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Days. Jan. W. 21 Th. 22 Fr. 23 Sa. 24 Su. 25 M. 26 Tu. 27 W. 28 Th. 29 Fr. 30 Sa. 31

Feb. Su. 1 M. 2 Tu. 3 W. 4 Th. 5 Fr. 6 Sa. 7 Su. 8

Morn.

M. 1 39 2 18 2 56 3 31

9 4 47 5 25 6 7 6 55 7 54 9 12

Even.
H. M.
1 58
2 35
3 14
3 50
4 28
5
5 45
6 29
7 22
8 33
9 58

Even. H. M. 4 55 5 26 5 58 6 36 7 24 8 35 10 22 11 41 12 37

Days.

Feb.
M. 9
Tu. 10
W. 11
Th. 12
Fr. 13
Sa. 14
Su. 15
M. 16
Tu. 17
W. 18
Th. 19
Fr. 20
Sa. 21
Su. 22
M. 23
Tu. 24
W. 25
Th. 26
Fr. 27
Sa. 28

Morn.
H. M.
4 41

11
5 42
6 17
6 59
7 56
9 26
11 5
12 10
12 59
1 19
1 59
2 35
3 12
3 47
4 23
5 0
5 42
6 29
7 28

10 44
12 3

1 39 2 16 2 54 3 30 4 5 4 42 5 21 6 3 6 56

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1 30 2 17 2 59 3 37 4

TERMS, &c.

MOON'S PHASES.
Apparent Time at Edinburgh.
Ful? Moon, Jan 22. 25 m. past 10 morn.
Last Quarter,

29. 42

4 after. New Moon, Feb. 5. 39 ll morn. First Quarter,

13. 0

4 morn. Full Moon,

21 30

1 morn. Last Quarter, 28 17

O morn.

Jan. 27. Duke of Sussex born.

30. King Charles I. martyrdon.
Feb. 2. Candlemas.

14. Old Candlemas.
24. Duke of Cambridge born.
27. Hare Hunting ends.

TO CORRESPONDENTS.

We are much obliged by the hints lately received from different quarters, with a view to the Improvement of our Register. Our Military and Naval readers shall, in future, find these lists regularly ; they were only postponed from a wish to devote as much as possible of our Pages to matter altogether Original, We shall also attend to the wishes expressed in Letters from London, Edinburgh, and Fife, in regard to other Divisions of the same Department. But we have some reuson to doubt if it will be in our power fully to comply with the desire of our London Correspondent, within the bounds to which the Tables he alludes to must necessarily be confined.

Edinburgh, January 20, 1818.

The Correspondents of the EDINBURGH MAGAZINE AND LITERARY MISCELLANY are respectfully requested to transmit their Communications for the Editors to ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE and COMPANY, Edinburgh, or LongMAN and COMPANY, London, to whom also orders for the Work should be particularly addressed.

Printed by George Ramsay & Co.

EDINBURGH MAGAZINE,

AND

LITERARY MISCELLANY.

JANUARY 1818.

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.

AFFAIRS OF SPANISH AMERICA. and opening, on a liberal footing, these

extensive countries to the commerce The commotions by which Europe and manufactures of Europe. Contemhas been shaken for nearly the last plating the advantages which must. thirty years, have excited such deep inevitably result from the indepenand universal interest, that, during dence of the Spanish colonies, the these eventful times, the inhabitants of struggle in which they are now enthis agitated spot have neither had gaged appears to excite the most leisure nor inclination to inquire mi- lively sympathy in this country, and nutely into the affairs of other coun- since, by the re-establishment of peace tries, their attention having been in Europe, we have leisure for ina wholly absorbed by revolutions which quiry and speculation, there prevails more immediately affected their own a general desire for information rehappiness and peace. It has happen- garding these extensive regions, now ed, however, by a singular coinci- unhappily the scene of intestine dence, that, at the time when the re commotions. For the

purpose of

gravolutionary spirit appears to have tifying this laudable spirit of curiosispent its force in Europe, a similar ty, we shall briefly submit to our read spirit of resistance to established autho- ers a geographical sketch of those rity should have been kindled through- colonies, with such notices of their out the Spanish provinces of America, principal towns, rivers, and most ima and that the scene of commotion portant products, as will enable them should thus have been in a manner to appreciate the different military only shifted from the Old to the statements which are, from time to New World. The changes which time, circulated in the journals of the have taken place in the remote de- day, and from the positions of the pendencies of Spain, will unquestion- hostile armies contending for the posably be attended by the most import- session of the country, to form some ant and beneficial consequences, de rational conclusions as to the nature stroying, as they must do, root and of the operations which they are care branch, that system of monopoly, rying on. Such a digest of facts may, which enthralled the industry of na we hope, in every view, prove useful tions, and consigned to neglect the to our readers, by saving them the most precious resources of nature,

trouble of tedious researches for information, which, with all their laa bour, they may not at last be able to

obtain. Chili in many parts abounds in the The Spanish possessions in Amerifinest iron. But a law existed prohibit ca occupy the vast tract of country interfered with the import of iron from the comprised between 41° 43' of S. Lat. mother country. Upon the same princi- and 37° 48' of N. Lat. and extend aple, wine was prohibited from being made bout 5000 miles from north to south. i Mexico.

They lie partly in North and partly

in South America, and are divided About one-half of this extensive into the following general govern- country is situated within the tropics, ments, namely,

while the other half lies within the 1. The viceroyalty of Mexico.

temperate zone. It is well known, 2. The government of Guatimala.

however, that the influence of geo3. The government of Porto Rico. graphical position on the climate of 4. The government of the Caraccas, any country, is modified by another 5. The viceroyalty of New Grenada, in. cause of equally powerful operation,

cluding the new kingdom of Grena- pamely, the height of the ground ada and Quito.

bove the level of the sea, and that the 6. The viceroyalty of Peru.

continent of America is distinguish7. The viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres.

ed by its general and prodigious ele8. The government of Chili. 9. The government of the Havannah, in- vation ; nor does the land in Mexi

co rise in abrupt and mountainous cluding the Floridas.

ridges. On the contrary, it has been 1. Mexico, or New Spain, general- estimated, that about three-fifths of the ly designates that extensive country country is spread out in extensive plains which is bounded to the N. and S. of from 6000 to 8000 feet in height. by the 38th and 10th parallels of N. In travelling into the interior, either Lat. which, on the E. and S.E. has from Acapulco, on the coast of the the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Pacific, or from Vera Cruz on the Mexico, and on the W. is bounded eastern shore, the land rises to its by the Pacific Ocean. Among the heightgradually, and the whole country Spanish colonies, Mexico occupies un- is laid out in vast and uniform plains, doubtedly the first rank, both on ac- which, from their forming so perfect count of its great population-the a level, have received the denominanumber of considerable cities which tion of Table Land. These plains it contains--its territorial wealth, and rise to the height of 6000 and 8000 the enormous value of its inetallic feet above the level of the surroundproduce.

ing seas, which is equal to some of the Before the introduction of the new highest summits of the Alps, such as administration of the country in 1776, Mount Cenis, St Gothard, or the great Mexico, or New Spain, was divided St Bernard. in the following manner:

From this singular form of the 1. The kingdom of Mexico.

ground, it happens, that the coasts a2. The kingdom of New Galicia. lone possess a hot climate, adapted 3. The new kingdom of Leon.

for the productions of the West In4. The colony of Santander.

dies. The mean temperature of the 5. The province of Texas.

plains which lie within the tropics, 6. The province of Cohahuila.

and which are not elevated above the 7. The province of New Biscay.

level of the sea more than 984 feet, 8. The province of Sonora.

is about 77° of Fahrenheit, or about 9. The province of New Mexico.

16° above the mean heat of Naples. 30. The Californias.

The climate of these tropical countries, These ancient divisions are still more especially in the cities, is exfrequently used in the country; . At ceedingly fatal to Europeans, who are present, New Spain is divided into liable, on their first landing, to the the following twelve intendencies and terrible malady of the yellow-fever. three provinces.

The western declivity of the Cordille1. The province of New Mexico. ra of Mexico, and the shores of the 2. The intendency of New Biscay. South Sea from Acapulco, to the 3. and 4. New and Old California. ports of Colima and San Blas, are a5. Intendency of Sonora.

mong the hottest and most unhealthy 6. San Luis Potosi.

places in the south. The port of Aca7. Zacatecas.

pulco, more especially, is frequently 8. Guadalaxara.

fatal to visitors landing from Europe, 9. Guanaxuato. 10. Valladolid, or Mechoacan.

or to merchants who descend from the 11. Mexico.

cool and salubrious temperature of the 12. Puebla.

Table Land, to breathe the hot and 13. Vera Cruz,

tainted atmosphere of the coast. 14. Oaxaca.

On the declivity of the Andes, at 15. Merida.

the height of from 4000 to 5000 feet,

there reigns perpetually a soft spring continual ascent and descent, and temperature, which never varies more every instant the traveller arrives than 78 or go of Fahrenheit; the from a cold climate, to regions excesmean heat of the whole year is from sively hot. On the contrary, of the So to 70°

250 miles from Mexico to the port The third division of the climate of Vera Cruz, the greater part becomprehends the plains which are longs to the great central plain, which elevated 7000 feet above the level of extends, with little interruption, from the sea. This is the height of the the 18th to the 40th degree of N. lat. a eity of Mexico, and in summer the distance nearly equal to that of the town thermometer seldom rises above 75°, of Lyons from the tropic of Cancer. while in winter it ranges between 55° The rest of the road is a continued and 70°. The mean temperature of and laborious descent. To such of our the whole Table Land is 62", which is readers as consider this singular conabout equal to the temperature of Rome. figuration of the ground, it must be The plains, which rise above the obvious, that a country so elevated, height of 8000 feet, possess, though and to be reached only by a contiwithin the tropics, a rule and disa- nued ascent through difficult roads, greeable climate, even to an inhabi- must abound in defensive military tant of the north.

positions, and that, with the least de Towards the west, the descent from gree of skill on the part of its defenthe Table Land is much more steep ders, it could not be conquered but at than towards the east. Setting out such an expence of blood, as no state from the city of Mexico, which is could afford to lavish away in its pursituated at nearly an equal distance chase. from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Mexico, from its position between towards the east, on the road to Vera Europe and Asia, appears admirably Cruz, the traveller advances 180 miles adapted for carrying on an extensive before a single valley occurs, of which commerce with both continents, five the bottom does not rise 3280 feet a or six weeks being sufficient for combove the level of the sea. In the ope municating with either, while the posite direction from Mexico to Aca- country, from its diversified climate, pulco, the road descends the same would yield the various produce both depth in the space of 50 miles. The of the warm and temperate regions, eastern declivity of the Andes is so and would thus supply in abundance regular and uniform, that when once the materials of an extensive exchange the traveller begins to descend from with other countries. The mountains the great central plain, he continues contain ores of every kind of metal, his descent until he arrives at the and there are abundant mines, not eastern coast. The western coast is only of the precious metals, but also furrowed by four very remarkable of copper, lead, tin, alum, vitriol, and longitudinal valleys, of which the re- different sorts of precious stones. spective heights above the level of the Among the forest trees are the cedar, sea are 3217, 1685, 557, 618 feet. Brazil wood, mahogany, and every The road towards Asia from Mexico sort of timber either for use or ornathus differs from the road towards ment. Europe. For the space of about 220 The following is an account of the miles, the distance in a straight line most remarkable towns in Mexico or from Mexico to Acapulco, there is a New Spain :

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