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plied. Is this well done? Yea, he often forbids us to make war on any of the nations with whom he trades; and at the same time furnishes them with all sorts of ainmunition, to enable them to destroy us.

“ Thus far in answer to the complaint, the Governor of Canada hath made of us to Corlear.

“ Corlear said to us, that satisfaction must be made to the French, for the mischief we have done them.

« This he said before he heard our answer. Now let him that hath inspection over all our countries, on whom our eyes are fixed, let him, even Corlear, judge and determine. If you say that it must be paid, we shall pay it, but we cannot live without free beaver-hunting. Corlear, hear what we say; we tliank you for the Duke's arms, which you have given us to put in our castles, as a defence to them. You command them. Have you wandered out of the way, as the Governor of Canada says ? we do not threaten him with war, as he threatens

What shall we do? Shall we run away, or shall we sit still in our houses ? What shall we do? we speak to him that governs and commands us.

“ Now Corlear, and Assarigoa, and all people here presept; remember what we have announced to the complaints of the Governor of Canada ; yea, we wish that what we here said, inay come his ears.”

The following method prevails among the Indians in their councils, in order that they may consider with clearness, and reply, as it were, paragraph by paragraph, for they are ignorant of letters, or other signs of ideas, or means of recording speeches, propositions or agreements. They commonly repeat over among themselves, all that has been said to them before they retum an answer, and one may be surprised at the exactness of their repetitions. They take the following method to assist their memories; the Sachem who presides at these conferences, bas a bundle of small sticks in his hand. As soon as the speaker has finished any one article of his speech,


the Sachem gives a stick to another Sachem who is particularly to remember that article; and so when another article is finished he gives a stick to another, and so on. In like manner when the speaker answers, each of these have the particular care of the answer resolved on to each article, and prompts the orator when bis memory fails him in the article committed to his charge.

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AT a Council held in Philadelpha*, July, 1742, attended by sundry Chiefs from the Six Nations, the Delawares and Folk Indians


Brethren, the Governor and Council,—The other day you informed us of the misbehaviour of our cousins the Delawares with respect to their continuing to claim, and refusing to remove from, some land on the river Delaware, notwithstanding their ancestors had sold it by deed, under their hands and seals to the Proprietaries for a valuable consideration upwards of fifty years ago, and that notwithstanding that they themselves had also not many years ago, after a long and full examination ratified that deed of their ancestors, and gave a fresh one under their hands and seals; and then you requested us to remove them, enforcing your request with a string of wampum. Afterwards we laid on the table our own letters by Conrad Weiser; some of our cousins' letters, and the several writings to prove the charge against our cousins, with a draft of the land in dispute. We now tell you.we have perused all these several papers. We see with our own eyes that they have been a very unruly people, and are altogether in the wrong in their dealings with you.

We have concluded to remove them, and oblige them to go over the river Delaware, and quit all claim to any lands on this side for the future, since they have received pay for them, and it is gone through their guts long ago. To confirm to you that we will see your request executed, we lay down this string of wampum

in return for yours.

* Colden's Indians, vol. ii. p. 35.


Then turning to the Delawares, holding a belt of wampum in his hand, he spoke to them as follows:Cousins,-Let the belt of wampum serve to chastise

you, You ought to be taken by the hair of the head, and shaken severely till you recover your senses and become sober. You don't know what ground you stand on, nor what you are doing. Our brother Onas's * cause is very just and plain, and his intentions are to preserve friendship; on the other hand, your cause is bad, your heart far from being upright; and you are maliciously bent to break the chain of friendship with our brother Onas and his people. We have seen with our eyes à deed signed by nine of your ancestors above fifty years ago, for this very land, and a release signed not many years since by some of yourselves and chiefs now living, to the number of fifteen or upwards. But how came you to take upon you, to sell land at all? We conquered you, we made women of you; you know

you are women, and can no more sell land thau women; nor is it fit you should have the power of selling land, since you would abuse it. This land that you claim has gone through your guts, you have been furnished with clothes, meat, and drink by the goods paid you for it, and now you want it again like children as you are. But what matters? you sell land in the dark. Did you ever tell us that you

had sold their land ? did we ever receive any part, even the value of a pipe-shank from you for it? You have told us a blind story, that

you sent a messenger to us, to inform us of the sale; but he never came amongst us, nor we never heard any thing about it: this is acting in the dark, and very different from the conduct our Six Nations observe in the sales of land; on such occasions they give public notice, and invite all the Indians of the united nations, and give them all a share of the presents they receive for their lands. This is the behaviour of the wise nations. But we find you are none of our blood; you

* Name of the Governor of Pennsylvania.


act a dishonest part, not only in this but in other matters; your ears are ever open to slanderous reports about our brethren;

receive them with as much greediness as lewd women receive the embraces of bad men; and for all these reasons we charge you to remove instantly. We don't give you the liberty to think about it. You are women, take the advice of a wise man, and remove immediately. You may remove to the other side of Delaware, where you came from; but we do not know whether, considering how you have demeaned yourselves, you will be permitted to live there, or whether you have not swallowed that land down your throats, as well as the land on this side. We therefore assign you two places, to go either to Wyoman or Shamokin; you may go to either of these places ; and then we shall have you, more under our eye, and shall see how you behave; don't deliberate, but remove away, and take the belt of wampum. After our just reproof, and absolute order to depart from the land, you are now to take notice of what we have further to say to you.

This string of wampum serves to forbid you, your children and grand-children to the latest posterity, for ever, meddling in land affairs; neither you nor any who shall descend from you, are ever hereafter to presume to sell any land: for which purpose you are to preserve this string, in memory of what your uncles have this day given you in charge. We have some other business to transact with our brothers; and therefore depart the Council, and consider what has been said to you.

CANASSATIEGO then spoke to the Council:


Brethren,--We called at our old friend, James Logans in

way to the city, and to our grief we found him hid in the bushes, and retired through infirmities from public business : we pressed him to leave his retirement, and prevailed with him to as.

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