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their report, and Dr. Fergusson was de two classes, positive and negative, and inpated to draw up the statement.

clude all those whose primitive form is the This gentleman found, that the eruptions hexahedral prism, the rhomboid with an of these semi-volcanoes, two in number, obtuse summit, and the octahedron, in which are situated on a narrow tongue of which the pyramids have a square base. land, which points directly into one of the III. On crystals with two axes of double mouths of the Oronoko on the Main, ac refraction and polarisation. These crysbout 12 or 15 miles off, at the southern tals, which amount to about eighty, inextremity of Trinidad, and not far from clude all those whose primitive form is not the celebrated Pitch Lake, are at all times the hexahedral prism, the obtuse rhomboid, quite cold. That the matter ordinarily the octohedron with a square base, the thrown out consisted of argillaceous earth cube, the regular octohedron, and the mixed with salt water, about as salt as the rhomboidal octohedron. water in the neighbouring Gulf of Paria; IV. On the resolution and combination but though cold at all times, that pyritic of polarising forces, and the reduction of all fragments were occasionally ejected along crystals to crystals with two or more axes. with the argillaceous earth. They also ob V. On crystals with three equal and rectserved, that several mounts in the vicinity angular axes. These crystals amount to possessed the same character in all respects twenty, and consist of those whose primias the semi-volcanoes then in activity, hav- tive form is the cube, the regular octoheing all the marks, except the actual erup- dron, and the rhomboidal dodecahedron. tion, of having been raised through a simi. VI. On the artificial imitation of all the Jar process to their existing altitude, of a. classes of doubly refracting crystals. bout a hundred feet; and that the trees VII. On the laws of double refraction, around them were of the kind that are u. for crystals with any number of axes. sually found near lagoons and salt marshes. December 15.--A paper was read, which The nature of the duties on which they had been announced at the first meeting, were employed did not permit their at- by Dr Murray, containing Experiments on tempting any analysis of the air, water, or Muriatic Acid. earths, furnished by the eruptions.

Jan. 5.-The continuation of Dr MurNurember 24.-A general meeting of the ray's paper on Muriatic Acid Gas was Society having been held for the election of read. In the preceding part of it, it had office-bearers, the following gentlemen appeared, that from the action of metals on were chosen :

muriatic acid gas, water is deposited. President.--Sir James Hall, Bart.

It was shown that the water obtained in Vice-Presidents.-Right Hon. Lord Gray the experiments could not be derived from and Lord Glenlee.

hygrometric vapour ; that it could not be Secretary.- Professor Playfair.

accounted for from the supposition of a Treasurer.-Mr Bonar.

portion of water being combined with the Keeper of the Museum. Thomas Allan, acid in the gas beyond that which is strictEsq.

ly essential to its constitution; and that it President of the Physical Class.--Sir could not be ascribed to any lower degree George Mackenzie, Bart.

of oxidation of the metal being established. Secretary.Dr Hope.

Dr Murray considered the result of these Counsellors of the Physical Class. Lord experiments as establishing, in addition to Webb Seymour, Mr Leslie, Colonel Imrie, what he had before brought forward, the Mr Jameson, Dr Brewster, and Mr James fallacy of the opinion in which chlorine Jardine.

is regarded as a simple substance, which, President of the Literary Class.-Hen- with hydrogen, forms muriatic acid. The ry Mackenzie, Esq.

opposite opinion, that it is a compound of Secretary.- Thomas Thomson, Esq. muriatic acid with oxygen, and that mu. Counsellors of the Literary Class.--Mr riatic gas is a compound of muriatic acid Pillans, Dr Macknight, Mr Dunbar, the and water, might be held to be established, Rev. Mr Alison, Lord Reston, and Rev. and it undoubtedly may be maintained. Dr Jamieson.

But he has presented a different view of December 1.--A paper, by Dr Brewster, the subject, as being more conformable to was read on the Laws of Double Refraction the present state of chemical theory, into and Polarisation.

which our limits do not permit us to This paper was divided into seven sections, of which only the two first were At the same meeting, Dr Brewster comread.

municated a very interesting paper, cor1. On the crystals which produce double sisting of extracts of letters from Mr Boog refraction, a property which the author has to his father, the Rev. Dr Boog, of Paisobserved in 160 crystals.

ley, giving an account of the recent disce. II. On crystals with one apparent axis veries respecting the sphinx, and the prin. of double refraction. These crystals, which cipal pyrainid of Egypt, which have been amount to twenty-two, were divided into made by Captain c. and Mr Salt.

enter.

By

very laborious excavations, which were

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. made in vaio by the Frezch sayans, these The first meeting for business took place gentlemen have discovered, that the sphinx on November 21, 1817. ss cut out of the solid rock on which it A letter from R. Anstice, Esq. accompawas supposed merely to rest. They found nying a specimen of arragonite from the that the short descending passage at the Quantock Hills, was read. entrance to the pyramid, which afterwards The Quantock Hills consist chiefly of ascends to the two chambers, was continued greywacke, but are penetrated by a bed of in a straight line through the base of the mountain linestone running through a pyramid, into the rock upon which the py- great part of their length. In a quarry near ramid stands. This new passage, after the village of Merridge, about six miles joining what was formerly called the well, from Bridgewater, is a fissure in this lime is continued forward in a horizontal line, stone rock, which has been for some time and terminates in a well ten feet deep, ex- famous for its calcareous stalactites. Re. actly beneath the apex of the pyramid, cently this fissure has been cleared to a and at the depth of 100 feet below its base. greater extent than before ; and Mr AnsCaptain C. has likewise discovered an apart. tice visited the spot in the month of August ment immacliately above the King's cham- last, when he found that, after proceeding ber, and exactly of the same size and the aleng it for about 40 yards, the passage sudsame fine workmanship, but only four feet denly became coutracted. in height.

The narrow part being enlarged at his Jan. 19.---'The second part of Dr Ure's desire, it was found to lead into a cavem paper on Muriatic Acid Gas was read. In about twenty yards in length, from six to this part the author showed that the azote ten yards in breadth, and from three to six of the ammonia has no concern in the pro- feet in height along the middle. About duction of the wacer ; for the whole azote, one-third of its surface was covered with competent to the weight of salt employed, stalactites of arragonite (flos ferri) of great is recoverable in a gaseous form. It is beauty. This cavern is situated in the then experimentally demonstrated, that greywacke; and Mr Anstice remarks, that the sal-ammoniac, resulting from the the arborescences of arragonite oecur only union of the two dry constituent gases, in that rock, while those which are found yields water in similar circumstances. No adhering to the limestone are common cal. water could be obtained, however, by heat- careous stalactite. ing dry sal-ammoniac alone, or in contact A letter was read from Mr Winch, men. with charcoal, or even by passing its va- tioning the discovery of a tree about 28 or pour through ignited quartz powder. Hence 30 feet long, with its branches, in a bed of Dr Ure infers, that the traces of moisture, fire-stone (one of the coal sandstones) at formerly observed by Dr Murray, on ex High Heworth, near Newcastle. Of this posing sal-ammoniac to heat, must have organic remain the trunk and larger branches been the hygrometric water of the imper. are silicious ; while the bark, the sinall fectly dried salt.

branches, and leaves, are converted into At the same meeting, a paper by Dr coal: and Mr Winch remarks, that the Brewster was read, on a singular affection small veins of coal, called by the miners of the eye in the healthy state, in conse- coal-pipes, owe their origin universally to quence of which it loses the power of see small branches of trees. Mr W. states it ing objects within the sphere of distinct as a remarkable and interesting fact, that, vision. When the eye is steadily fixed while the trunks of trees found in the upon any object, this object will never Whitby alum shale are mineralized by cal. cease to become visible ; but, if the eye is careous spar, clay ironstone, and iron py, steadily directed to another object in its vi- rites, and their bark is converted into jet ; cinity while it sees the first object indirect those buried in the Newcastle sandstones ly, this first object will, after a certain time, are always mineralized by silex, and their entirely disappear, whether it is seen with bark changed into common coal. one or both eyes, whatever be its former co A paper by Dr Berger was read, containlour, or its position with respect to the axis ing a theoretical explanation of the curvaof vision. When the object is such as to ture of the beds of limestone which form produce its accidental colour before it va the Jura mountains. nishes, the accidental colour disappears, December 5.--The reading of a paper by also, along with the object. The preceds Mr W. Phillips, entitled, “ Remarks on ing experiments have no connection what the Chalk Hills in the Neighbourhood of ever with those of Mariotte, Picard, and Dover, and on the green Sand and blue Le Cat, relative to the entrance of the op- Marl overlying it near Folkstone," was tic nerve. In the course of this investiga- begun. tion, Dr Brewster was led to a new theory December 19.-The reading of Mr Philof accidental colours, which will be read at lips's paper was continued. a future mecting

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE

GOVERNMENT, with a laudable desire cording to his outlines, cannot fail of her to promote the interests of science, is equip- ing, to a large portion of society, of conping four vessels, for the prurpose of explore siderable interest and attraction. ing the Greenland seas, which, according Mr Eastlake, whose historical portrait of to the reports of persons employed in the Bonaparte on board the Bellerophon obfishery, were never known to be so free tained him deserved celebrity, is at Rome, from ice as in the last season. Two of these and employed by the Duchess of Devon vessels, under the command of Captain Bu- shire in illustrations of Horace. chan, late of the Pike sloop of war, just re From the experiments and observations turned from Newfoundland, will endeavour upon the state of the air in the fever hosto penetrate to the north pole, while the pitals at Cork, at a time when they were other two,' under Captain Ross, will pro- crowded with patients labouring under feceed up Davis's Straits, the extent or ter- brile contagion, by Edward Davy, Esq. it mination of which is still utterly unknown. seems determined that contagious maiter The ships are to be ready for sea by the be- cannot be detected by our present means of ginning of March.

analyzing gases, all his experiments seemDr Thomson, the founder of the Annals ing to lead to the conclusion, that there is of Philosophy, having been appointed to no material difference in the (known] che the chemical chair of the University of mical constitution of the air in the crowded Glasgow, and being in consequence oblig- fever-wards of the city of Cork, and the ed to fix his future residence in that city, atmosphere in places that are very gene. has engaged Mr Arthur Aikin and Dr rally supposed more salubrious. But we Bostock to superintend the publication of will hope that this important inquiry will his periodical work.

not stop here : that contagion is an active Since the establislment of the Royal and deseterious principle, we all know; and Dispensary for the Diseases of the Ear, in

we trust that future chemical researches Carlisle Street, Soho, upwards of 340 pa- will render this hydra more obedient to our tients have been admitted ; a great number wills. of whom have been cured or relieved, and, Canova's colossal statue of Bonaparte, among others, a boy, seven years of age, which was presented to the Duke of Wel. born deaf and dumb, has been restored to lington by the King of France, is arrived in hearing and speech. At a late meeting of England, and is placed in Apsley-house, -the Governors, a vote of thanks was un. the duke's London residence. animously voted to Dr Jolin Sims, con A set of casts from the Elgin marbles are sulting physician, and to Mr J. H. Curtis, to be immediately prepared for the Impesurgeon to the institution.

rial Academy of Arts at Petersburgh, unIt appears, from a list of each class in- der the direction and superintendence of serted in the seventh and last number of the Mr Haydon, to whom M. Olenin, the preAnnals of the Fine Arts, that modern pa. sident, has written in the most flattering tronage has created in England not less terms for that purpose. than nine hundred and thirty-one profes Dr Mitchill announces the discovery of sonal artists, of various descriptions, re the remains of a mammoth in the town of sident in and near the metropolis

. Of Goshen, Orange County, within sixty miles whom there are 532 painters_45 sculp- of New York, in a meadow belonging to a 2015—149 architects 93 engravers in line Mr Yelverton. The soil is a black vegeta_38 in mixed styles-19 in mezzotinto- ble mould, of an inflammable nature. It 33 in aquatinta 22 on wood. And what abounds with pine-knots and trunks, and deserves to be specially noticed among the was about thirty years ago covered with a painters, there are no less than forty-three grove of white pine-trees. The length of Ladies!

the tooth was six inches, the breadth three As American literature and the produc- and a half inches ; the circumference of tions of native American genius are daily the lower jaw, including the tooth it conbecoming of increased interest in Great Bri- tains, twenty-six inches; the length of the tain and Ireland, it may be satisfactory to jaw, thirty-five inches. *** state, that the Philadelphia Port-Folio (geDerally regarded as the best monthly miscellany in the United States) is now regu Some months since, the minister of the larly imported into London, and may be interior being informed that the Royal Lihad ia succession on the first day of any month, with other Magazines and Journals.

Mr Coleridge intends to give a course of See notice of the Mammoth in this Literary Lectures, which, if filled up ac- Number, p. 139.

PRANCE.

brary at Paris contains a great number of that distilled sea-water may be used as a Chinese books, respecting the contents of necessary of life for a month, and even for which there existed no information printed a longer time; and that may be of great or written, appointed M. Abel Remusat to assistance in long voyages and journeys of draw up a list of them. The result is, discovery. that, exclusively of 329 works comprised M. Humboldt has lately published, at in Fourmont's catalogue, made in 1742, Paris, a work on the geographical descripthe library possesses 175 works, forming tion of plants, according to the temperaabout 2000 volumes. Among these are 280 ture, latitude, elevation of the soil, &c. volumes, being a portion of a great collec He offers some interesting views with retion published by one of the last Mantehou gard to vegetable forms. On comparing, emperors ; and consisting of a History of in each country, the number of plants of the Chinese Characters and Writing, or ra certain well-determined families with the ther of the Literature and Rhetoric of that whole number of vegetables, he discovers people, in 80 volumes ; a History of Mua numerical ratios of a striking regularity. sic, in 70 volumes; a Description of all Certain forms become more common as we the Foreign Countries known to the Chi. advance towards the pole, while others nese, also in 70 volumes; and 60 volumes augment towards the equator. Others aton the Sects which believe in Spirits and tain their maximum in the temperate Prodigies. Here, too, is a Description of zoncs, and diminish equally by too much China, in 200 enormous volumes, with heat and too much cold; and, what is remaps and plans, infinitely more complete markable, this distribution remains the than any that we possess respecting the same round the globe, following not the most known countries of Europe. Among geographical parallels, but those which the historical works are some of consider Humboldt calls isothermic; that is, lines able importance, such as the Li-taz-ki-sse, of the saine mean temperature. These an excellent chronological account in the laws are so constant, that, if we know in a style of Henault's Abridgment, or Le country the number of species of one of sage's Atlas, but much more erudite and the families, we may nearly conclude from regular, in 100 volumes ; a manuscript it the total number of plants, and that of History of Japan, in 60 volumes ; a Chi the species of each of the other families. nese and a Japanese Encyclopædia, containing figures of all such objects as can be represented. . Of these works, M. Re Baron von Sack, whose voyage to Surimusat has undertaken the task of drawing nam was printed in London some years up a general Catalogue raisonné, which is since, is about to make a scientific tour in to include those comprehended in Four- Egypt, accompanied by Mr William Mül. mont's performance. He will state the ler, whom the Academy of Berlin has titles, translate them, frequently comment charged with various commissions for that upon them, and add such information as

country. can be gleaned concerning their authors or The Royal Society of Göttingen has offered editors, and all other particulars stated in a prize of 50 ducats for “ An accurate Exathe prefaces. He will carefully mark the mination, founded on precise experiments, of divisions and subdivisions, especially of the Dalton's Theory of the expansion of liquid great collections ; and give a succinct but and elastic fluids, and especially of mercury accurate analysis of the contents of each and atmospheric air by heat." The authors part. A catalogue of this kind is rendered are desired to pay attention to the necessithe more desirable, as Fourmont's, which, ty alleged by Dalton for changing the proas we have seen, embraces only a part of gressions of the degrees of the present therthe collection, has many inaccuracies and mometrical scales. Memoirs must be omissions.

transmitted before the end of September M. Grosier, to whom Europe is greatly 1819. indebted for its knowledge of the Chinese empire, has undertaken a new edition of his General Description of China, which An ukase, in the Latin tongue, was isoriginally appeared in 1785 in a 4to vo. sued in November 1816, by the Emperor lume. This new edition, which will be of Russia, creating a new university in the third, will extend to seven 8vo volumes, Warsaw ; it consists of five faculties, viz. and comprehend all the information ob- theology, jurisprudence and political ecotained during the last thirty years respect- nomy, medicine, philosophy, and the arts ing the country and its inhabitants.

and sciences. Each has a dean at its head, Experiments on distilled sea-water have and will enjoy the privilege of conferring been tried at Brest, Toulon, and Roche- every degree of academical honour. fort, by giving it as drink to the galley- the rector will appertain the censorship o slaves, and using it in cooking their vic. every work published by the members of (uals. The result of these experiments is, the university,

GERMANY.

RUSSIA.

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WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION.

octavo.

THE Rev. C. J. Latrobe is preparing a engraved in the mezzotinto, of the size of Narrative of his late Tour in South Africa, Claude's Liber Veritatis. together with some Account of the State of J. W. Lake, Esq. is preparing a volume che Missions of the United Brethren in of poetry. that interesting country. The work will Mr Robert M William, architect, has in he comprised in one quarto volume, em- the press an Essay on the Origin and Opebellished with coloured engravings. ration of the Dry-Rot; in which the source

Dr Busby has far advanced in the pre- of the disease is investigated, with a view to paration of a New Grammar of Music, di establish the modes of prevention and cure vided into two principal sections; the first on rational principles. It will make a elucidative of the musical arcana, as re quarto volume, illustrated with plates ; and garding Melody ; the second explanatory to it will be annexed suggestions on the cul. of those of Harmony. The work com tivation of forest trees, with abstracts of prises the whole compass of the science, the forest laws from che earliest times. and is meant to be no less accommodated Mr Jasper Ricard, surgeon, of Bath, will to the convenience of masters, than to the shortly publish, Commentaries on the Prinimprovement of pupils.

ciple of those Affections which produce Letters written during a Tour through speedy Death, during or immediately after Ireland, by John Christian Curwen, Esq. Child-birth ; illustrated by a variety of are preparing for publication in two 8vo cases and dissections, volumes.

Zelix Albarez, or Manners in Spain ; The learned and Rev. Stephen Weston interspersed with poetry, by Alex. R. C. has in the press an 8vo volume, entitled, Dallas, Esq. is printing in three volumes. Le Sava, or some account of an Excava Mr C. U. Rördansz is about to publish tion of a Roman Town on the Hill of the Mercantile Guide ; being an account of Chatele, in Champagne, discovered in 1772; the trade of the principal commercial places with the addition of a Journey to the Sim- on the Continent of Europe ; of their moplon, by Lausanne, and to Mont Blanc nies, exchanges, weights and measures, through Geneva

charges, duties, &c.; in one volume, Mr Nicholas Carlisle, the laborious author of the Topographical Dictionary of The important fact of the practicability the British Islands, is preparing for public of curing cancer seems fully established, by cation, in two 8vo volumes, a Description the recent discovery of the treatment by of the Endowed Grammar Schools in Ing. pressure. Further reports (by the author, land and Wales.

Mr Samuel Young) are in the press. The third volume of Mr John Nichols' Vol. 11. of the Annual Biography for Illustrations of Literary History, including 1818, will appear in the course of the Memoirs of George Hardinge, Esq. will ensuing month. The biographies of the appear in March.

late Messrs Ponsonby, Horner, Curran, M. Semonin, teacher of the French lan- Glenie, Eyles, Irwin, Admiral Duckworth, guage at Worcester, will shortly commence Sir Herbert Croft, Doctors Disney and a quarterly French publication, to be en- Thomson, the Dukes of Marlborough and titled, Le Portefeuille François, ou Me. Northumberland, &c. are detailed at full lange anecdotique, dramatique, et litteraire. length, from original sources of informaThe number printed will be limited to that tion. A Poem, written by the Hon. Henry subscribed for.

Erskine, in 1770, is to be now published A periodical paper is about to be come for the first time ; together with many menced with the title of The Anti-Metho- other original documents. dist.

In the press, and speedily will appear, Mr Prince Hoare is engaged on a life of Llewellen ; or the Vale of Přinlimmon : the late illustrious patriot and philanthro- a novel. In 3 vols. (Edinburgh.) pist, Granville Sharpe,-a man whose deeds In two volumes foolscap octavo, a new deserve to be recorded as examples to good edition of Dr Granger's West Indian Geor. men of all ages and countries.

gic, the Sugar Cane, and an Index of the A work on Pompeii has been announced, Linnæan names of Plants, &c. with other in eight parts, from original drawings taken Poems; now first printed from the origi. on the spot in 1817, by George Townley, nals, communicated to the Editor by the Esq. accompanied with plans and eleva- late Bishop Percy; and an Account of the tions, and a map of the Campania Felici. Author's Life and Writings, by Robert The plates of the views to be etched and Anderson, M. D. VOL. 14.

Y

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