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by those who pretended to be Christians and civilized men, but who were worse savages than those whom, no doubt, they were ready to brand with. that name.

“ When hostile governments give directions to employ the Indians against their enemies, they surely do not know that such is the manner in which their orders are to be executed; but let me tell them and every government who will descend to employing these auxiliaries, that this is the only way in which their subaltern agents will and can proceed to make their aid effectual. The Indians are not fond of interfering in quarrels not their own, and will not fight with spirit for the mere sake of a livelihood which they can obtain in a more agreeable manner by hunting and their other ordinary occupations. Their

passions must be excited, and that is not easily done | when they themselves have not received any injury

from those against whom they are desired to fight. : Behold, then, the abominable course which must

unavoidably be resorted to-to induce them to do what?-to lay waste the dwelling of the peaceable cultivator of the land, and to murder his innocent wife and his helpless children! I cannot pursue this subject further, although I am far from having exhausted it. I have said enough to enable the impartial reader to decide which of the two classes of men, the Indians and the whites, are most justly entitled to the epithets of brutes, barbarians, and savages. It is not for me to anticipate bis decision*,"

See Heckewelder, chap. 44.

93

CHAPTER VIII.

VANITY AS TO DRESS, AND OTHER PERSONAL

DECORATION.

The warriors and chiefs are distinguished by their ornaments.

The present dress of the Indians is well known to consist in blankets, plain or ruffled shirts and leggings for the men, and cloth petticoats for the women, generally red, blue, or black. The blankets are sometimes made of feathers. This manufacture requires great patience, being a very tedious kind of work; yet the Indians do it in a most ingenious manner. The feathers . (generally those of the turkey and goose) are curiously arranged and interwoven together with a sort of thread or twine, which they prepare from the rind or bark of the wild hemp and nettle. The wealthy adorn themselves with ribands or gartering of various colours, beads, and silver broaches. They wear, moreover, broad rings or bands on their arms, fingers, and round their hats; these ornaments are highly valued if of silver, but if only plated they are despised, and would hardly be worn.

I have seen in young children, three rings in each ear. These decorations are arranged by the women, who, as well as the men, know how to dress themselves in style. Those of the men consist in the painting of themselves (their head and face principally), wearing gaudy garments, with silver arm spangles and

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breast-plates, and a belt or two of wampum hanging to their necks. The women,' at the expense of their husbands or lovers, líne their petticoat and blanket with choice ribands of various colours, or with garor small round buckles. They adorn their leggings in the same manner; their mocksens are neatly embroidered with coloured porcupine quills, and are besides, almost entirely covered with various trinkets ; they have also a number of little bells and brass thimbles fixed round their ankles, which, when they walk, make a tinkling noise, which is heard at some distance; this is intended to draw the attention of those who pass by, that they may look at, and admire them. 1

The women make use of vermilion in painting themselves for dances; but they are very careful and circumspect in applying the paint, so that it does not offend or create suspicion in their husbands; there is a mode of painting which is left entirely to loose women and prostitutes.

The following diverting anecdote is told by my old friend the Moravian missionary :-

As I was once resting in my travels at the house of a trader who lived at some distance from an Indian town, I went in the morning to visit an Indian acquaintance and friend of mine. I found him engaged in plucking out his beard, preparatory to painting himself for a dance which was to take place the en

evening. Having finished his head-dress, about an hour before sunset, he came up, as he said, to

suing

AS

see me, but I and my companions judged that he came to be seen. To my utter astonishment, I saw three different paintings or figures on one and the same face. He had, by his great ingenuity and judgment in laying on and shading the different colours, made his nose appear, when we stood directly in front of him, as if it were very long and narrow, with a round nob at the end, much like the upper part of a pair of tongs. On one cheek there was a red round spot, about the size of an apple, and the other was done in the same manner with black. The eye-lids, both the upper and lower ones, were reversed in the colouring. When we viewed him in profile on one side, his nose represented the beak of an eagle, with the bill rounded and brought to a point, precisely as those birds have it, though the mouth was somewhat open. The eye was astonishingly well done, and the head, upon the whole, appeared tolerably well, shewing a great deal of fierceness. When we turned round to the other side, the same nose now resembled the snout of a pike, with the mouth so open, that the teeth could be seen. He seemed much pleased with his execution; and having his looking-glass with him he contemplated his work, seemingly with great pride and exultation. He asked me how I liked it! I answered that if he had done the work on a piece of board, bark, or any thing else, I should like it very well, and often look at it. But,' asked he, why not so as it is? Because," said I, I cannot see the face that is hidden under these colours, so as to

know who it is.' ,' Well,' he replied, 'I must go now; and as you cannot know me to-day, I will call to-morrow morning before you leave this place.' He did so, and when he came back, he was washed clean again.”

When the men paint their thighs, legs, and breast, they generally, after laying on a thin shading coat of a darkish colour, and sometimes of a whitish clay, dip their fingers' ends in black or red paint, and then spreading them out, bring the streaks to a serpentine form.

The notion formerly entertained that the Indians are beardless by nature, and have no hair on their bodies, is now entirely exploded. It is scarcely possible, indeed, for any person to pass a few weeks only among these people, without seeing them pluck out their beards with tweezers made expressly for that purpose. They perform the operation in a very quick manner, much like the plucking of a fowl; and the oftener it is done, the finer the hair grows, till at last the roots are co destroyed, that little or no hair appears left.

left. The reasons they give for thus deracinating their hair, are that they may have a clean skin to lay the paint on, when they dress for their festivals or dances, and to facilitate the tattooing themselves; a custom formerly much in vogue among them, especially, with those who had acquired celebrity by their valour. They say that either painting or tattooing on a hairy face or body would have a disgusting appearance.

Tattooing is now greatly discontinued. The pro

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