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xxvii. 2. let another man praise thee, and not thine own mouth.” Matt. xxiii. 5. . all their works they do for to be seen of men.' Luke vi. 26. woe unto you when all men shall speak well of you.

Magnanimity is shown, when in the seeking or avoiding, the acceptance or refusal of riches, advantages, or honours, we are actuated by a regard to our own dignity, rightly understood. Thus Abraham did not refuse the gifts of the king of Egypt, Gen. xii. 13. xx. 14. though he rejected those of the king of Sodom, xiv. 22, 23. and though he declined to accept the field offered him by Ephron the Hittite, except on payment of its full value, xxiii. 13. Thus also Job, although restored to his former health and prosperity, did not disdain the congratulatory offerings of his friends, xlii. 11. In this spirit Gideon refused the kingdom, Judges viii. 23. The same disposition accompanied Joseph in his exaltation from a prison to the first honours of the empire, Gen. xli. So also Dan. ii. 48, 49. then the king made Daniel a great man, and gave him many great gifts.' On the other hand, chap. v. 17. he answered and said before the king, Let thy gifts be to thyself, and give thy rewards to another ;' but v. 29. •Belshazzar commanded, and they clothed Daniel with scarlet. He was actuated by the same temper in refusing and in accepting dignities. vi. 2. over these were three presidents, of whom Daniel was first. Such was also the spirit of Nehemiah in asking honours, ii. 5. •I said unto the king, If it please the king, and if thy servant hath found favour in thy sight, that thou wouldest send me into Judah ;' of Samuel in laying down his authority, 1 Sam. x. 1. then Samuel took a vial of oil, and

poured it upon his head, and kissed him, and said, Is it not because Jehovah hath anointed thee ? of Elisha in refusing a reward for the cure he had wrought, 2 Kings v. 15, 16. • as Jehovah liveth, before whom I stand, I will receive none;' of Christ in rejecting the empire of the world, Matt. iv. 9. all these things will I give thee, if,' &c. Luke iv. 6. John vi. 15. when Jesus therefore perceived that they would come and take him by force to make him a king, he departed-:' in despising riches, 2 Cor. viii. 9. though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor ;' in accepting honours, Matt. xxi. 7, &c. they brought the ass, and the colt.....and they set him thereon. Such, finally, is the spirit by which every true Christian is guided in his estimate of himself. James i. 9, 10. • let the brother of low degree rejoice in that he is exalted ; but the rich in that he is made low.'

Allied to this is indignation at the unfounded praises or undeserved prosperity of the wicked. Prov. xxx. 21, &c. for three things the earth is disquieted, and for four which it cannot bear ; for a servant when he reigneth, and a fool when he is filled with meat ; for an odious woman when she is married, and an handmaid that is heir to her mistress.' When however this feeling exceeds due bounds, it ceases to be praise-worthy. Psal. xxxvii. 1. • fret not thyself because of evil doers.' v. 7, 8. 'fret not thyself because of him who prospereth in his way, because of the man who bringeth wicked devices to pass. Prov. iii. 31. envy thou not the oppressor, and choose none of his ways. The language of indignation is used, Job xxx. 1, &c. Psal. xv. 4. in whose eyes a vile person is contemned, but he hon

VOL. II.

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oureth them that fear Jehovah.' The vehemence of its expression sometimes borders on indecency. See Ezek. xvi. 25, 36. ,

Opposed to magnanimity are, first, an ambitious spirit. Numb. xii. 2. hath Jehovah indeed spoken only by Moses ? hath he not spoken also by us ?? xvi. 3. "seeing all the congregation are holy, every one of them, and Jehovah is among them: wherefore then lift ye up yourselves above the congregation of Jehovah?' Judges ix. 1, 2. • Abimelech went to Shechem ....and communed with them....saying, Speak, I pray you, in the ears of all the men of Shechem,' &c. 2 Sam. xv. 2. • Absalom rose up early, and stood beside the way of the gate- v. 4. O that I were made judge in this land-.' Prov. xxv. 27. 'for men to search their own glory is not glory.'

Secondly, pride, when a men values himself without merit, or more highly than his merits deserve, or is elated by some insignificant circumstance. 2 Sam. xxii. 28. 6thine eyes are upon the haughty, that thou mayest bring them down. Prov. vi. 16, 17. these six things doth Jehovah hate....a proud look . XV. 25. “Jehovah will destroy the house of the proud.? xvi. 5. every one that is proud in heart is an abomination to Jehovah.' v. 18. pride goeth before destruction. xviii. 12. "before destruction the heart of man is haughty. xxi. 4. 'an high look, and a proud heart—' xxix. 23. 'a man's pride shall bring him low.'

Thirdly, pusillanimity; of which Saul when chosen king is an example, 1 Sam. X. 21, 22. when they sought him, he could not be found.... behold, he hath hid himself among the stuff.'

CHAPTER X.

OF THE SECOND CLASS OF VIRTUES CONNECTED WITH

THE DUTY OF MAN TOWARDS HIMSELF.

THE virtues which regulate our desire of external good have been spoken of; we are next to consider those which are exercised in the resistance to, or the endurance of evil.

These virtues are fortitude and patience.

Fortitude is chiefly conspicuous in repelling evil, or in regarding its approach with equanimity. Josh. i. 6, 7, 9. have not I commanded thee? be strong and of a good courage ; be not afraid, neither be thou dismayed. Heb. xi. 32, &c. the time would fail me to tell of Gideon,' &c. who through faith subdued kingdoms.' Psal. iii. 9. "I will not be afraid of ten thousands of people that have set themselves against me round about.' See Psal. xviii. 32, &c. xxiii, 4.

though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil; for thou art with me.' xxxvii. 12, &c. “the wicked plotteth against the just ....the wicked have drawn out the sword....their sword shall enter into their own heart.' xlvi. 1, 2. God is our refuge and strength.....therefore will we not fear,

though the earth be removed. lvi. 11. •in God have I put my trust; I will not be afraid what man can do unto me.' See also cxviii. 6. cxii. 7, 8. he shall not be afraid of evil tidings.' Prov. iii. 24, 25. “when thou liest down, thou shalt not be afraid. xxiv. 5, 6. 6a wise man is strong; yea, a man of knowledge increaseth strength. xxviii. 1. the righteous are bold as a lion. Isai. xli. 10. - fear thou not, for I am with thee.' li. 7. fear ye not the reproach of men, neither be ye afraid of their revilings.' v. 12. 'I am he that comforteth you; who art thou that thou shouldst be afraid ? Dan. iii. 16. they said to the king.... we are not careful to answer thee in this matter.' Matt. x. 28, &c. 'fear not them which kill the body. The great pattern of fortitude is our Saviour Jesus Christ, throughout the whole of his life, and in his death. Luke xiii. 31, &c. go ye and tell that fox, Behold, I cast out devils, and I do cures today and to-morrow, and the third day I shall be perfected. John xi. 7, 8. his disciples say unto him, Master, the Jews of late sought to stone thee, and goest thou thither again ?" 2 Tim. i. 7. God hath not given us the spirit of fear, but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind.' 1 John ii. 14. I have written unto you, young men, because ye are strong, and the word of God abideth in you, and ye have overcome the wicked one.

Opposed to fortitude, are, first, timidity. Psal. xxvii. 1. Jehovah is my light and my salvation, whom shall I fear ? Prov. X. 24. the fear of the wicked, it shall come upon him.' xxv. 26. a righteous man falling down before the wicked, is as a troubled fountain and a corrupt spring.' xxviii. 1.

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