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tering mouth worketh ruin,' xxvii. 6. the kisses of an enemy are deceitful.' v. 14. he that blesseth his friend with a loud voice,' &c. xxix. 5. ' a man that flattereth his neighbour,' &c. 1 Thess. ii. 5. neither at any time used we flattering words.'
Secondly, unmerited praise or blame. Prov. iii. 31. envy thou not the oppressor. xvii. 15. he that justifieth the wicked, and he that condemneth the just, even they both are abomination to Jehovah.' xxiii. 17. let not thine heart enyy sinners. xxiv. 24. he that saith unto the wicked, Thou art righteous, him shall the people curse.' Isai. v. 20. woe unto them that call evil good-' xxxii. 5, 8. the vile person shall be no more called liberal-,
Allied to candour are simplicity, faithfulness, grayity, taciturnity, courteousness, urbanity, freedom of speech, and the spirit of admonition.
Simplicity consists in an ingenuous and open dealing with our neighbour. Psal. cxvi. 6. • Jehovah preserveth the simple.' Matt. x. 16. be ye harmless as doves." xix. 14. suffer little children .... for of such is the kingdom of heaven. Mark x. 15. whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, he shall not enter therein.' 1 Cor. xiv, 20..be not children in understanding'; howbeit in malice beye children.' 2 Cor. i. 12. that in simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God, we have had our conversation in the world.' xi. 3. “I fear, lest by any means ..... your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ.'
Opposed to this are, first, duplicity. Psal. v. 6. Jehovah will abhor the deceitful man.' xii. 3. with
a double heart do they speak. xxviii. 3, &c. which speak peace to their neighbours but mischief is in their heart.' cxx. 2. deliver my soul from lying lips, and from a deceitful tongue. Prov. iii. 29. devise not evil against thy neighbour.' xvii. 20. he that hath a perverse tongue falleth into mischief.' xxvi. 24, &c. • he that hateth, dissembleth with his lips.' v. 28. a lying tongue hateth those that are afflicted by it.' Matt. ii. 8. 'go and search diligently for the young child
Secondly, credulity. Prov. xiv. 15. the simple believeth every word.'
Faithfulness is shown in the performance of promises, and the safe custody of secrets. Psal. xv. 4.
he that sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not.' Prov. xi. 13. he that is of a faithful spirit concealeth the matter. xx. 19. he that goeth about as a talebearer revealeth secrets, therefore meddle not with him xxv. 9. discover not a secret to another.'
It has been made matter of inquiry, whether it be lawful to revoke a promise once made, or to recal a benefit once conferred. This would seem to be allowable, where the person on whom the promise or benefit was bestowed proves himself unworthy of our kindness. Thus the lord in the parable exacted the debt from his servant, in punishment for his cruelty towards his fellow-servant, although he had before forgiven it him ; Matt. xviii. 27, 32, 34.
Opposed to this are, first, precipitancy in making a promise, without due consideration of circumstances. Matt. xxvi. 35. though I should die with thee, yet will I not deny thee.'
Secondly, talkativeness. Prov. xi. 13. 'a talebearer revealeth secrets.'
Thirdly, treachery ; of which Judas Iscariot is a. signal instance.
Gravity consists in an habitual self-government of speech and action, with a dignity of look and manner, befitting a man of holiness and probity.* Prov. xvii. 24. “wisdom is before him that hath understanding.' Eccles. viii. 1. a man's wisdom maketh his face to shine-,
Opposed to this is levity. Prov. xvi. 22. the instruction of fools is folly. xvii. 24. the eyes of a fool are in the ends of the earth.' Eccles. x. 2.6 a wise man's heart is at his right hand, but a fool's heart at his left.
Taciturnity preserves a due moderation in our speech. Prov. x. 19. he that refraineth his lips is wise.' xiii. 3. he that openeth wide his lips, shall have destruction.' xvii. 28. even a fool when he holdeth his peace is counted wise ; and he that shutteth his lips is esteemed a man of understanding.'
Opposed to this are, first, loquacity. Prov. x. 14. the mouth of the foolish is near destruction. v. 19. in the multitude of words there wanteth 'not sin.' xviii. 7. 6a fool's lips are the snare of his soul.' xxix. 20. seest thou a man that is hasty in his words? there is more hope of a fool than of him.' James iii. 8. the tongue can no man tame.'
* Richardson says that Milton had a gravitg in his temper, not nielancholy, or not till the latter par of his life, not sour, morose, or ill-natured ; but a certain severity of mind, a mind not condescending to little things. Remarks, p. xv. ' In his whole deportment,' says Symmons,
there was visible a certain dignity of mind, and a something of conscious superiority, which could not at all times be suppressed or wholly withdrawn from observation. His temper was grave, without any taint of melancholy.' Vol. VII. p. 512.
Secondly, foolish talking. Matt. xii. 36. every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment.' Eph. v. 4. 100lish talking.'
Thirdly, excess of taciturnity. 2 Kings vii. 9. this day is a day of good tidings, and we hold our peace.' · Courteousness consists in affability and readiness of access.* 1 Pet. iii. 8. 'be ye pitiful, courteous.'
Opposed to this are, first, churlishness. 1 Sam. xxv. 17. he is such a son of Belial, that a man cannot speak to him.'
Secondly, frowardness. Prov. iv. 24. put away from thee a froward mouth. xiv. 3. in the mouth of the foolish is a rod of pride.' xvi. 26. he that laboureth, laboureth for himself; for his mouth craveth it of him.' xviji. 6. (a fool's lips enter into contention, and his mouth calleth for strokes. xxvii. 22. 6 though thou shouldest bray a fool in a mortar among wheat with a pestle, yet will not his foolishness depart from him.'
Thirdly, false, or constrained courtesy ; as that of Absalom, 2 Sam. xv. 3, 4. Psal. xii. 3. • Jehovah shall cut off all flattering lips.
* Compare on this head, and with the three next paragraphs, the following passages from Symmons. Of this great man the manners are universally allowed to have been affable and graceful, the conversation cheerful, in. structive and engaging. His youngest daughter . , , affirmed that he was delightful company; the life of the conversation, not only on account of his flow of subject, but of his unaffected cheerfulness and civility.' Isaac Vossius describes him as comem affabilem, multisque aliis præditum vire tutibus. Burmann. Syll. III. 618. So also N. Heinsius ; Virum esse miti comique ingenio aiunt, quique aliam non habuisse se causam profitetur Scribonium acerbe insectandi, quam quod ille et viros e maximis celeberrimisque multos nihil benignius, exceperit, et quod in universam Anglorum gentem conviciis atrocissimis injurius valde fuerit.' Burmann. Syll. III. 276. Salmasius is here alluded to under the name of Scribonius.
Urbanity comprehends not only the innocent refinements and elegancies of conversation, but acuteness and appropriateness of observation or reply. Prov. xxiv. 26. every man shall kiss his lips that giveth a right answer. xxv. 11. 'a word fitly spoken is like apples of gold, in pictures of silver. 1 Kings xviii. 27. Elijah mocked them-, Col. iv. 6. let your speech be alway with grace seasoned with salt, that ye may know how ye ought to answer every man.'
Opposed to this are abscenity and double meanings. Eph. iv. 29. • let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth. v. 4. Óneither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, * which are not convenient.' Col. jii. 8. but now ye also put off all these ; anger ... filthy communication out of your mouth. Obscenity, properly speaking, consists neither in word nor in action, but in the filthiness of his mind, who out of derision or wantonness perverts them from their proper import. Hence those expressions in the Hebrew Scriptures, for which the Jewish commentators substitute others in the margin which they esteem more decent, are not to be considered as obscene, but are to be attributed to the vehemence or indignation of the speaker.t Neither are the words of Deut.
* BUTPATENÍ. Nomen medium, proprie significat concinnam mutationem, et intra virtutes morales ab Aristotele numeratur, urbanitas. Sed in Novo Testamento in malam partem usurpatur pro scurrilitate. Eam vocem pro scurrilitate apostolus posuit, quod plerumque qui urbanitatem affectant, a medio virtutis aberrantes, ad scurrilitatem declinent. Qua in significa. tione etiam Pindarus poeta Græcam vocem usurpasse legitur. Itaque recte noster interpres scurrilitalem vertit.' Estius in locum. See Leigh's Critica Sacra, Schleusner, Wetstein, Elsner, and Macknight.
+ The Spirit of God, who is purity itself, when he would reprove any fault severely, or but relate things done or said with indignation by others, abstains not from some words not civil at other times to be spoken, &c. &c. .... whereas God, who is the autbor both of purity and eloquence, chose