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voluntarily conceding some portion of an acknowledged right, or in abandoning it altogether. Gen. xiii. 9. “if thou wilt take the left hand, then I will go to the right ; or if thou depart to the right hand, then I will go to the left.'

Beneficence consists in rendering willing assistance to our neighbour out of our own abundance; particularly to the poor within our reach. Levit. xix. 9. · when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corners of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleanings of thy harvest.' XXV. 35. “ if thy brother. be waxen poor, and fallen in decay with thee, then thou shalt relieve him; yea, though he be a stranger or a sojourner; that he may live with thee.' Prov. iii. 27, 28. "withhold not good from them to whom it is due, when it is in the power of thine hand to do it ; say not unto thy neighbour, Go, and come again, and to-morrow I will give, when thou hast it by thee.' Luke vi, 30. "give to every one that asketh of thee.' v. 38. give, and it shall be given unto you.' Gal. vi. 10. .as we have therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all men, especially unto them that are of the household of faith. 1 Thess. v. 15. (ever. follow that which is good, both among yourselves and to all men.' Heb. xiii. 16. to do good and to communicate forget not : for with such sacrifices God is well pleased. Concerning the proper mode of receiving benefits, see above on Magnanimity.

Beneficence, as shown in public distributions of any kind, is called liberality. Psal. cxii. 5. “a good man sheweth favour, and lendeth' (gratiose largitur, Tremell.) Prov. xi. 24, 25. there is that scattereth, and yet increaseth—' xxi. 26. the righteous giveth


and spareth not.' Eccles. xi. 1. cast thy bread on the waters.'

Opposed to liberality are, first, niggardliness, which gives nothing, or sparingly, or with a grudging mind. Prov. xxiii. 6—8. eat thou not the bread of him that hath an evil eye, neither desire thou his dainty meats.” '

Secondly, prodigality. Prov. xxi. 20. there is treasure to be desired, and oil in the dwelling of the wise, but a foolish man spendeth it up.'

Beneficence, whether private or public, when exercised on an extraordinary scale, is called magnifi

This is exemplified in David, 1 Chron. xxix. 2. “I have prepared with all my might for the house of my God, the gold for things to be made of gold moreover, because I have set my affection to the house of my God, I have of mine own proper good,' &c. and in the Jews who returned from captivity, Ezra ii. 68, 69. "some offered freely for the house of God to set it up in its place; they gave after their ability unto the treasure of the work.'

Corresponding with beneficence is gratitude, which is shown in the requital, or, where this is impossible, in the thankful sense of a kindness. 2 Sam. ix. 1. · David said, Is there yet any that is left of the house of Saul, that I may show him kindness for Jonathan's sake?' xix. 34, &c. the king said unto Barzillai, Come thou over with me, and I will feed thee with

1 Kings ii. 7. show kindness unto the sons of Barzillai the Gileadite.'

Opposed to this is ingratitude. Prov. xvii. 13. · whoso rewardeth evil for good, evil shall not depart from his house. Eccles. ix. 15. "he by his wisdom delivered the city, yet no man remembered that same


poor man.'




Thus far we have treated of the virtues or special duties which man owes to his neighbour simply as such; we are next to consider those which originate in circumstances of particular relationship. These duties are either private or public.

The private duties are partly domestic, and partly such as are exercised towards those not of our own house. Gen. xviii. 19. I know him, that he will command his children, and his household after him, and they shall keep the way of Jehovah.' 1 Tim. v. 8. “if any provide not for his own, and specially for those of his own house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel.'

Under domestic duties are comprehended the reciprocal obligations of husband and wife, parent and child, brethren and kinsmen, master and servant.

The duties of husband and wife are mutual or personal.



Mutual duties. 1 Cor. vii. 3. let the husband render unto the wife due benevolence, and likewise also the wife unto the husband.'

The personal duties appertaining to either party respectively, are, first, those of the husband. Exod. xxi. 10, 11. • her food, her raiment, and her duty of marriage shall he not diminish ; and if he do not these three unto her,' &c. Prov. v. 18, 19. rejoice with the wife of thy youth.' Esther i. 22. every man should bear rule in his own house.' 1 Cor. xi. 3. I would have you know that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of the woman is the man.' Eph. v. 25. husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church.? Col. iii. 19. husbands, love your wives, and be not bitter against them.' 1 Pet. iï. 7. "likewise, ye husbands, dwell with them according to knowledge, giving honour unto the wife, as unto the weaker vessel.' The contrary is reproved Mal. ii. 13, 14, &c. "Jehovah hath been witness between thee and the wife of thy youth, against whom thou hast dealt treacherously—.' Prov. v. 20, 21. why wilt thou, my son, be ravished with a strange woman ? Personal duties of the wife. Prov. xiv. 1.6

every wise woman buildeth her house.' xix. 14. “a prudent wife is from Jehovah.' xxxi. 11, &c. the heart of her husband doth safely trust in her.' 1 Cor. xi. 3, &c. the woman is the glory of the man; for the man is not of the woman, but the woman of the man.' Eph. v. 22–24. wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord ; for the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church, and he is the Saviour of the body; therefore as the church is subject unto. Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in every thing.' Col. iii. 18. "wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as it is fit in the Lord.' Tit. ii. 4, 5. that they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children, to be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed.' 1 Pet. iii. 1, &c. . likewise, ye wives, be in subjection to your own husbands,' &c. The same is implied in the original formation of the woman: Gen. ii. 22.

the rib which Jehovah had taken from man, made he a woman;' it cannot therefore be fitting that a single member, and that not one of the most important, should be independent of the whole body, and even of the head. Finally, such is the

Finally, such is the express declaration of God: Gen. iii. 16. he shall rule over thee.'*

Offences against these duties. Exod. iv. 25. 'a bloody husband art thou to me.' Job ii. 9. then said his wife unto him, Dost thou still retain thine in

* My author and disposer, what thou bidd'st

Unargu'd I obey ; so God ordains ;
God is thy law, thou mine. Paradise Lost, IV. 635.
Was she thy God, that her thou didst obey
Before his voice, or was she made thy guide,
Superior, or but equal, that to her
Thou didst resign thy manhood, and the place
Wherein God set thee above her made of thee
And for thee, whose persection far excell'd
Hers in all real dignity. X. 145.

To thy husband's
Thine shall submit; he over thee shall rule. Ibid. 195.
See also Tetrachordon : But St. Paul ends the controversy
indelible character of priority which God crowned him with.'
Works, II. 121, 122.

that Prose

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