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your knowing how little I loue this exercise will (I dout not) justifiemee enoughiny" opinion. I am very vnsertain of my stay here, because it depends vpon his Majestis remoue, who I wish with all my hart would not come into thesse parts till hee sees what becoms of the treatty, for I do much aprehend at last thay will agree: the Hollanders desiring nothing more. By this imagine how ill his Ma” receiption will bee: Pray let meeknow your opinion of this, and whether you beleeue ther will be a peace, which in doing you will much oblige Your affectionate friend, MARIE.

The King to Sir Edward Nicholas.
PARIs, Sept; 28, 1653.2

Nicholas, I am very well pleased with the paines I perceaue by your letters to the Chancelour you take in my seruice, and you must upon all occasions lett those good men know, who communicate freely with you, that I am very sensible of their affections to me woo I will requite when it shall be in my power: I am exceedingly troubled at any factions and iealosyes amongst those who wish me well, and will use all my power to compose them, and if you meete with any who have hearetofore bene averse to those wayes, wo"haue bene most conducinge to my seruice, or bene opposite to that party wo" hath bene most tender of me, you may confidently assure them, if they haue now changed ther mindes, I will be there harty frind, and be very carfull to aduance there

1 Charles was then at Paris. From a letter written by Abraham Cowley to Lord Arlington very soon after this period, it appears that the King's dependence on Dutch friendship was greater than his sister's. He believed that the eagerness to conclude a treaty with Cromwell was not the wish of the States, but merely of a party which then was predominant. See Miscellanea Aulica, p. 158.

* This letter was written only a few weeks previous to Cromwell's assumption of the Protectorate. The imitials in the latter part refer evidently to Sir Marmaduke Langdale and Mons. Befort,

interest, and to requite there good will: In the particular wo" you and S. M. L. haue consulted, I thinke best to acquiesse in that generall, untill there shall be some declaration of at least an inclination towards me, and you shall let Mon' Be; (to whom you are to commende me kindly) know that I shall then make it appeare, that it is in my power to add more strenght to those states then is imaginable: if you haue interest in any discreete person who is a confident of Count Williams, I would be glad he should know, that I haue great kindnesse for him, and doe much depend upon his good will and frindshipe to me in all my concernements, as indeede I do;' proceede as you haue begun, wo" is very acceptable to Your constant louing frind, CHARLEs R.

Copie of the Kings (Charles II.) Letter to the Duke of Glocester, concerning his being tempted to turne Papist. CoLoRGNE, Nov; 10: 1654.” Deare Brother, I have receaued yo" without a date in wo" you tell me that Mr. Montague has endeauord to pervert you from yo' religion. I doe not doubt but you remember very welly" com’ands I left w” you at my going away concerning y' point. I am confident you will observe them : yet yo' letters that come from Paris say that it is y” Queenes purpose to do all shee can to change yo' religion,” in woo if you do hearken to 1 Charles's mode of expression here is worth remarking. Policy obliged him so often to express favour and affection to those for whom he had a very different feeling, that the addition of “as indeede I do” seems necessary on occasion as a guarantee of good faith. 2 Charles left Paris for Cologne on the 18th of October, and received much attention and kindness from the Princes of Germany. This letter oddly contrasts with what the writer afterwards became. * In some private instructions given by Charles to the Duke of York, and dated the 13th July, 1654, there is a passage expressing the same anxiety about his brother, and strongly marking the Queen-mother's breach of promise on

her or any body els in that matter, you must never thinke to see England or mee againe, & wooeuer mischiefe shall fall on mee or my affaires from this time I must lay all upon you as being y” only cause of it. Therefore consider well what it is to bee not onely y” cause of ruining a Brother that loves you so well, but also of yo' King & Country. Do not lett them p'suade you either by force or faire p'mises; for the first they neither dare, nor will use, and for the second, as soone as they have perverted you they will haue their end, and then they will care no more for you. I am also informedy" there is a purpose to putt you into y' Jesuits’ Colledge, wo"I command you upon y” same grounds neuer to consent unto. And when soever any body shall goe to dispute wo you in religion doo not answeare them at all. For though you haue the reaso' on yo" side, yett they being prepared will haue y” aduantage of any body y" is not upon y” same security that they are. If you do not consider what I say unto you, Remember the last words of yo" dead Father, wo" were to bee constant to yo" religion & neuer to bee shaken in it. W* if you doe not obserue, this shall bee y” last time you will heare from (Deare Brother) yo most affectionate brother, CHARLEs R.

the subject. “I have told you that the Queen hath promised me concerning my brother Harry in point of religion, and I have given him charge to inform you if any attempt shall be made upon him to the contrary; in which case you will take the best care you can to prevent his being wrought upon, since you cannot but know how much you and I are concern’d in it.” See Miscellanea Aulica, p. 108. The “Mr. Montague” alluded to was Walter Montague, who had lately entered into Priest's orders, and, upon the death of Father Philips, became the Queen's confessor. Carte, in his Life of Ormond, speaks of his “busy temper, spiritual pride, and furious zeal.” Some further particulars of this bigoted Abbot of Pontoise, who was second son of the Earl of Manchester, may be found in p. 676, vol. II. of the Sidney Papers. And see ante, p. 75. -

The Queen of Bohemia" to Sir Edward Nicholas.

Mr. Secretarie, I ame verie glade to finde by your letter that you are safelie arriued and all your companie at Aix,” and that you found the King and my Neece” so well in health and so kinde one to the other, which has euer bene so since I haue knowen them. I beleeue indeed the seperation will be hard, but when there is no remedie one must be content. As for my iourney up hill I cannot tell what to say to it, S' Charles Cottrell' shall informe you how it goes but slowlie on, and which is stranger that it is not my fault. Dr. Morley has made a verie good description of the Queene of Sweden :" she gäue an assignation to the French Ambassadour to meet her at Breda, whither he went, and so did the Prince and Princess" of Tarente and most

| Sister to Charles the First ; a woman whose beauty and .." increased the sympathy justly due to her misfortunes. She had lost her eldest son shortly before her husband's death. Her second son was Charles Louis, the exiled Elector Palatine; her third, the Prince Rupert; her youngest, the Prince Maurice. Through her daughter Sophia, afterwards Electress of Hanover, the present royal family occupy the English throne. The letters now printed are very interesting specimens of her style of correspondence, and form an apt and valuable commentary upon the graver records of this important period.

* Aix-la-Chapelle.

* Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans.

* Repeatedly mentioned in letters from the Elector Pala. time to his mother, preserved in Bromley’s Collection. He appears to have been attached to the personal service of the Queen of Bohemia.

* The far-famed Christina. It was in this year that she abdicated the throne. There were several personal squabbles between the Ex-Queen of Sweden and the Ex-Queen of Bohemia; and Christina was not a little jealous of Elizabeth's distinguished correspondents, among whom she at this time numbered Des Cartes and Admiral Penn. Christina, who had just treated and negotiated with Cromwell, even after her abdication still attempted to mingle in politics. She also offered occasionally personal slights to the Queen of Bohemia; which may account for the manner in which she is spoken of in passages of these letters.

* The writer's spleen against Christina seems here to extend


of our French gallants, who came all sneaking home againe, for her greefe was so great for the beating of the Spanish armie before Arras' as she would not goe to Breda. She sent another account than that to the Ambassadour as you may imagin, but the Landgrave writt the truth to his neece the Princess of Tarente. We haue yet heere no particullars of this defeat, but in generall it is a verie great one. I long to heare what part my godsonne” had in it, for I still thinke of him, being my cheefest comfort next your excellent Master. I am verie glad your daughter is so well, I doe not wonder at it, she is soe well vsed, and now she has her father with her she is the more content, and I take it verie well that all this makes her not forget her frends heere. I assure you I long to haue her heere againe. I am verie sorie for poore Killegrew,” she was a verie good gentlewoman. You will heare by M*Howards letter howe great a scrape my little Nephue" escaped yesterday vpon the bridge at the Princess of Orange's house, but God be thanked there was no hurt onelie the coache broken : Itooke him into my coache and brought him home. The Princess of Orange went from hence vpon Saterday, and you will haue our Baron shortlie with you at Aix, he

itself even to her own relations: for Emilia, Princess of Ta-
rente, was daughter of William, Landgrave of Hesse Cassel;
and Charlotte, another daughter of the Hessian Elector, was
wife to her son Charles Louis. The Prince was Henry
Charles de la Tremouille, then in the service of the States,
and in command of the Hessian cavalry. His connexion
with these families procured him to be chosen a Knight of
the Garter in 1653, along with the young Duke of Gloucester.
* An allusion to the defeat of the Spaniards by the French
on St. Louis's day, when their lines were forced, whilst be-
sieging Arras, with great slanghter.
* In the Queen's letters preserved in the Bromley Col-
lection there are also frequent allusions to this “godsonne.”
In one place (p. 286) she speaks of him under the name of
“Tint,” playfully writing to a familiar friend.
* “Kate Killigrew,” daughter of Lord Stafford. She had
been Maid of Honour to the Queen upwards of eight years.
A curious letter, introducing this lady to her Majesty in 1646,
may be referred to in Bromley's Royal Letters, p. 135.
4. Afterwards William the Third.

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