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no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness.' Such intercourse, however, is sometimes unavoidable in the present life. Judges xi. 3. “there were gathered vain men to Jephthah, and went out with him. 1 Sam. xxii. 2. 6 every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt....gathered themselves unto him.' xxx. 22. then answered all the wicked men and men of Belial, of those that went with David' Psal. cxx. 5, 6. 'woe is me ! soul bath long dwelt with him that hateth peace. 1 Cor. v. 9—11. 'I wrote unto you in an epistle not to company with fornicators; yet not altogether with the fornicators of this world...for then ye must needs go out of the world; but...if any man that is called a brother be a fornicator—.'

Thirdly, enmity. Prov. xvii. 14. the beginning of strife is as when one letteth out water ; therefore leave off contention before it be meddled with.' 19. he loveth transgression that loveth strife ; and he that exalteth his gate, seeketh destruction.' 6 it is an honour for a man to cease from strife ; but every fool will be meddling.' xxvi. 26. whose hatred is covered by deceit, his wickedness shall be showed before the whole congregation.'





The special virtues, or various modes of charity or justice as regards our neighbour, relate to him either under the general acceptation of the word neighbour, as denoting simple proximity; or under some special acceptation, where our relationship arises from special circumstances.

The discharge of our special duties towards our neighbour includes the regulation not only of our actions, but of our affections, as concerns him. Exod. xx. 17. “thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house

Special duties towards our neighbour, using the word in its general sense, regard either his internal or external good.

His internal good is consulted by a regard to his safety and honour; his external, by a concern for his good name and worldly interests. Our regard to his safety should extend not merely to the present life, but to the eternal state. Prov. x. 11. the mouth of a righteous man is a well of life.' Rom. xiv. 15.

destroy not him with thy meat, for whom Christ died.' James v. 20. let him know that he which

no one.

converteth the sinner from the error of his way, shall save a soul from death, and shall hide a multitude of sins.' The duty of preserving our neighbour's life is inculcated, Prov. xxiv. 11, 12. if thou forbear to deliver them that are drawn unto death, and those that are ready to be slain ; if thou sayest, Behold, we knew it not; doth not he that pondereth the heart consider it ? doth not he know it ? and shall not he render to every man according to his works ??

Under this class of virtues are comprehended innocence, meekness, and placability. Innocence consists in doing a voluntary injury to

Psal. xxiv. 4. he that hath clean hands.' xxvi. 6. "I will wash mine hands in innocency.' Rom. xii. 18. 'if it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men.' Heb. xii. 14. follow peace with all men.'

Meekness is that by which we are so far from offering or taking offence, that we conduct ourselves mildly and affectionately towards all men, as far as is practicable. Num. xii. 3. ‘now the man Moses was very meek, above all the men which were upon the face of the earth.' Psal. xxv. 9. the meek will he teach his way.' cxlvii. 6. • Jehovah lifteth up the meek.' Isai. lxi. 1. Jehovah hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek.' Matt. v. 5. blessed are the meek. xi. 29. learn of me, for I am meek and lowly of heart, and ye shall find rest unto your souls.' xxi. 5. behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek— Tit. iii. 2. "showing all meekness unto all men.'

Placability consists in a readiness to forgive those hy whom we have been injured. Matt. vi. 12, 14.

. forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.... for if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you.' xviii. 21, 22, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him ? ... until seventy times seven.' Luke xvii. 3, 4. 'if thy brother trespass against thee, rebuke him; and if he repent, forgive him; and if he trespass against thee seven times a day— Rom. xii. 18. if it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men.'

Opposed to a regard for the life of our neighbour, is, first, the shedding his blood. Gen. iv. 10. what hast thou done ? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground.' ix. 5, 6. whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made he man.' Exod. xx. 13. 6 thou shalt not kill.' xxi. 12. he that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall surely be put to death.' v. 14. "if a man come presumptuously upon his neighbour, to slay him with guile,' &c. v. 28. "if an ox gore a man,' &c. Deut. xxvii. 25. cursed is he that taketh reward to slay an innocent person.' Num. xxxv. 31. “ye shall take no satisfaction for the life of a murderer.' v, 34. defile not therefore the land which ye shall inhabit—'

shall inhabit-, Deut. xxi. 1. if one be found slain in the land,' &c. 1 Kings ii. 5, 6. 6thou knowest. also what Joab did to me,' &c. v. 33, 34. their blood shall therefore return upon the head of Joab. Prov. vi. 16, 17. “these six things doth Jehovah hate ... hands that shed innocent blood.' xxviii. 17. "a man that doeth violence to the blood of any person, shall flee to the pit ; let no man stay him.' Under this head is also included, first, every thing by which the life of our neighbour is endangered; as blows, wounds, mutilations,' &c. Exod. xxi. 18, &c. 'if men strive together, and one strike another, &c. Lev. xxiv. 19, 20. if a man cause a blemish in his neighbour,' &c. Deut. xxvii. 24. 'cursed be he that smiteth his neighbour secretly.'

Secondly, hasty anger. Prov. xiv. 29. he that is slow to wrath is of great understanding ; but he that is hasty of spirit exalteth folly. xvi. 32. “ he that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and he that ruleth his spirit, than he that taketh a city. xix. 11. “the discretion of a man deferreth his anger; and it is his glory to pass over a trangression. xv. 18. 'a wrathful man stirreth up strife.' Matt. v. 22. whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger of the judgment.' 1 John iii. 15. “whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer.'

Thirdly, revenge. Lev. xix. 18. thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any grudge, against the children of thy people.' Deut. xxxii. 35. 'to me belongeth vengeance and recompense.' Psal. xciv. 1. O Jehovah, God to whom vengeance belongeth. Prov. xx. 22.

say not thou, I will recompense evil. xxiv. 29. “say not, I will do so to him, as he hath done to me.' Rom. xii. 19. dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath.' 1 Pet. iii. 3, 9. • not rendering evil for evil.” To avenge the church, however, or to desire that she be avenged of her enemies, is not forbidden. Exod. xvii. 16. because Jehovah hath sworn that Jehovah will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.' Deut. xxv. 17. remember what Amalek did unto thee by the


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