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It is generally replied, that all these passages are to be understood only of the abolition of the ceremonial law. This is refuted, first, by the definition of the law itself, as given in the preceding chapter, in which are specified all the various reasons for its enactment: if therefore, of the causes which led to the enactment of the law considered as a whole, every one is revoked or obsolete, it follows that the whole law itself must be annulled also. The principal reasons then which are given for the enactment of the law are as follows ; that it might call forth and develope our natural depravity;* that by this means it might work wrath ; that it might impress us with a slavish fear through consciousness of divine enmity, and of the hand-writing of accusation that was against us; that it might be a schoolmaster to bring us to the righteousness of Christ; and others of a similar description. Now the texts quoted above prove clearly, both that all these causes are now abrogated, and that they have not the least connexion with the ceremonial law.

First then, the law is abolished principally on the ground of its being a law of works; that it might give place to the law of grace. Rom. iii. 27. "by what law ? of works ? nay, but by the law of faith. xi. 6. • if by grace, then is it no more of works; otherwise grace is no more grace. Now the law of works was not solely the ceremonial law, but the whole law.

Secondly, iv. 15. the law worketh wrath; for where no law is, there is no transgression. It is not however a part, but the whole of the law that work

* ......... Therefore was law giv’n them to evince Their natural pravity, by stirring up Sin against law to fight. Paradise Lost, XII. 287.



eth wrath ; inasmuch as the transgression is of the whole, and not of a part only. Seeing then that the law worketh wrath, but the gospel grace, and that wrath is incompatible with grace, it is obvious that the law cannot co-exist with the gospel.

Thirdly, the law of which it was written, the man that doeth them shall live in them,' Gal. iii. 12. Lev. xviii. 5. and, cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them,' Deut. xxvii. 26. Gal. iii. 10. was the whole law. From the curse of this law Christ hath redeemed us,' v. 13. inasmuch as we were unable to fulfil it ourselves. Now to fulfil the ceremonial law could not have been a matter of difficulty ; it must therefore have been the entire Mosaic law from which Christ delivered us. Again, as it was against those who did not fulfil the whole law that the curse was denounced, it follows that Christ could not have redeemed us from that curse, unless he had abrogated the whole law; if therefore he abrogated the whole, no part of it can be now binding upon us.

Fourthly, we are taught, 2 Cor. iii. 7. that the law written and engraven in stones’ was the ministration of death,' and therefore was done away.' Now the law engraven in stones was not the ceremonial law, but the decalogue.

Fifthly, that which was, as just stated, a law of sin and death, (of sin, because it is a provocative to sin; of death, because it produces death, and is in opposition to the law of the spirit of life,) is certainly not the ceremonial law alone, but the whole law. But the law to which the above description applies, is abolished; Rom. viii. 2. the law of the spirit of life




in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin and death.'

Sixthly, it was undoubtedly not by the ceremonial law alone that the motions of sin which were by the law, wrought in our members to bring forth fruit urtato death, Rom. vii. 5. But of the law which thu 18 operated it is said that we are become dead thereto-, v. 4. and that being dead wherein we were held,' vi? 6. 'we are delivered from it,' as a wife is free from the law of her husband who is dead," v. 3. We are therefore delivered,' v. 6. not from the ceremonial law alone, but from the whole law of Moses.

Seventhly, all believers, inasmuch as they are justified by God through faith, are undoubtedly to be accounted righteous; but Paul expressly asserts that

the law is not made for a righteous man,' 1 Tim. i. 9. Gal. v. 22, 23. If however any law were to be made for the righteous, it must needs be a law which should justify. Now the ceremonial law alone was so far from justifying, that even the entire Mosaic law had not power to effect this, as has been already shown in treating of justification : Gal. iij. 11, &c. therefore it must be the whole law, and not the ceremonial part alone, which is abrogated by reason of its inability in this respect.

To these considerations we may add, that that law which not only cannot justify, but is the source of trouble and subversion to believers ; which even tempts God if we endeavour to perform its requisitions; which has no promise attached to it, or, to speak more properly, which takes away and frustrates all promises, whether of inheritance, or adoption, or grace, or of the Spirit itself ; nay, which even sub


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jects us to a curse ; must necessarily have been abolished. If then it can be shown that the above effects result, not from the ceremonial law alone, but from the whole law, that is to say, the law of works in a comprehensive sense, it will follow that the whole lalw is abolished; and that they do so result, I shall proceed to show from the clearest passages of ScripElure. With regard to the first point, Acts xv. 24. 'we have heard that certain which went out from us have troubled you with words, subverting your souls, saying, Ye must be circumcised, and keep the law.' v. 10. 6 why tempt ye God, to put a yoke upon the neck of the disciples ? Certain of the Pharisees which believed, said that it was needful for them to keep the whole law,' v. 5. when therefore Peter in opposition to this doctrine contends, that the yoke of the law ought to be removed from the necks of the disciples, it is clear that he must mean the whole law. Secondly, that the law which had not the promise was not the ceremonial law only, but the whole law, is clear from the consideration, that it would be sufficient if one part had the promise, although the other were without it; whereas the law which is so often the subject of discussion with Paul has no promise attached to either of its branches. Rom. iv. 13, 16. *the promise that he should be the heir of the world, was not to Abraham, or to his seed through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. Gal. iji. 13. • if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise ; but God gave it to Abraham by promise ;' and therefore not by the law, or any part of it; whence Paul shows that either the whole law, or the promise itself, must of necessity be abolished, Rom. iv. 14. if they which are of the law be heirs, faith is made void, and the promise is made of none effect. Compare also Gal. iii. 18. as above. By the abolition of the promise, the inheritance and adoption are abolished; fear and bondage, which are incompatible with adoption, are brought back, Rom. viii. 15. Gal. iv. 1, &c. v. 21, 24, 26, 30. as above ; union and fellowship with Christ are dissolved, Gal. v. 4. Christ is become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by the law,' whence follows the loss of glorification ; nay, grace itself is abolished, unless the abolition of the law be an entire abolition : Gal. v. 4. "whosoever of you are justified by the law, ye are fallen from grace,' where by the word • law,' is intended the entire code, as appears not only from the preceding verse, he is a debtor to do the whole law,' but from other considerations ; finally, the Spirit itself is excluded ; Gal. v. 18. “if ye be led of the Spirit, ye are not under the law;' therefore, vice versa, if ye be under the law, ye are not led of the Spirit. We are consequently left under the curse : Gal. iii. 10. as many as are of the works of the law, are under the curse ; for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law, to do them ;' therefore all things which are written in the law,' and not the things of the ceremonial law alone, render us obnoxious to the curse. Christ therefore, when he redeemed us from the curse,' v. 13. redeemed us also from the causes of the curse, namely, the works of the law, or, which is the same, from the whole law of works; which, as has been shown above, is not the ceremonial part alone. Even supposing, however, that no such con



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