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PSALMODY AND CHURCH-MUSIC.
lent inflammation in the lungs, which ferent dialects, without any establishgenerally carries off the patient in 48 ed rule, without any prevailing mode hours. Observe, that the cold north of speech, for every one wrote his own wind is frequent here in the winter provincial dialect, and when be used months, and often at the same time other dialects, was guided by mere that this piercing wind freezes your caprice. Luther it was, who acquired blood on one side, the powerful rays the immortal honour of reducing this of the sun set it a boiling on the chaos to a regular whole, and of con. other; no wonder then that severe structing a written language cominon colds are caught by careless people. to all the German provinces,-that
which is now called High German.
Luther's hymns were, with one exON LUTHER'S MERITS IN REGARD TO ception, all destined for the service of
the church, and they were derived
from various sources, so that they may ( Continued from p. 307.)
be divided into four classes: i. old I shall confine my notice of Luc hymns in the German language, imther's merits as a poet to a short his- proved and extended by him ; 2. tory of bis hymn book, which, inde- Hymns translated from the Latin pendently of its value in a religious church service ; 3. Translations of point of view, was equalled by few, if portions of the Bible, both in prose any, of the literary productions of the and verse; and, 4. Original hymns. same period.
They were first published singly, Luther regretted that his country, many of them in 1523, but he conmen had almost no sacred songs in tinued to compose occasionally till their vernacular tongue. “ I am wil- 1542. ling," he writes to Spalatin, The earliest collection of hymns in cording to the example of the pro- which any of Luther's hymns were phets and the old fathers of the inserted, was published at Wittenchurch, to compose German psalms berg in 1524, in three sheets 4to, unfor the people, that is, spiritual songs, der the title "Etliche Christlich Lieder that the word of God may also remain Lobgesang, und Psalm, dem rainen with them through the means of song. wort Gottes gemess, auss der heyligeu We are looking every where for poets. schrifft durch mancherley hochgelerAs you are so eloquent and so great a ter gemacht, in den Kirchen zu sipmaster of the German language, I beggen, wie es dann zum tayl berayt zu you to put to your hand along with us, Wittenberg in übing ist; or, Some and endeavour to make a song of one Christian songs, hymns, and psalms, of the psalms, as you have here a mo- conformable to the pure word of God, del, or rather a trial by me. But I taken from the sacred scriptures by wish that the new language of the different learned men, to sing in court be avoided, and that the words churches, as is ‘now partly practised be all suited to the understanding of in Wittenberg. This very scarce the people, (according to the compre- tract, with its supplement of 1525, hension of the multitude,) quite com was carefully reprinted, but without mon and vulgar, but withal pure and the musical notes, by Olearius, at Amappropriate, so that the meaning of stadt, in 1717. But although foar of the psalms be given clearly and judi. the eight hymns which it contains ciously. We must, therefore, trans were by Luther, yet it has been estalate freely, and when we have got the blished by Riederer, that they were sense, express it by other fit words. not prepared for the press or printed I have not the gift to execute them by his own direction. As, contrary as I would wish them to be done.” to the custom at that time, the name But Luther has greatly undervalued of the printer and place is not in the his own talents, for not only his colophon, it is even probable that it friends and contemporaries looked was not printed at Wittenberg, but upon his hymns as unrivalled, but, that the insertion of that place on the along with his translation of the Bible, title-page, was an imposition by a spethey had great influence in fixing a culating bookseller, and that it was standard language in Germany. And probably printed at Erfurt, as the supwhat was the language of Germany plement is also stated in the titleat this time? A mixture of very dif- page to have been published at Wit
tenberg in 1525, whereas it appears ingly, and where God has given more, or from the colophon, that it was print- the like, to give assistance. The world, ed at Erfurt.
alas! is otherwise too indolent and forgetIn 1525, however, John Walther,
ful in educating and instructing the poor master of the chapel to the Elector of youth, that one should not, in the first Saxony, published a collection of sa- place, give occasion to it. God be gracious
Amen." cred songs by Luther, for four voices. This edition is utterly lost, but it was
Luther also wrote a preface to his reprinted in 1544, during Luther's funeral hymns, which he published in life, with the title “ Wittembergisch 1542, with the title, “ Christliche Deudsch Geistlich Gesangbüchlein. Geseng Lateinish und Deudsch zum Mit vier und fünff stimmen. Durch Begrebniss. D. Martinus Luther, Joh. Walthern, Churfurstlichen von Wittemberg, Anno MDXLII.” printSachsen Sengenmeistern, auffs new ed by Joseph Klug. mit vleis corrigirt, und mit vielen In the following year the same schönen Liedern gebessert und gemeh- printer produced an enlarged edition ret. Gedruckt zu Wittemberg, durch of Luther's hymns, with a new preGeorgen Rhaw, Anno M. D. xliiii.” face; and, for the first time, the folThe work when complete is in four lowing caution on the title-page : volumes longish quarto, as the hymns are printed separately for each voice. Viel falscher Meister itzt Lieder tichten, The preface deserves to be translated, Sihe dich für, und lern sie recht richten, not only as a curiosity, but on account
Wo Gott hin bawet sein Kirch und sein of the sentiments it contains.
Da will der Teufel schon mit Trug und Mord. “ I consider that no Christian can be ignorant, that the singing of spiritual songs Many false teachers hymns now write, is good and agreeable to God, since every
Take care their worth to judge aright, person knows not only the example of the Where God erects his church and word, Prophets and Kings in the Old Testament, The devil contends with guile and sword. who praised the Lord with singing and
In the preface he admits that many sounding, with organs and all manner of stringed instruments, but also its common
good hymns have been written by use among Christians from the beginning, he remarks, that
, by the daily and in
others, which surpass his own. But especially with psalms. Even St Paul mentions it,' 1 Corinth. xiv. ; and orders the discriminate additions, the good is Colossians to sing from their hearts spiri. buried and lost among the bad. To tual songs and psalms to the Lord, that counteract this as much as possible, thereby God's word and the doctrine of he states that he has carefully revised Christ may be promoted and practised in the present edition, and prefixed his
name; and prohibits henceforth from * Therefore I and some others, to give a beginning, and set the example to others augmenting or improving it without
his consent. who are more capable, have collected some
He was not, however, long in give spiritual songs to further and bring into use the sacred gospel, which, by the grace of ing this consent to another bookseller, God, is again arisen, so that we might re
Valentin Pabst of Leipzig, who pubjoice, as Moses does in his song, Exod. xv. lished, in 1515, a new edition, in octhat Christ is our strength and song ; and tavo, printed with the greatest care, know to sing or say nothing, save Christ and, in every respect, preferable to our Saviour, as St Paul says, 1 Corinth. ii. the others. Its title runs thus :
" And they are arranged for four voices, Geystliche Lieder. Mit einer newfor no other reason, than that I am anxious en Vorrede D. Mart. Luth. Warthat young people, who should and must
nung D. M. L. Meister itzt Lieder be educated in music, and other good arts, tichten, &c. as already quoted. The should have wherewith to get rid of their lascivious and carnal songs, and instead of printer spared no expence to give it them, learn something salutary, and receive the most agreeable and attractive apwhat is good with pleasure, as to youth is pearance, according to the taste of the meet. Also, that I am not of theopinion,
that, times ; and his arrangement pleased by the gospel, all arts should be beat down Luther so well, that he furnished it and overthrown, as some zealots pretend; with a new preface, in which he says, but I would willingly see all arts, especi. ally music, in the service of him who cre “ The printers are to be commended ated and bestowed them. I therefore beg for their activity in printing good songs, every pious Christian to receive them wiland inaking them attractive to the people.
with all manner of decoration, that they chapel to the Elector of Saxony, and may be excited to such joy of faith, and to the friend of Luther, who states presing them willingly. As then this im- cisely how far he gave his assistance. pression of Valentin Pabst is very gaily He says that Luther sent for him, and got ap, God grant that, through it, the Roman Pope, who has caused throughout Wittenberg, when he was preparing
an old teacher of singing, Rupff, to the world nothing but howling, lamentation, and suffering, by his damned, intole- the German mass, to converse with rable, and hurtful laws, may suffer great them about it, and that he explained loss and injury. Amen."
to them the mode in which he thought
the various chaunts for the epistle, But Luther was a composer of mu- gospel, &c. should be composed; that sic, as well as an amateur and a poet. he himself composed the notes for the He composed melodies for the hymns gospel, epistle, and on the words of he wrote. Every person has heard the song then before him. “And it the hundredth psalm sımg to what is easy to see, hear, and understand, is called Martin Luther's hymn. that the Holy Ghost inspired (assista But the reformer has, in this in- ed) both the authors who composed stance, got credit for what he did not the Latin chaunts, and Luther who do, for the melody alluded to does wrote the words and melodies of the not occur in a complete collection of German hymns ; as, among others, his hymn tunes now lying before me; from the German Sanctus, one may and, indeed, Dr Burney has quoted see how well and masterly he has arthe melody of our hundredth psalm, ranged all the notes to the text, acharmonized for four voices, as a spe- cording to their right accent and concimen of the manner of Claude le cent, so that I was induced to ask his Jeune, a native of Valenciennes, who reverence at the time whence and published his Dodecachorde on twelve where he had got these pieces or inpsalms of David, according to the struction, upon which the dear man twelve ancient modes, in 1598. * smiled at my siinplicity, and said,
Luther, however, both adapted to The poet Virgil taught me, who aphis hymns the chaunts of the church, plies so artfully his lines and words and old melodies, with improvements, to the history which he describes ; so and composed himself many original also should music regulate all' its melodies. It has, indeed, been alleged notes and airs by the text." that Luther was much indebted to some
There cannot, therefore, remain a of his musical friends for their assist- doubt that Luther was actually the ance, but there is direct and positive composer of such of the melodies evidence that he himself was the com attached to his hymns at the time of poser.
their publication, as were not borrowSleidan expressly says that he com
ed from the Latin chaunts, or cannot posed music to his hymns, remarka
be traced to some old tune. bly adapted to their sense, and calcu The following quotation from one lated to excite devotion. Chytraeus, of his letters to Agricola of Eisleben, Professor in Rostock, in the preface proves the same thing, and also shews to his “ Cantica sacra in usum Ec- that our grave reformer could occaclesiæ et Juventutis Hamburgensis, sionally indulge himself with quiz(Hamb. 1588,) makes the same asser- zing his friends : “I send you here tion, " Lutherus præcipuas doctrinæ for practice a song; for, not having Christianæ partes et totam Christi been able to do any thing for three historiam.....lectissimis verbis exposi- whole days, I accidentally found in a tas, et rhythmis concinnis compre corner a piece of paper, on which this hensas et melodiis elegantibus et ap- old song is set for three voices, which tissimis, quæ rebus et verbis textus I have since revised and improved, subjecti apposite congruunt, illustra- and augmented by a fourth voice, and vit.”
also written words to it on the spur of But the strongest and most une the moment. My object is as follows: quivocal testimony is that of John I wish much to mislead your chapWalther, one of the masters of the lain, M. George, and make him be
lieve that this song was sung by the A General History of Music, by choir at Augsburgh, on the entrance Charles Burney, Mus. D. F. R.S. 4 vole of the Emperor and Ferdinand, and
London, 1789. Vol. III. p. 46 sent by you to me as a novelty. Bu?
POEMS ON THE DEATH OF PRINCE
I hope my trick will succeed, if you the Princess Charlotte. And though praise it in a letter to me, and 're the two cases will, perhaps, not admit mark, that it gave general satisfaction, of any very minute parallel in their on account of its simplicity; and that various circumstances, they have inany you will send the rest of the text, claims to be often associated together when you learn from me that I have in the best and worthiest of our naalso been pleased with it. I will then tional recollections. Both have asend him the whole; and, if I succeed wakened, too," the voice of song," in cheating the fastidious critic, he not from the hireling lips alone of will have lost for ever all character as court minstrels, but from the woea musical connoisseur, which he is so tuned harps of the noblest and the desirous of being thought."
best of contemporary poets. For our PHILOHYMNOS. lamented Princess, the patriot lyre of
Campbell was first strung, and even now the notes of griet are re-echoed in a yet more touching strain by the inspired pilgrim of fallen Greece
and Italy. The premature death of Henry,
Nor was the Scottish Muse, in forPrince of Wales, son of James I. has been thought to bear a striking
mer days, backward to bedew the resemblance, in many respects, to the grave of her favourite Prince with the
melodious tears” of poetry. Sir Wils still more afflicting loss the country liam Alexander’s “ Elegie,”—Drumhas recently sustained in the death of mond's “ Teares for the Death of Mæ
liades,"--and Maxwell's “ Laudable
Life," &c.—with a multitude of others, Hume has drawn the following cha.
-are too well known to require any racter of this prince : “ This year (Oth
commemoration here. November 1612) the sudden death of
Among the Henry, Prince of Wales, diffused an uni. rest appeared a little tract, containversal grief throughout the nation. Though ing a selection of the smalles pieces youth and royal birth, both of them strong circulated on the occasion, which allurements, prepossess men mightily in (probably from its extreme rarity) has favour of the early age of princes; it is almost entirely escaped the notice of with peculiar fondness that historians men- bibliographers, but which deserves to tion Henry; and in every respect his be better known, and a few extracts merit seems to have been extraordinary. from it may, perhaps, be gratifying He had not reached his eighteenth year, to our readers. It bears the followand he already possessed more dignity in ing title :-“ Mausoleum; or, the his behaviour, and commanded more respect, than his father, with all his age, written on the Death of the neuer
Choicest Flowres of the Epitaphs learning, and experience. high fortune, nor his youth, had seduced too much lamented Prince Henrie. him into any irregular pleasures ; business Edinburgh, Printed by Andro Hart, and ambition seem to have been his sole Anno Dom. 1613," in 4to, 4 leaves.passion. His inclinations, as well as ex The first of these is as follows: ercises, were martial. The French ambas.
“ Loe here intomb'd a peerlesse Prince sador taking leave of him, and asking his
doth lie, commands for France, found him employ. In flowre and strength of age surprys'd by ed in the exercise of the pike; Tell your Death, king, said he, in what occupation you find On whom, while he on Earth drew. vitall me engaged. He had conceived great af. breath, fection and esteem for the brave Sir Walter The hope of many kingdomes did relie; Raleigh. It was his saying, Sure no king Not without cause : for Heaven most li. but my father would keep such a bird in a
berally cage. Had he lived he had probably pro- To him all princely virtues did bequeath, moted the glory, perhaps, not the felicity, which to the worthiest princes here be of his people. The unhappy prepossession neath which men commonly entertain in favour Before had bene alloted seuerally. of ambition, courage, enterprise, and other But when the world of all his virtues rare, warlike virtues, engages generous natures, The wished fruit to gather did expect, who always love fame, into such pursuits And that he should such glorious worke as destroy their own peace, and that of the effect, rest of mankind.”-History of England, As with the worthiest Famge might him 4to. Vol. VI. c. 47.
compare, VOL. II.
Untimely death then from vs did him take, She clad in sable roabes, Our losse, and griefe, Heaven's gaine, and Who in a deadly sleepe joy to make.
Such pearlie streames pours from her chris. Walter Quin. tall globes ;
Is Vertue that complaines ; No. 2 is in Latin, also by the same
She wanteth Argo's hundreth eyes to author. Walter Quin, it appears,
wecpe; was a servant of the Prince,-and Or Iris siluer raines. other verses by him, in French and That wing'd Penthasilea in the aire, in Italian, on the same occasion, are Fame is his praise who roles known to the public.
"Twixt both the starrie poles. The next three are by Drummond With earnest eyes to skies, and Bay.
crown'd haire, of Hawthornden, and were printed at the end of his “ Teares,” &c., from Enstall’d on Vertue's throne, whence they were incorporated with This ghaistlie syre that tramples pale Dethe rest of his poems. We need not, Braue Honor's cald, who scomes to give therefore, extract them in this place.
a grone, Then come the following:
For in the programme of his life be
reeds “ Faire Britaines Prince in th' Aprill of his
Mens hopes of him surmounts ALCIDES yeares,
decds." The Heaven (enamour'd with his spring
Ignoto. ing grace) Reft to her selfe, for to enriche the spheares, We have given these four at full And shine next Cynthia in the starrie chase. length, as they can be attributed only And well enjoy he might so high a place ; to an author well deserving of fame. For frowning Neptune's liquid field of This signature is the one usually af
feares, And this poore mote of dust that all vp- leigh. As they have not yet been in
fixed to the poems of Sir Walter Rabeares, To his great mind seem'd too too small a
cluded in any edition of his works, space :
and appear unknown to his biograYet it his coarse doth keepe; (dear pledge,) phers, they seem well entitled to public ou'r which
notice, even had they possessed no inAffections flammes huge Pyramides doth trinsic merit. raise,
The authors of those that come All grauen with golden letters of his praise. next, and make up the rest of this But ah depriued of a gemme so riche ! small but elegant collection, were Great Brittaine now but great to all ap- Englishmen, and are well known in peares,
the literary world ; Hugo Hollandus, In her great losse, and Oceans of teares."
George Wyther, Robert Allyne, Ignoto.
George Chapman, and William Row. “ Cio ch' il Pianéta che distingue L'hore ley. Two of these may suffice. Alluma e cinge e ciò ch'il gran Mar laua, Tutto quel è la sepottura cava,
“ Two kingdomes stroue for interest in one
Prince, Del magnanimo ARRIGO, ricco d'Honore.”
Heavens claim'd me from them, and reft
me hence : “ Why pilgrime doest thou stray
Scotlande my cradle, England hath my By Asia's floods renown'd ?
herse, Or where great Atlas crown'd
The Heavens my soule, my vertue's live With clouds, him reaches 'bove Heaven's
in verse." milkie way?
Robert Allyne. Strange wonders to behold: By His streams if thou'l but daigne to stay,
“ Did he die young ? oh no, it could not One thou shalt finde surpassing all the told.
be, For there's in little roome,
For I know few that liv'd so long but he, The Prince of men, and Man of Till God and all men lov'd him : then be Princes tombe.”
That man that liv's so long must needs be
old.” “ Here lies the world's delight,
William Rowley. Dead to our sight, but in eternall light. These nyne who by him mone,
We cannot, we think, better conThe Muses were (alas)
clude this little sketch, than by sube But through his fatall case,
joining Campbell's monody on the Are chang'd like wailing Niobe in stone. Princess Charlotte, which has not yet