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most assurances, of solid marks of im- himself, and exhausted every form of perial favour, which would follow, argument or entreaty to induce Lord upon this point being conceded. Lord Amherst to enter. At length; with a Amherst and Mr Ellis were inclined shew of friendly violence, he made a to yield, but Sir George Staunton have movement to draw him in, which was ing held a formal consultation with very properly resisted. At the same the Canton members of the mission, time, we cannot help thinking, that gave

it as his and their decided opi- in this obstinate refusal to attend the nion, that compliance would prove proposed audience, an error was commore injurious to the interests of the mitted. To a monarch accustomed Company in China, than any conces to have every wish gratified, and his sion which could be hoped for. The presence considered as an almost divine resolution of refusing it was, there- honour, it could not fail to be highly fore, irrevocably fixed.

With our

offensive. The reasons for adopting it comparatively imperfect means of ought therefore to have been very judging, we do not intend to disputę strong. Those stated are, that the amits soundness. We only regret that bassador had not his court dress, and it was not formed in a more leisurely that he was in a state of “fatigue and and deliberate manner. The decision inanition." The first concerned the was fixed, not according to the inten- Emperor's dignity more than his own, tion of the government at home, by and there would have been an immothe aspect of affairs at the moment, diate opportunity of personal explanabut by the general principle, that the tion. As to the encroachment on his ceremony was not in any case to be own personal comfort, we really do performed. This might have been not think it ought to have been at all discussed inore conveniently at Can- considered on so very serious an occaton by all the members of the Com- sion. Mr Ellis vehemently exclaims mittee, than by a few of their num- against the rude curiosity of the surber, amid the hurry and confusion of rounding personages, who appeared to a journey, and upon the pressure of view them as so many wild beasts; but the moment.

as this was neither sanctioned by the The Chinese officers did all in their Emperor, nor by any of theregularly atpower to induce the ambassador to tending Mandarins, it ought in no dechange his resolution, but when it ap- gree to have affected their official conpeared immoveable, they seemed to duct. We are far, indeed, from antiyield the point, and said, that the cipating that any very favourable Emperor would receive them on their results wouid have been produced by own terms, by which kneeling upon the interview. From what tranone knee was to be şubstituted for the spired afterwards, it appears, that Kotou. The object was now to has- a complete system of deception had ten their departure, which, through been practised upon the Emperor; the exertions of the Chinese, took that he had never been told of any obplace on the afternoon of the 28th of jections made to the ceremony, and August. They travelled that evening fully expected to see it performed. and the whole night round the walls The Mandarins probably hoped, in of Pekin, not being admitted into the hurry and confusion of this introthe city. Soon after day-break they duction, to get the thing done, though arrived at the palace of Yuen-mien, we do not think that force would where the Emperor then was. They have been employed. But the failure were ushered into a small apartment, of the ceremony would probably have filled with Princes of the blood, Man- taken from the audience every thing darins of all buttons, and other spec- of an amicable or beneficial character. tators. Chang, one of their ordinary Lord Amherst, however, had then no attendants, then came and announced suspicion of this ignorance of the Emthe Emperor's wish to admit them to peror, and could not therefore found an immediate audience. Lord Am- any proceedings upon it. herst objected, on the ground of his The principle of the Chiriese goexhausted state, and want of all pro- vernment is to make every officer reper equipments

. Chang finding all sponsible for the success of the affairs argument ineffectual, reluctantly car- entrusted to him, with very little inried the information to Hoo, who sent quiry whether they have failed through repeated messages, and at last came his own fault, or from unavoidable

VOL. II.

ii

a very

causes, This had led to the eager- impatiently exclaimed, “ There is but ness of the Mandarins for the per- one sun, and there can be but one formance of the cereinony, and it now Taouhang-.The idea is not withmade them dread being punished for out some excuse. The population of the disrespect shewn to their impe- China, at the lowest computation, is rial master. Their usual system of more than equal to that of all the deception wss resorted to. T'he Em- kingdoms of Europe united ; an experor was told that the ambassador cellent observer supposes, that as many had been seized with a sudden illness, Chinese live on the water, and have which rendered it impossible for him no habitation on land, as there are into appear in his Majesty's presence. habitants in Great Britain. Such a This passed off well. The Emperor sovereign will probably never receive, delayed the interview, and permitted with satisfaction, a mission from any the British to retire into a neighboure state, which does not approach him in ing house, where ample accommoda- the character of a humble tributary. tion was provided. Unfortunately, he In China, where nothing changes, added the farther kindness of sending a new traveller can see little that has his own chief physician to assist in not been seen before. It was impostheir cure.

That person found Lord sible that the present embassy should Amherst in the most perfect health, add much to the copious details of the and with no visible impediment to missionaries and Sir George Staunhave prevented him from appearing ton,

and the living picture drawn by at Court,—which, being reported to Mr Barrow. Indeed, Mr Ellis, though the Emperor, sealed the faie of the his remarks are correct and sensible, embassy. In two hours an order are does not appear to us to have been rived to set out for Canton without a smitten with the true exploratory moment's delay; and no plea of fatigue spirit. He repeatedly intimates, that being listened to, the party were o the traversing of distant oceans and bliged to set out by four of the same empires appeared to him day. On their arrival at Tong-chow, poor compensation for the suspenthey found the triumphal arch, which sion of his English comforts; and had been raised to celebrate their ar even in the first novelty of Chinese rival, thrown down, and the house scenery, he describes himself as beprovided for their reception shut up. sieged with ennui. He sailed, howTheir fallen state fully appeared, when ever, down the great river Yan-tsée a beggar, who had risen up as Lord kiang, which he describes as truly Amherst passed, was ordered to re- majestic, and decidedly superior to the sume his seat. Yet, in the course of better known stream of the Hoangtheir voyage down the canal, an edict ho, or Yellow River. This entirely arrived, in which the Emperor com agrees with the account long ago girplained of having been deceived, and en by Marco Polo, who represents it directed, that the English should be as the greatest then known in the treated more favourably. On their world. The embassy had also an oparrival at Canton, however, they portunity of viewing the noble scenery found a new edict, in which they of the Poyang Lake. An extensive were bitterly reproached for the dis- sheet of water, surrounded with mounrespect shewn by refusing the offered tains, is a feature not unknown to our audience. The viceroy was instructed selves. But these mountains, covered to treat them with marked coldness, and to the summit with woods and varied even to give them a sharp reprimand. vegetation, crowned with pagodas, and

Upon the whole, there does not ap- with vast cities stretching along their pear much promise of any favourable feet, must have formed a combination issue to similar missions. That there of grandeur, which scarcely, perhaps, is only one sovereign on earth, of whom any other part of the globe can equal. every other prince must own himself We now hasten to that part of the the vassal, is a principle irrevocably expedition which presents by much fixed in the mind of the Chinese. the most interesting results in the view « God is high over all, but on earth of discovery. This was the return of Gengis Khan only is Lord,” formed the Alceste and Lyra to Canton, which the preface to that conqueror's letters, they performed by a route hitherto and has continued ever since to be the unknown to European navigators. A principle of Chinese court policy. very pleasing account is given of it by Hoo, in a discussion with the embassy, Lieutenant Macleod of the Alceste ;

and a more elaborate, scientific, and shore, that he found himself obliged truly interesting one by Captain Hall to comply. No sooner, however, had of the Lyra, son to Sir James Hall, the landing taken place, than his counPresident of the Royal Society of E- tenance changed, and he was soon dinburgh, a gentleman to whom sci seen melting into tears. The party ence is deeply indebted. The vessels proceeded towards a village in sight; began by making the circuit of the but the old man soon began crying Gulf of Petchelee, which brought violently, and at length sobbed, and them upon the coast of Corea. They even bellowed aloud. The English, discovered a group of islands, to which entreating to know the cause of such Captain Hall gave his father's name. direful affliction, he made a long They landed, but the only inter- speech, in which nothing was intellicourse which they could obtain with gible except the sign of passing, his the inhabitants consisted in signs made hand frequently across his neck, which by the latter, expressive of the most was understood to intimate that his eager wish that they should go away; head was in danger. Every attempt one of which consisted in blowing a to abate his agony having proved unapiece of paper in the same direction vailing, there remained no choice but with the wind, and pointing to the to return to the ship. He appeared ships. The English were at length then ashamed of his conduct, but obliged to comply, and landed on ano- made no attempt to repair it by inther part of the coast, where they viting them again on shore. could obtain no courtesy till they expedition proceeded southturned their backs to regain the ships, wards; but they were soon surprised when the natives shewed the utmost to find that what had been supposed alacrity in helping them over every to be the coast of Corea was, in fact, a impediment. They now came to a numerous collection of small islands, very populous part of the coast, and the existence of which had been hiresolved to make another attempt to therto unknown. The number of attain a footing on land. As soon as these islands baffled all calculation. they put out their boats, a number From a high point which they reachcame rowing from the shore to meet ed in one of the groupe, they could them; and they soon distinguished one count a hundred and twenty in sight, personage, whose dress and deport- and, during a course of upwards of a ment announced him as a chief.' He hundred miles, the sea continued as was an old man of venerable appear- closely studded with them. There ance, with a beard reaching below his does not, perhaps, exist in the world middle,-a robe of immense size, such an archipelago of islets. Wherflowing round him, and a hat of enor ever they landed, the same eager anxmous brim, reaching more than three iety was shewn for their re-embarkafeet across. He received them gra- tion; so that there seems no doubt ciously, but, on their proposing to go that the Corean government is as rion shore, intimated the most decided gidly adverse to the admission of stranpreference in favour of proceeding to- gers as those of China and Japan. wards the ship. The British com The vessels now left the shore, and, plied; and he was, with great diffi- after a considerable run, passed a volculty, hauled up with his bulky ap- canic island called Sulphur Island ; pendages, and placed upon deck. He but the surf prevented them from ihen shewed extreme satisfaction, landing. They soon after came in and endeavoured to enter into conver- sight of the great island of Lieu Kieu, sation ; but it soon proved that signs or, as Captain Hall calls it, Loo Choo. were the only possible mode of com The very first view of it inspired a munication. He behaved, however, pleasing sentiment, as it resembled, with great courtesy and gaiety, -eat according to Mr Macleod's descripand drank after the English fashion, tion, rather the envircns of the finest -and searched every corner of the country-seats in England, than the ship with eager curiosity ; though to shores of a remote and unknown isexplore some of them, he was obliged, land. The deportment of the people with great reluctance, to lay aside his soon confirmed every favourable imhat of state. After several interviews, pression. Several canoes came up, the English pressed so earnestly the which handed water, provisions, and proposition of returning his visit on fish, without asking, or seeming to

expect, any return. Their manners Their range, however, 'was always were at once gentle and ceremoniously confined within the narrowest posrespectful; they uncovered their heads sible limits. They saw at a distance in presence of the English, and bow- a large building, which they had reaed whenever they spoke. The shore son to believe was the king's palace ; was soon covered with spectators ; and but all positive information on the the ships were visited by several subject was steadily withheld. At the chiefs, who behaved in the frankest same time, the intimacy and cordiality and kindest manner. When, however, of the English with the natives daily the English began to make overtures augmented. They had a Chinese infor returning these visits on shore, terpreter, so that they could commuevery mode of polite evasion was stu- nicate from the first by worls; and diously employed. They pretended both parties soon made great progress to consider themselves so much in- in each other's language. The most ferior to their new acquaintances, as interesting personage was a young man to have no claim to such a return, of the name of Madera, who appeared which would even, they said, have first as a common native, and assodegraded the latter. Captain Max ciated with the sailors, but gradually well having complained of illness, rose in consequence, till he proved to they offered to send a physician on be a man of very high rank, who had board ; and when he said that his assumed this disguise for the sake of physician had recommended a ride on observing the strangers more intimateshore, they merely laughed, and ly. He appears to have been remarkchanged the subject. Atter several ably distinguished by intelligence, as visits, however, the Captain pushed well as by a good-humoured, gay, and the offer so home, that they could not friendly disposition. Before leaving reject it without an open breach. Loo Choo, they were visited by a Five of the officers, accordingly, land- prince of the blood, a very polite pered, and were received with much ce- sonage, but who had nothing striking remony, being led by the chiefs through in his manners or appearance. On two files of people, ranged on each their expressing a wish to be introside for the purpose of viewing them. duced to the king, he stated, that the They soon reached a temple, where custom of the country forbade this, they found a large japanned table unless they came on an express misspread, and were regaled with a din- sion from their own sovereign. The ner, consisting of hard boiled eggs, English soon after took their deparfish fried in butter, sinoked pork, pigs ture, which drew forth deep demonliver sliced, several kind of cakes, and strations of grief from Madera and other dishes, most of which were their other friends. found palatable. The entertainment The inhabitants of Loo Choo apwas conducted with much gaiety and pear, indeed, to be a very interesting good humour. It was still in vain people. In their manners and politithat they solicited permission to land cal state, they seem to hold a middle their stores, and to take up their quar- place between the people of China and ters on shore, for the benefit of health those of the South Sea Islands, and, and exercise. This, however, was at by a rare good fortune, to have unitlength brought about. The natives ed the good qualities of both, without had, at first, recommended a harbour the faults of either. They combine ten miles to the southward; but their the civilization of the one race with new visitors, when better known, be the simplicity of the other. There coming daily more agreeable, they was every reason to believe that they shewed no wish to part, and always were unacquainted both with arms shunned furnishing the promised and with money. Their honesty was guide to this new station. One morn- quite unimpeachable. Although they ing, however, the Lyra disappeared, had free access to every part of the and they found, on inquiry, that it ship, and of the temple in which the had gone to reconnoitre the harbour stores were afterwards placed, no inin question. The dread of losing the stance of pilfering was ever observed ; English altogether made all their de and, when any thing was missing, no mands be at once agreed to. They one ever suspected that it could have were received on shore, and commo- been carried off by the natives. They diously lodged in a large temple. are a gay and social people, carry

about their dimer in boxes, and have been so rapid and various, that Shakefrequent pic-nic parties among them- speare himself, in his wildest flights, selves. They appeared to enjoy much has been completely distanced by the hospitality of the ship, and did not the eccentricities of actual existence. always confine themselves within the Even he would scarcely have darinost rigid rules of temperance. The ed to have raised, in one act, a pripopulation could not be conjectured. vate adventurer to the greatest of EuThe part of the island immediately ropean thrones,-to have conducted under observation was highly fertile him, in the next, victorious over the and cultivated, but the opposite side necks of emperors and kings, and was understood to be much less im- then, in a third, to have shewn him proved.

an exile, in a remote speck of an Captain Hall displays a degree of island, some thousands of miles froin geological knowledge, which, though the scene of his triumphs; and the hereditary with him, is very unusual chariot which bore him along covered in maritime travellers. Unfortunate- with glory, quietly exhibited to a gaply, the regions surveyed afforded little ing mechanical rabble under the roof scope for its exercise. We must ex- of one of the beautiful buildings on cept the curious account of the struc- the North Bridge of Edinburgh, ture of an island off the coast of Co- (which buildings we heartily pray may rea, which he named Hutton's Island, be brought as low as the mighty po after that celebrated geologist. We tentate whose Eagles are now to be inay add the descriptions of the coral seen looking out of their windows, formations on the coast of Loo Choo, like the fox from the ruins of Balclufor that island presented no other re- tha.) Our appetite, we say, for every markable features. The volume is, sort of wonder and vehement interest, moreover, enriched by a vocabulary of has in this way become so desperately the Loo Choo language, and by a great inflamed, that especially as the world variety of nautical observations. around us has again settled into its

old dull state of happiness and legiti

macy, we can be satisfied with noFrankenstein ; or the Modern Pro- thing in fiction that is not highly co

metheus. 3 Vols. Svo. London. loured and exaggerated ; we even like Lackington, &c. 1818.

a story the better that it is disjointed

and irregular, and our greatest inventHere is one of the productions of ors, accordingly, have been obliged to the modern school in its highest style accommodate themselves to the taste of caricature and exaggeration. It is of the age, more, we believe, than formed on the Godwinian manner, their own judgment can, at all times, and has all the faults, but many like- have approved of. The very extrawise of the beauties of that model. vagance of the present production will In dark and gloomy views of nature now, therefore, be, perhaps, in its faand of man, bordering too closely on vour, since the events which have acimpiety in the most outrageous im- tually passed before our eyes have probability, in sacrificing every thing maile the atmosphere of miracles that to effect, it even goes beyond its in which we most readily breathe. great prototype ; but in return, it pose' - The story opens with a voyage of sesses a similar power of fascination, discovery to the North Pole. A something of the same mastery in young Englishman, whose mind had harsh and savage delineations of pas- long been inflamed with this project, sion, relieved in like manner by the sets sail from Archangel, soon gets ingentler features of domestie and sim- closed, as usual, among ice mountains, ple feelings. There never was a wild- and is beginning to despair of success, e story imagined, yet, like most of the when all his interest and thoughts are fictions of this age, it has an air of diverted suddenly into another chanreality attached to it, by being con- nel, in consequence of a very singular nected with the favourite pro- adventure. One day a gigantic figure jects and passions of the times. The was seen moving northwards on a real events of the world have, in our sledge, drawn by dogs, and a short day, too, been of so wondrous and time afterwards a poor emaciated gigantic a kind,--the shiftings of the wretch was picked up from a sledge that scenes in our stupendous drama have drifted close to the vessel. The Enga

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