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eyes shall have many a curse.' Matt. xxv. 45. “inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me.' 2 Cor. ix. 6. • he which soweth sparingly, shall reap also sparingly.'

Hospitality consists in receiving under our own roof, or providing for the kind reception of the poor and strangers ; especially such as are recommended to us by the churches, or by our brethren in the faith. Deut. xxiii. 7, 8. thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, for he is thy brother; thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian, because thou wast a stranger in his land.' Job xxxi. 32. the stranger did not lodge in the street—.' Rom. xii. 13. distributing to the necessity of saints, given to hospitality.' xvi. 2. that ye receive her in the Lord, as becometh saints, and that ye assist her in whatsoever business she hath need of you, for she hath been a succourer of many, and of myself also.' Heb. xiii. 2. be not forgetful to entertain strangers ; for thereby some have entertained angels unawares.' 1 Pet. iv. 9. use hospitality one to another without grudging.' 3 John 5, 6, &c. .beloved, thou doest faithfully whatsoever thou doest to the brethren, and to strangers; which have borne witness of thy charity before the church. The reward of a hospitable spirit is signally exemplified in the woman of Sarepta, and in the Shunamite, who received prophets under their roof.

Injury or oppression of guests or strangers was forbidden by various laws, recorded Exod. xxii. 21, &c. Levit. xix. 33, 34. Deut. x. 18, 19.

Opposed to this is inhospitality. Deut. xxvii. 19. ·cursed be he that perverteth the judgment of the

stranger. Ezek. xxii. 29. 'they have vexed the poor and needy, yea, they have oppressed the stranger wrongfully.' 3 John 10. ‘not content therewith, neither doth he himself receive the brethren, and forbiddeth them that would, and casteth them out of the church.'



HITHERTO we have treated of the private duties of man towards his neighbour. Public duties are of two kinds, political and ecclesiastical.

Under political duties are comprehended the obligations of the magistrate and the people to each other, and to foreign nations.

The duties of the magistrate to the people are described. Exod. xxiii. 8. “thou shalt take no gift, for the gift blindeth the wise.' xxxii. 11. “Moses besought Jehovah his God, and said, Jehovah, why doth thy wrath wax hot against thy people ?' Lev. xix. 15. thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor honour the person of the mighty ; but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour. Num. xi. 11, &c. "wherefore have I not found favour in thy sight, that thou layest the burden of all this people upon me ?' xiv. 13. Moses said unto Jehovah, Then the Egyptians shall hear it — Deut. i. 9. 'I am not able to bear you myself alone.' xvii. 20. that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment to the right hand or to the left.' 1 Kings ii. 3. keep the charge of Jehovah thy God— iii. 8—10. "give thy servant an understanding heart to judge thy peeple. See also 2 Chron. i. 10. 1 Chron. xiii. 2. David said unto all the congregation of Israel, If it seem good unto you, and that it be of Jehovah our God, let us send abroad unto our brethren every where xxviii. 2. .hear me, my brethren, and my people. 2 Chron. xix. 6. he said to the judges, Take heed what ye do, for ye judge not for man, but for Jehovah, who is with you in the judgment.' Psal. lxxii. 2. ' he shall judge thy people with righteousness, and thy poor with judgment.' lxxv. 2. when I shall receive the congregation, I will judge uprightly. lxxxii. 3. defend the poor and fatherless.' Prov. xi. 14. where no counsel is, the people fall; but in the multitude of counsellors there is safety.' xvi. 12. it is an abomination to kings to commit wickedness, for the throne is established by righteousness.' xxix. 4. the king by judgment establisheth the land, but he that receiveth gifts overthroweth it.' xviii. 17. he that is first in his own cause seemeth just, but his neighbour cometh and searcheth him.' xx. 8.a king that sitteth in the throne of judgment scattereth away all evil with his eyes. xxiv. 23. it is not good to have respect of persons in judgment.' xxxi. 1-10. the words of king Lemuel,' &c. Jer. xxi. 12. thus saith Jehovah...Execute judgment in the morning.' xxii. 3, 4. execute ye judgment and righteousness.' Neh. v. 14. from the time that I was appointed to be their governor....I and my brethren have not eaten the bread of the governor.' Matt. xx. 2527. “ye know that the princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them, and they that are great exercise authority upon them; but it shall not be so among you ; but whosoever will be great among you, let him be your minister.' See also Mark x. 42, &c. Luke xxii. 25, &c. Rom. xiii. 3, 4. rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil.... for he is the minister of God to thee for good.'

In the matter of reward and punishment. Psal. ci. 4, &c. 'a froward heart shall depart from me ..... mine eyes shall be upon the faithful of the land.' Inordinate punishment is forbidden. Deut. xxv. 3. 'forty stripes he may give him, and not exceed.' 1 Kings ii. 26. 'thou art worthy of death, but I will not at this time put thee to death, because,' &c.

The right of the magistrate as regards the sword. Gen. ix. 6. • whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed.' Job xii. 18. he looseth the bond of kings.' Psal. lxxv. 6. promotion cometh neither from the east, nor from the west, nor from the south. Prov. viii, 15, 16. by me kings reign. Dan. ii. 21. he changeth the times and the seasons. iv. 17. that the living may know that the most High ruleth in the kingdoin of men.' v. 18-20. “the most

Nebuchadnezzar thy father a kingdom, and majesty,' &c. ..... " but when his heart was lifted up he was deposed from his kingly throne.' Rom. xiii. 1, &c. 'let every soul be subject unto the higher powers .....

high God


for he beareth not the sword in vain ;' if therefore not in vain, much less for the injury of the good. 1 Pet. ii. 13, 14. 'as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evil doers.'

* • Definiendo enim explicat, nequis errare et opiniones hinc stolidas aucupari possit, qui sint magistratus potestatis hujus ministri, et quam

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