of ice in vast quan- balance was restored by a similar tities; and they in vain attempted to rise on the other side. At the same make their way through the Way- time, there was the most frightful gatz. The ships, therefore, assembled cracking both without and within the at the opening of the Strait, and held vessel, which they were constantly




afraid would go to pieces, but only around them had birst, and fallen in some beams started. They found it fragments over each other. Accordnecessary, however, both for warmth ingly, when they could get out, they and safety, to think of forming some saw the sea open to a great extent; but kind of habitation. Materials were the cold became more and more infortunately afforded by those woods tense. They had ice two inches thick of mysterious origin, which float over on the floor and walls, and even in the all the polar seas.

The coast presente beds. The leather of their shoes froze ed a number of large trees with their like horn, and they were obliged roots, which had been cast ashore; to throw it off and cover their feet but the forming these into a house with sheep skins. At length the fire was attended with immense hardship. seemed to cease to afford heat; their It was impossible to make a founda- stockings were burning before any tion, as the largest fire which could warmth was felt, and even then they be kindled had no effect in softening were advertised of the fact by no sense the ground. A sailor having put å but that of smell. The pimples froze nail into his mouth, it froze to the on their faces, and they became all lips, and when it came away brought white with frost and snow. Their ablood along with it. Meantime, they larm now was deep and serious ; for were obliged to carry all their provi- it appeared certain, that if the cold sions and cooking utensils to the low. became at all more intense, it must est part of the hold, to escape the ef- certainly kill them. The light, how fect of the frost. A barrel of strong ever, began to increase a little ; and Dantzick beer, having been exposed one day on walking out, they descried to the cold, burst; but its frozen con a faint blush tinge the southeru horitents were found adhering to the sides This first dawn of the polar of the vessel like strong glue. When morning revived in their hearts the melted, the liquor tasted like pure hope that was almost extinguished. water, and the whole strength was They felt also some mitigation of the found concentrated in the heart, in cold; and this became evident, when a small portion which still remained a larger fire than usual being kindled, liquid. About this time their hut several of the icicles which hung from was completed, and they began to the boards and ceilings, broke off and move their stores thither. A west fell to the ground; an effect which no wind now blew, and they were tan- fire had before produced. On the talized by discovering the sea on all 24th, three of the sailors walking out sides, as far as the eye could reach, believed they saw the edge of the sun's entirely open, and only the spot on disk on the horizon. They ran in which their bark was moored, sur- overjoyed with the intelligence; but rounded by the ice as by a wall. Barentz declared it impossible that it The sun, their last comfort, was ra- could appear for fifteen days longer. pidly disappearing: On the 1st of They went out, however, on the 25th November he could still be perceived; and 26th, but could discover nothing for next day only one-half his disk; on mist, till, on the 27th, the mist dispersthe 4th, merely the top of it; and on ing, they saw, standing on the verge the following day there was no sun at of the horizon, the full orb of that all. They were now at a loss to count great luminary. Their scepticism had the time, and sometimes lay till mid- been owing to their ignorance of the day, not knowing whether it was day effect of refraction. Their situation or night. The snow fell in such now improved, though they had rem quantities as made it impossible to turns of as intense cold as ever, yet stir out for days together; it also shut hope always supported them. They up their chimney, and exposed them now, however, recommenced their to the alternative of perishing with warfare against the fierce tyrant of the cold, or being suffocated by smoke. northern wilds. In building the hut The only remedy was to lie all and removing to it, they experienced day in bed, the cook only rising to almost daily attacks from the polar prepare the victuals; they afterwards bear; but during the extreme cold, contrived to get stones heated and that animal disappeared, and was suce placed around their beds. On the 1st ceeded by the white fox, an innocuous of December, they heard a crash, as visitant, In February, the fox again if all the mountains that were piled gave place to the bear. - On the oth

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of April one approached the hut, and the English from farther attempts to the door being unfastened, made des- discover a passage in an eastern direcperate attempts to force it, but the tion. The north-west passage, or master placing himself behind, suc- that round the northern coast of Ameceeded in keeping it. The animal rica, engrossed thenceforth almost all then climbed to the roof, and attack, their efforts. In 1576, Martin Froed the chimney with such force, and bisher, a seaman of great reputation, a roaring so tremendous, that they was sent by Queen Élizabeth to exexpected every moment he would have plore this naval route. He set sail on torn it down; but he at last depart the 7th of June, and on the 26th pased. Another came up close to a man sed Fowla, the last of the Shetland who was keeping guard at the door, Islands. On the 11th he came in but looking another way. Roused by his sight of Friesland, which appears in companions, he had only time to turn our maps as the southern extremity and fire; and if the piece had missed, of Greenland. He found it " rising which, from the damp state of the like pinnacles of steeples, and all copowder and firelock, was most proba- vered with snow.” He sailed straight ble, he would not only have perished, west, and saw what he supposed to be but the bear probably would have en the coast of Labradore. On the 1st of tered the hut, where, it is observed, August, he saw a large island of ice,

he would have made strange ha- which, on the 2d, fell, one part from vock.”

another, making a noyce as if a great In May, the weather becoming to- cliffe had fallen into the sea. He lerably mild, the crew became cla- then touched at several islands, about morous to leave this fatal place, and one of which seven boats, with a conurged the plan of proceeding in the siderable number of people, were obboat, to which the captain, who at served." They be like to Tartars, with first wished to wait till the ship could long blacke haire, broad faces, and flat be got off, at length agreed. On trial, noses, and tawnie in colour. They however, their strength, exhausted by were at first shy, but some trifling prelong suffering, appeared unequal to sents soon produced familiarity. The the task of dragging it afloat. The English then sailed to the opposite side captain now warned them, that there of the island, and took several of the was no alternative, unless they felt nat

ard. Frobisher sent a inclined to become citizens of Nova boat to convey them on shore, giving Zembla, and to leave their bones strict directions to land them at a there. These images roused all their rock, and not near the body of the remaining vigour, and after enormous natives; “but the wilfulness of hismen labour for about a month, they suc was such," that they disregarded this ceeded in refitting the boat, and drag, injunction, and the consequence was, ging it into the sea. In sailing round that neither boat nor men were ever Nova Zembla, they were repeatedly more seen or heard of. The next and inclosed by the ice, and gave them following days the English came selves up for lost. They got through, near the shore, fired guns, sounded however, and near the southern ex- trumpets, and saw several boats, but tremity found a party of Russians, could not come up to them, and were who treated them with great humani- unable to penetrate in any degree the ty. They then sailed along the coast fearful mystery in which the fate of till they arrived at Kola in Russian their countrymen was involved. By Lapland, where they found a Dutch ringing a bell they enticed one of the ship, which conveyed them home, and natives on board, and carried him with they were received by their country- them to Britain, for which they immen with cqual joy and surprise. mediately after set sail.

Having thus given an account of As this voyage appeared rather ensome remarkable voyages undertaken couraging, another was sent the folfor the discovery of a north-east pas- lowing year, 1577, under the same sage, we shall now proceed to notice commander. On his way he touched at those which were made with the view the Orkneys, which seem to have been of finding a passage by the north- then almost an unknown region. west.

When the English first landed, the The unsuccessful attempt of Pet people “ fied from their poore cotand Jackman seems to have diverted tages, with shrikes and alarms," but


was summer.

were soon," by gentle persuasions, holding themselves ready, if hard recl:imed." In describing their man- pressed, to fly into the interior. The ners, he says,

“ The gooiman, wife, English, however, advancing in two children, and other of the familie, bodies, attacked from different sides the cate and sleepe on the one side of mountain on which they were stationthe house, and their cattle on the ed. The natives then discharged their other, very beastly and rudely, in re arrows, but without any effect; while spect of civilitie.

He adds, “ Their several of themselves were quickly apparel is after the rudest sort of wounded by the arrows of their opScotland ; their money is all base." ponents. Seeing themselves thus sur. In the rest of the voyage, they had rounded and worsted, they yielded no night, at which he rejoices, as it to the excess of savage and frantic gave them constantly, when so dis agony, and despising the offered mer. posed, “ the fruition of their bookes," cy of the English, threw themselves which he says is “ a thing of no small down the rocks, and were dashed to moment to such as wander in un pieces. All who could effect their known seas. In their way they met escape, fled into inaccessible mounlarge fir trees floating, which they tains, and the sailors could only overjudged to be “ with the fury of great take two women and a child. One of Aoods, rooted up.”. Having come these females exhibited a degree of “ within the making of Frisland," ugliness, so hideous and appalling, that they found themselves, though only it seemed unaccountable on any other at 61° of latitude, in the depth of win- supposition, but that of the devil himter, “ boisterous boreal blasts, mixt self having assumed her form; and with snow and hail ;” and only the the presumption seemed the stronger, perpetual day reminded them that it as the furious proceedings of her coun

Our navigator then trymen would thus be accounted for. crossed the entrance of Baffin's Bay, Before acting upon this hypothesis, and came to the Strait, to which he however, it appeared reasonable to gave his own name, and the sight of bring it to some test of experiment; which rejoiced his heart, as it appear- and an infallible one occurred in that ed to promise an entrance into the structure of the lower extremities, Mare del Sur, or great Southern Ocean. which by every approved system of It was even conceived that one side diabolic zoology is assigned to the perof this Strait was America, and the sonage in question. They " had her other Asia. Frobisher now went on buskins plucked off, to see if she were shore, with a party to search for gold, cloven-footed.” The essential disas there was found here a species of tinctive character being found wantmarcasite or pyrites, which contained ing, no violent proceedings were ina portion of that metal. While he stituted ; but as the contemplation of continued on shore, a furious tempest her visage still inflicted the most ese came on, accompanied with the rol. quisite torture, it appeared indispenĮing of innumerable islands of ice, sable to relieve themselves by her im “ so monstrous, that even the least of mediate dismissal. a thousand had been of force sufficient Frobisher, on examining the ore to have shivered our barke into small which he collected on the south. portions.” It was with the utmostern side of the Strait, had found room difficulty they kept the coast, but to apply the proverb, “ All is not they magnanimously resolved to brave gold that glistereth.” On the northall dangers, before they would," with ern side, however, supposed by him to our own safetie, turne into the seas, be the continent of Asia, he found a to the destruction of our said generall quantity of mineral which appeared and his companie. Frobisher next more promising, and of which, there day having returned “with good news fore, he took as much on board as his of great riches,” all their hearts were ships could well carry. Meantime, revived. They now sailed to the the natives used every contrivance to coast, at which they had lost their allure him on shore; but it being obe boat and men the preceding year. served, that while two or three came They resolved to land and make vi- forward with signs of friendship, a gorous exertions to come up with the number of others lay hid behind the people. The natives, on seeing the rocks, a deaf ear was turned to every land, retreated higher up the bay, invitation. At length one of them,

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