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THE MEANS OF DIMINISHING IT.
aris; and that the saidis Provest and cases of continued fever, dismissed Baillies appoynt a constabill for every cured ; and 46 deaths, or somewhat closse to sie thair ordinance putt in less than 1 in 15. It further appears, executioun, and the contravenaris pú- that more than halt of the whole, or nist, be exacting of the saidis paines 353 of these cases, occurred during the from thame ; certifeing the saidis Pro- last four months, from the 1st Novest and Baillies gif they be remiss, veinber 1817 to 28th February 1818, or negligent heirin, the saidis Lordis of whom 25 died, or rather less than will tak thame to thame, and, accord- 1 in 14. inglie, will tak such ordour heirin as In consequence of a representation they sall think expedient.--(Reg. Sec. from the physicians some time last Conc. Mar. 4. 1619.)'
autumn, the managers of the Royal Infirmary directed the opening of
some additional wards for the recepOBSERVATIONS ON THE PREVALENCE
tion of fever cases; by which means OF FEVER AT EDINBURGH, AND they were enabled to admit every fe
ver patient who offered, until about
the middle of December, when the In a work of Dr Ferriar's of Man- house had become so crowded, that chester, published in 1910, it is said, they were under the painful necessity “ It is well known that a nervous of daily refusing applications for the fever of the worst kind is rendered admission of fever patients. On the 'endemical in Edinburgh, by the prac- 1st of January 1818, the total numtice of mewing up families in small ber of patients in the Infirmary was subterraneous dwellings, where the 236; and for a considerable time contagion is constantly reproduced.” they greatly exceeded that number, Though there may not be reason for while the average daily number of the above assertion to the full extent, many years has been under 170. it is believed that, in all large towns, A representation having been male fever exists always more or less among to the Lord Provost with regard to the poor ; and it is probable, that the the extraordinary prevalence of conta*principal sources of it in Edinburgh gious fever among the poor, and the are the lodging-houses, which, for inadequate accommodation for them some time past, have been more than in the Royal Infirmary, his Lordship usually crowded by an afflux of stran- called a meeting on the 17th of Janugers in quest of work, by the cellars ary, at which were present, besides the and other damp, ill ventilated, and magistrates, some of the managers of dirty abodes of the poor, and by their the Royal Infirmary, members of the incautious or unavoidable intercourse Destitute Sick Society, &c. when it was with each other in infected places. agreed that the Lord Provost should It also appears that the fever has of late write to Lord Sidmouth for leave to been more prevalent than usual, not occupy part of Queensberry-house only in Edinburgh, but in many other barracks as a temporary fever hospital. towns and places of the British isles; Permission was immediately granted; and the immediate and chief cause of and the managers of the Royal Infirthis greater prevalence of fever seems mary, who undertook the charge of this to be, in addition to its contagious na new establishment, exerted themselves ture, the want of employment, and so much, that it was opened on the 23dot consequent distress in respect of food, and other circumstances connected with health. Though these different evils Amount of former months of 1817: cannot be entirely done away, they See Magazine for November 1817. may be lessened ; and, though little that is new can be said on the subject,
320 21 347 it may be useful to exhibit some of the
59 0 leading points with a view to stimu
93 6 99 late the magistracy, the benevolent, and the rich, to further exertions.
478 33 511 From the 1st of January 1817 to
7 93 the 28th of February 1818, a period
February 90 6 96 of 14 months, there appear on the register of the Royal Infirmary, 654
Cured. Died. Total.
February 1818; and from that to 28th double object in view, viz. the curing February, 34 patients were admitted. of the patient, and the freeing his
The fever wards in the Royal Infir- clothes from infection,—and the extermary wereopened about the year 1794; nal measures of prevention, which and it may here be observed, that hos- chiefly consist in the early removal of pitals for fever or infectious diseases, the infected person to the hospital, or fever wards in hospitals, in point and in the cleansing and purifying of of utility, exceed all others, those for the habitation, furniture, and clothes, accidents that require immediate sur of the person or of the family from gical aid perhaps alone excepted. which he has been removed. The benefit derived in other cases With regard to the internal meaconsists in removing disease, and is sures in the hospital, it is sufficient to confined to the patient himself; but observe, that the expediency or necesin the case of contagion, the evils pre- sity of hospital dresses is evident; for vented are much greater than those without them we cannot be sure that reinedied, though the latter may at the patients, when dismissed, do not tract more individual gratitude. A carry infection along with them. fever hospital, however, unaided by The managers and physicians of external measures of prevention, will an infirmary cannot well take an answer the intended purpose of arrest- active share in conducting the exing the progress of fever but very im- ternal measures, but they should perfectly, when the disease prevails act in concert with those who do. much.
The advantages of an early removal In October 1817, the Society for the of an infected person are obvious. Relief of Destitute Sick circulated a When not adopted, the infection printed notice, that they had made spreads in the house, and, instead of arrangements, with the view of check- one person, it may be necessary to ing the progress of contagious fever in send a whole family to the hospital. Edinburgh, by holding out induce. The neglect or difficulty of carrying ments to poor people affected with fe- this object into effect, must further Ver to go to the Infirmary, by pu- contribute much to extend the conrifying such houses, bedding, clothes, tagion, by the intercourse of friends &c. as are infected, &c. Notwith- and neighbours with the infected fastanding, however, of their merito- mily. In order to forward these views rious exertions, the fever seemed to of early removal, not only has admiscontinue to spread, even previous to sion into fever hospitals been made as the Infirmary being so full as not to easy as possible,--and the only circumbe able to receive all those whom the stances required to entitle a patient to Destitute Sick Society wished to have be admitted have been manifest poadmitted. It has, indeed, been im- verty, the close and crowded state of agined, that the establishment of a fe- the habitation, and the disease in quesver institution would immediately ar- tion,—but patients have been sought rest the progress, and ultimately eradi- for, and even rewards offered for their cate the disease. But the circumstan- discovery, on a general system of muces, evils, or abuses, which produce and nicipal policy, for the benefit of the propagate the disease, cannot be rec- community. That the earlier the petified by the activity of individuals, riod of the disease at which they are or the succours of any charitable in- sent to the hospital, the greater will stitution now existing; and the history be the chance of recovery, is an addiof the state of fever in Dublin and tional and strong argument in favour Cork, in which fever institutions, on of an early removal. an extensive scale, and under the best Besides the various groups of primanagement, have existed for years, yate dwelling houses, where the conproves, that this desirable result does tagion has been communicated from not necessarily follow. There are va one family to another, there are a rious difficulties which oppose mea- considerable number of lodging houses sures of prevention from being effec- in different parts of the town, which tually carried into execution, and are crowded, dirty, and ill ventilated ; which can only be obviated, at least and where, by succession of new to a certain extent, by the interference comers, occupying the places and beds of the magistracy and police.
of their predecessors who have had In a fever institution, there is a fever, the contagion is kept up. As
one poor creature dies, goes away, or be maintained in them by the exertions is driven out, he is replaced by an- of the most active benevolence. A other, who soon feels the consequence principal advantage, in a medical of breathing infected air, and of other- view, of having these lodging houses wise being exposed to infection. No under some regulation, would be, the measures of prevention or purification power of clearing an infected house of are taken by the masters of these its inhabitants, on the representation houses,—ventilation and cleanliness of the inspector, and of keeping it are altogether neglected;—indeed, in empty, till all necessary methods of many of the houses of the poor, venti- cleansing and sweetening it should be lation can be very imperfectly per- employed. formed, and they are in general very T'he state of dampness, want of venaverse to practise it. Another cause tilation, and dirtiness of the cellars of the spreading of contagion may be and other abodes of the poor, is anmentioned, -the poor, when in dis- other extensive and permanent source tress, are frequently obliged to sell of evil. It is needless here to enter their clothes, which being saturated into a more particular detail of these with contagious effluvia, are bought circumstances, as they are sufficiently by healthy persons, and used with- known to many benevolent individuout having been purified.
als, who, in various ways, attempt to In respect to the lodging houses and relieve the distresses of the poor. I other unwholesome dwellings of the shall only say, that, when fever is once poor, it will be sufficient to state introduced into such lodging houses what was proposed and done at Man- and such dwellings, it can hardly fail chester, in circumstances similar to to continue and spread, unless recourse those now under consideration. be had to such means of prevention
The attention and uneasiness ex as those above noticed ; and that the cited on the subject of fever in 1795, efficiency of these means will be in appeared to several gentlemen in Man- proportion to the zeal and punctuality chester, who had interested themselves with which they are executed. As, in the state of the poor, to offer a fa- however, the poor are, for the most vourable occasion for forming a Board part, quite insensible of the advantaor Committee of Health, which, in ges to be derived from pure air, and various points of view, might prove a personal and domestic cleanliness, and measure of great public utility, and a too often their situation and distress principal object of which should be are such, that they cannot practise to diminish the frequency of epidemic them, if they were willing, it is to be fever.
feared that the purification of a house Respecting lodging houses, it was will not unfrequently prove but a thought, that, it they were licensed, temporary measure. It is almost useand brought more immediately under less to observe, that it would be highthe notice and control of the civil ly beneficial, if it were possible, by magistrate, many of the causes of fe any means, to effectuate a general ver might be prevented. They might and permanent improvement of the be visited by proper officers frequent- dwellings of the poor. We may at ly, and regular reports of the names, least attempt to preserve them in a occupations, conduct, &c. of the lod more wholesome state, by inculcating, gers, as well as of the state of the on every occasion of interference, the houses, with regard to infection, be necessity of ventilation and cleanlilaid before the magistrate. It would ness, as well as of temperance and genot be difficult to ascertain at what neral regularity of conduct. point the want of cleanliness becomes Upon the whole, it appears that dangerous, and, as far as scouring and much may be accomplished by the white-washing can remedy that de- joint operation of a fever hospital or fect, the hazard might be prevented; fever wards, and the external means but difficulties would attend the ef- of prevention, in checking the proforts of the inspectors to preserve the 'gress of contagion, and diminishing beds and bed-clothes in tolerable or the frequency of fever ; but the reder. Wretches are so frequently re- markable exemption of London, Manceived into such places in a state of chester, and other places from fever, extreme filthiness, that cleanliness and for a succession of years, cannot be comfort could hardly be expected to entirely ascribed to the establishment
of their fever institutions, but in a none of them is it more apparent than great measure
to some general in the ancient language of our own causes favourable to health; and, country. This subject has not been from reverse circumstances, such as traced (so far as I know) to that those which have been operating length which its importance seems to powerfully of late, I am afraid we warrant, and, as it may afford matter must expect, that, notwithstanding of curious speculation respecting the all our exertions, fever will prevail at history of our forefathers, I take the certain times more than at others. P. liberty of sending for insertion in the
Scots Magazine, the following table,
in which the similarity of the two AFFINITY BETWEEN THE HEBREW languages is pointed out. The sub
ject will bear a much farther investia
gation, and may excite the attention MR EDITOR,
of some of your literary corresponTae Hebrew language is supposed, dents. by many, to be the Janua Linguarum If you think this worthy of a corOrientalium ; its influence is also ex ner in your valuable Miscellany, you tended, more or less, through every may hear again from A. Scor. language in Europe ; but, perhaps, in Perthshire, 2d Feb. 1818. Hebrew, in Roman Characters. Gaelic.
AND GAELIC LANGUAGES.
JOURNAL OF A VISIT TO HOLLAND, hoisted, and the anchor hove short, in AND PART OF FLANDERS, IN THE
the course of a few minutes, and exMONTHS OF AND AUGUST actly at four o'clock P. M., with a 1817.
OF LETTERS fine westerly breeze, we turned round FROM A GENTLEMAN TO A FRIEND upon our romantic city, and had an
interesting view of all its remarkable
points. The fore ground of this deLetter First.
lightful prospect is finely studded with detached villas, and the fields
waving with a rich, though still verYou know that we dant crop. The whole extent of the Off St Abb’s
sailed from Leith Roads city from east to west, being fully in Head, 25th July 1817.
for Holland on Friday view from the Roads of Leith, the
the 25th July. No pare evening sun began to be reflected from ty could be more steady with regard the windows, as if by ten thousand to the day fixed for sailing, or more mirrors; the top line is also finely pointed as to the hour of meeting, broken and varied by many commandconsidering the shortness of the notice ing objects, among which may bemengiven to some of them. The place of tioned the superb dome of St George's, rendezvous was at one of those elegant the Castle, St Giles' venerable steeple, Marine Villas with which the south- and the spire of St Andrew's church, ern shore of the Frith of Forth begins the whole toward the east terminating at length to vie with the banks of the with the green tufted hill and monuClyde and the Thames. After receive ment erected to the glorious memory of ing every possible hospitality and at our departed hero Nelson. The back tention here, we found the ship’s long ground of this beautiful scene is, if posboat in waiting, with her boatswain sible, still more interesting, especiallyto and active crew, clad with characteris- the admirer of the works of nature upon tic neatness, when we readily embark- the great scale. As seen from the ed. Just as the boat put off from the Frith of Forth, the city appears to be shore, and friends were mutually bid. set down in an immense amphitheatre, ding adieu, we were informed that the encircled by a range of mountains. sales of building areas upon the Re- On the west we have the hills of Corgent Bridge were likely to yield no storphin, which seem to be separated less than L. 35,000 or L. 40,000. This from those of Fifeshire as if by some very important piece of intelligence, sudden dislocation, to admit the waconnected with the funds of the splen- ters of the Forth to empty themselves did improvements begun a few years more freely into the sea. Towards since in our Scottish metropolis, un- the south, the Pentland range holds der much doubt and difficulty with a commanding place, while Salisbury regard to the ways and means, afford- Craigs and Arthur's Seat are seen sloped the happiest interlude to the con- ing towards the east, and fall into the versation, tending to dispel those re sea at the bay of Musselburgh. But flections which unavoidably break in I now take leave of this picturesque upon the mind at the moment of leave and beautiful scene, and must confine ing home, especially for a foreign myself to a few passing remarks on country.
particular objects as we glide along That Holland is but a few hours' the coast, to our point of departure sail from our nearest shores, you are for Holland. I must, however, be perfectly aware. Yet, during the last permitted further to observe, after a twenty years, that country has really pretty general acquaintance with Bribeen less visited by the British travel- tish scenery, that there is, perhaps, ler than even the remotest parts of the no other city which presents so many world, owing to the state of continental attractions to the man of taste and of affairs, which so long and so unhappily science as Edinburgh. Nor can any divided Europe. The boat having one be said to know half its beauties soon reached our little ship, the ready who has not seen it from the Roads attendants, with their man ropes and of Leith, as well as from the New supporting arms, were found posted Mull round the Caltonhill. on each side of the gangway, at once The very fine breeze with which we to welcome and assist the strangers on were favoured, and the excellent sail. board. The sails being previously ing-trim of our ship, enabled us to hold