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are foreign, but we are rather inclined We have, for several years past, urged to consider most of them as produc- the prosecution of this most delighttions of this country. This we inferful branch of botanical science, and from their general appearance, as de we believe our representations have scribed to us by those who had a not been altogether without effect. glance of them, and from the circum- In order still more to excite and enstance of the pearls of Scotland hav- courage the prosecution of the study ing been formerly in much repute, of the geography of the plants of this. and of considerable size. The river country, we would propose the publiYthan in Aberdeenshire was long cation of a translation of a series of celebrated for the size and the beauty the best treatises that have been writof the pearls it afforded. Even so late ten on this subject. We are conas the last century, a pearl was taken vinced that such a selection, if well in that river, for which thirty-five arranged, would form a most accepte guineas was given by a travelling Jew, able and useful addition to the botaand it was afterwards understood he nical literature of Great Britain. sold it for three times that price. We We would advise some such selecmay add, that pearls have been got in tion and arrangement as the followthe rivers in Ireland for which L. 80 ing: The editor or editors to prehave been refused.
mise the whole with a general intro
ductory treatise on climate, in which 5.-Dr Walker's Mineralogical Collec- views may be treated separately or
both the physical and mathematical tion.
conjoined. This treatise will prepare We understand that the late Dr the reader for the views and details Walker of the University of Edinburgh contained in the different treatises left a valuable cabinet of minerals
, proposed to be translated. The folwhich, it was understood, was to be sold. lowing, in our opinion, are deserving We have inquired about this collec- of translation :tion, with the view of ascertaining
General. whether or not it is likely to be brought
1. Linné Coloniæ plantarum,-ej. before the public, but have been unsuccessful in our inquiries. This no
Stationes plantarum. Amanitatt. Aca
demicis. tice may probably induce the present
2. Stromayer Tentamen historiæ possessor of the collection to state what has been determined in regard to it. geographicæ vegetabilium. Gött. 1800. It may be added, that we have seen
3. Humboldt De distributione Geog.
Plant. the collection, and know that it was
4. Humboldt Des lignes isothermes rich in many of the rarer mineral productions of this country, and also that et de la distribution de la chaleur sur
le globe. it contained substances which have not been met with in Scotland since the Temperature of Springs.
5. Wahlenberg and Von Buch on the time of Dr Walker.
6. Von Buch and Ramond on the
limits of perpetual Snow. 6.- Geography of Plants. 7. Wahlenberg on the peculiarities The particular botany of Scotland of Maritime and Continental Cli
mates. has been well investigated, but hitherto none of the botanists of this coun
Particular. try have devoted their attention to 1. Introduction to the Flora Lapthe physical and geographical distri- ponica, by Wahlenberg ; with the bution of the different tribes of plants. map. It is a remarkable circumstance, that 2. Introduction to the Flora of the the only tract on this subject is one Carpathians, by Wahlenberg; with the which was published at Edinburgh map. about a year ago, in the form of a 3. Introduction of the Flora of thesis, by Dr Boué of Hamburgh. Switzerland, by Wahlenberg; with This tract is highly creditable to the the map. industry and perseverance of its au 4. Parrot on the Distribution of thor, and, although a mere sketch, de Plants in the Caucasus; with the serves to be preserved in our language. map.
5. Humboldt on the Distribution and of individual experiments. We of Plants in the New World ; with are confident that a work on the phithe map.
losophy of chemistry, executed in a 6. Wildenow's Observations on the popular manner, and with a true phidifferences between the vegetation of losophical spirit, would contribute, in extratropical regions in the northern a very eminent degree, to the advanceand southern hemispheres.
ment of chemical science. 7. Brown's Observations on the A work of this description, however, Distribution of Plants.
would be difficult of execution, and is 8. Decandolle's Memoir on the only to be desired from such masters Geography of the Plants of France. in the science as Thomson, Leslie, or
9. Boué's Thesis on the Geogra- Murray. Until such a work appears, phy of Plants, particularly those of chemistry must remain destitute of Scotland.
many of those charms and attractions
which the other branches of natural 7.-American Natural History.
science possess. We must submit to be
harassed and fatigued with experiments The beautiful work on the Ornitho- and calculations, without number, logy of the American States, project- and without end ; our eyes must be ed and partly executed by the late Mr annoyed with unmeaning experiments, Wilson, originally from Paisley, has and useless apparatus, and our unbeen concluded by a Mr Ord. Mr derstandings bewildered with contraOrd has also published a work on the dictory and absurd views. insects of America. M. Lesueur, now in Philadelphia, made many curious observations on molluscous and 200
9.-Egyptian Sphinx. phytic aniinals during his passage from We are informed, through the pubEurope to America. He collected and lic journals, that Dr Boog of Paisley delineated the animals of many differe has ascertained that the sphinx is cut ent species of Isis, Gorgonia, Alcyone out of the solid rock, on which it was ium, Meandrites, &c. and obtained a supposed merely to rest. We under-, beautiful series of actinia, shewing stand this statement to intimate, that the gradual transition into the animal the syenite of the sphinx is a fixed of the madrepore. His attention was rock. Now, if this be Dr Boog's also particularly directed to the dif- meaning, we must differ from him; ferent vermes that occur, as well in and our dissent is grounded on the the interior as on the exterior cf known geognostical structure of that fishes.
portion of Egypt in which the sphinx
is situated. The whole of the coun8.-Philosophy of Chemistry.
try is of a grey-coloured compact
splintery limestone, and contains neiThe facts in cheinistry have be- ther imbedded masses, beds, nor veins come so numerous, that the most per- of any granitic, syenitic, or porphyritic fect arrangements we at present possess rock. But loose blocks of syenite, and enable us to retain but a comparatively often of at magnitude, occur restsınall number of them in our memory. ing upon this limestone. These loose Chemists, besides, are now principale blocks appear to have been brought ly intent on adding to this vast stock, into their present situation from the and appear, in general, to treat the syenite mountains on the west coast philosophy of the science or those ge- of the Red Sea, at some former peneral views by which these details riod ; not by the power of man, but become interesting and important, as by the action of those currents that of but little consequence. This er- formerly swept the face of the earth. roneous view prevails so generally, The sphinx, then, is to be considered that our systems of chemistry are be as cut in one of these loose rolled coming mere dry dictionaries of terns blocks, or boulder stones, of syenite.
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Anecdotes of the Life of Richard Wate him the better from its naiveté and
son, Bishop of Llandaff ; written by simplicity; and we rise from this himself at different intervals, and sketch of his life with strong iinpresrevised in 1814. Published by his sions of his talents, his activity, and Son, RICHARD Watson, LL. B. his honesty ; but, at the same time, Prebendary of Llandaff and Wells. persuaded that his wisdom was not London. Cadell and Davies. 1817. equal to his abilities, and that his 4to. pp. 551.
judgment was not much to be depend
ed upon, either in matters of compre, The name of Bishop Watson has hensive speculation, or in the practical long deservedly stood high among the business of life. eminent writers and statesmen of the Richard Watson was born at Helast century. With a strong and ex- versham, in the county of Westmorecursive mind, he had early the ambi- land, in August 1737. His father tion to distinguish himself in more was master for many years of Heverthan one department of intellectual sham school, and was highly respectexertion ; and there is no subject to ed in that capacity; and it is a natuwhich he turned his attention which ral satisfaction, which the Bishop states has not derived illustration from his that he feels, “ in knowing that his quick and penetrating genius. In ancestors, as far as he could trace chemistry, in theology, and in politics, them, had neither been hewers of he successively acquired an extensive wood, or drawers of water,' but, ut reputation ; and although it would prisca gens mortalium, tillers of their probably have been of a more solid own ground, in the idiom of the coundescription if he had stuck more ex- try Statesmen." After receiving but clusively to any one object, yet there an imperfect classical education, in is something animating and instruc- which he acknowledges a defect which tive in the spectacle of that fearless- will probably appear more tremenness and intrepidity with which he dous to many an Englishman of the could bring hinself to grapple with old school, than even his latitudinaevery branch alike of science and in- rian principles in religion, or the freequiry. This confidence in his own dom of his politics,-we mean his ige powers was indeed both his strength norance of scanning,-he was sent to and his weakness. It both made him the University, and admitted a sizar reach the height to which he attained, of Trinity College in Cambridge, on and prevented hiin from attaining any the 3d of November 1756. The porhigher ; and in the interesting picture tion which his father had left him of his own mind, which he has here was but L. 300, a sum barely suffleft behind him, we are alternately cient to carry him through his educacalled to admire his acquirements, tion. He had no expectations from and to wonder at his deficiencies. The relations, so that he formed a detergreat charm of this book is its evident mined purpose, to which he resolutetruth and sincerity. There is no ata ly adhered, to make his Alma Mater tempt made, on the part of the author, the mother of his fortunes. “ That, to gloss over any weakness in his cha- (he says,) I well remember, was the racter or conduct; for the fact is, that expression I used to myself (speaking the Bishop is quite satisfied with him- of his return from a visit to his native self throughout, and never for a mo- county) as soon as I saw the turrets ment seems to suspect, whatever his of King's College Chapel, as I was readers may do, that any share of his jogging on a jaded nag between Hundisappointinents in life can justly be tingdon and Cambridge." He accordimputed to himself. There is a buoy- ingly studied, with intense assiduity, ant spirit of infallibility about him, though he was not insensible, he adwhich somewhat takes away, indeed, mits, to social pleasures. from the dignity and weight of his “ Whilst I was an undergraduate, I kept character, but rather makes us like a great deal of what is called the best com.
pany,--that is, of idle fellow commoners and more in my laboratory every day, besides other persons of fortune ; but their manners the incidental business of presiding in the never subdued my prudence. I had a Soph's schools. Had so much pains and strong ambition to be distinguished, and time been dedicated to Greek and Hebrew, was sensible that, though wealth might and to what are called learned subjects, plead some excuse for idleness, extrava. what tiresome collations of manuscripts, gance, and folly in others, the want of what argute emendations of text, whatjevealth could plead none for me. When I june criticisms, what dull dissertations, used to be returning to my room at one or what ponderous logomachies, might have two in the morning, after spending a jolly been produced and left to sleep on the same evening, I often observed a light in the shelves with bulky systems of German di. chamber of one of the same standing with vinity in the libraries of Universities ! ” myself; this never failed to excite my jealousy, and the next day was always a day of
His next step was the divinity chair, hard study. I have gone without
my dinner of his advancement to which he thus a hundred times on such occasions."
-“I speaks. generally studied mathematics in the morn “ In October 1771, when I was preing, and classics in the afternoon; and paring for another course of chemistry, and used to get by heart such parts of orations, printing a new chemical Syllabus, Dr Rueither in Greek or Latin, as particularly therforth, Regius Professor of Divinity, pleased me. Dernosthenes was the orator, died.
This professorship, as being one of Tacitus the historian, and Persius the sa
the most arduous and honourable offices tirist, whom I most admired.”
in the University, had long been the secret
I had for years In January 1759, he took his Ba- object of my ambition. chelor of Arts degrce; and on the 1st determined, in my own mind, to endeavour of October 1760, was elected a Fel- to succeed Dr Rutherforth, provided he low of Trinity College. Four years qualified for the undertaking. His pre
lived till I was of a proper age, and fully afterwards he was unanimously elected mature and unexpected death quite disby the Senate assembled in full con- heartened me. I knew as much of divinity gregation, Professor of Chemistry. If as could reasonably be expected from a his application for this office, in the man whose course of studies had been die circumstances in which he made it, is rected to, and whose time had been fully a proof of his presumption, the success occupied in, other pursuits; but, with this which attended his exertions is no curta supellex in theology to take possession less a proof of his abilities and per- of the first professional chair in Europe, severance.
seemed too daring an attempt even for my
intrepidity. However, not being of a tem “ At the time that honour was conferred per to be discouraged by difficulties, and on me,” he says, " I knew nothing at all not observing that any men of distinguishof chemistry,—had never read a syllable ed talents stood forth as candidates for the on the subject, nor seen a single experi- professorship, except Dr Gordon, and think. ment on it,--but I was tired with mathe- ing that I would labour night and day till matics and natural philosophy ; and the was qualified for the office, if I were ap. tehementissima gloriæ cupido stimulated pointed to it, and knowing that I was sufme to try my strength in a new pursuit, ficiently versed in dialectics, from having and the kindness of the University (it was presided many years in the philosophical always kind to me) animated me to very schools, I determined to sound the Univerextraordinary exertions. I sent, immedi- sity, and, if I found the general sense of ately after my election, for an operator to the body favourable to my pretensions, to Paris,-l buried myself, as it were, in my become a candidate." laboratory, at least as much as my other avocations would permit, and, in fourteen Ile was unanimously elected on the months from my election, I read a course 14th of November. of chemical lectures to a very full audience, 66 Thus did I," he then proceeds, " by consisting of persons of all ages and degrees hard and incessant labour for seventeen in the University.”
years, attain, at the age of thirty-four, the He adds, in a very characteristic first office for honour in the University,
and, exclusive of the mastership of Trinity manner,
College, I have made it the first for profit. “ I now look back with a kind of terror I found the professorship not worth quite at the application I used in the younger L. 300 a-year, and it is now worth L. 1000 part of my life. For months and years at the least. On being raised to this distogether I frequently read three public lec- tinguished office, I immediately applied dires in Trinity College, beginning at eight myself, with great eagerness, to the study o'clock in the morning ; spent four or five of divinity. Lagerness, indeed, in the pur. hours with private pupils, and fire or six suit of knowledge, was a part of my teme
per, till the acquisition of knowledge was rise to the highest offices, cither in attended reith nothing but the neglect of church or state. There is a wellthe King and his ministers ; and I feel, by founded dread prevalent in all ranks a broken constitution at this hour, the ef; and professions, of allowing much infects of that literary diligence with which I fluence to men, whatever may be their laboured for a great many years. I redu- talents or integrity, whose opinions ced the study of divinity into as narrow a compass as I could, for I determined to upon important practical subjects apstudy nothing but my Bible, being much pear to be formed without having unconcerned about the opinions of councils, been maturely weighed, or who do not, fathers, churches, ops, and other men
amidst their zeal for improvement, as little inspired as myself. This mode of sufficiently respect what is established. proceeding being opposite to the general Thus we find Dr Watson, soon after one, and especially to that of the master he became Professor of Divinity, pubof Peterhouse, who was a great reader, he lishing an anonymous pamphlet against used to call me Aulosedex70s, the self- the expediency of requiring from the taught divine. The Professor of Divinity ministers of the established church a had been called Malleus Hærcticorum ; it was thought to be his duty to demolish subscription to the present articles of every opinion which militated against what religion, in which we do not pretend is called the Orthodoxy of the Church of to say whether he was right or wrong; England. Now my mind was wholly un
but we can easily conceive, that a biassed ; I had no prejudice against, or person who held this opinion, and predilection for, the Church of England; many others of the same stamp, might but a sincere regard for the Church of become an object of conscientious apChrist, and an insuperable objection to e prehension to many of the more sobervery degree of dogmatical intolerance. I minded members of the establishment, never troubled myself with answering any and that it was not merely envy and arguments which theopponents in the divini- littleness of mind which made them ty schools brought against the
articles of the look coldly upon his advancement, church, nor even admitted their authority as decisive of a difficulty ; but I used, on
He married in the year 1773, and, at such occasions, to say to them, holding of a small sinecure rectory in North
the same time, went to take possession the New Testament in my hand, En sa. crum codicem! liere is the fountain of Wales, which he obtained through truth, why do you follow the streams de- the interest of the Duke of Grafton. rived from it by the sophistry, or polluted
“ At the time he did me this favour,' by the passions of man? If you can bring says our author, we thought differproof against any thing delivered in this ently on politics. I had made no book, I shall think it my duty to reply to scruple of every where declaring that you. Articles of churches are not of di- I looked upon the American war as vine autiiority,—have done with them, - unjust in its commencement, and that for they may be true, they may be false, its conclusion would be unfavourable and appeal to the book itself. This mode of disputing gained me no credit to this kingdom, and his Grace did with the hierarchy, but I thought it an
not abandon the administration till honest one, and it produced a liberal spi- October 1775."--The independence of rit in the University.”
Dr Watson's politics is certainly much
to be actinired. He never addicted We have quoted so much from this himself to be the blind follower of any first part of the Bishop's life, in his existing administration, but adhered own words, because we think it the strictly to what he conceived to be the most interesting part of the whole, sound Whig principles of the constituand because we wished to exhibit (as tion. This steady conduct would have he himself gives it) the character of made him of great weight and authohis mind in his most active and en- rity both in the country, and with terprising days. We believe our read- ministers, had it not been blended ers will admire with us the fine spi- with a degree of forwardness which rit that actuated him, but will also led him to step out of his way, on agree with us in thinking that his in- many occasions, with advice when it trepidity bordered upon rashness and was not asked, and often, too, of a extravagance,--and will not inipute kind that had more of an Utopian than it merely to a culpable neglect on the of a practical character. In 1778 he part of the king and his ministers, or preached the Restoration and Accession to the bigotry of the hierarchy, that sermons before the University, which a person of this turn of mind did not he published, calling the first of them