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xi. 3. “the perverseness of transgressors shall destroy them.' v.5. the wicked shall fall by his own wickedness. xiii. 15. the way of transgressors is hard.' xxii. 5. thorns and snares are in the way of the froward.'

A good man is known by his works. Matt. xii. 35. • a good man out of the good treasure of his heart bringeth forth good things.' 1 John iii. 7. he that doeth righteousness is righteous, even as he is righteous.' He is described Job xxix. 11-25. ówhen the ear heard me, then it blessed me,' &c. and elsewhere.

Sometimes, however, certain temporary virtues, or semblances of virtues, are discernible even in the wicked ; as in Saul, 1 Sam. xix, and in the Jews, Jer. xxxiv. An outward show of liberality, gratitude, and equity, with a regard for the interest of his subjects, are visible in the king of Sodom, Gen. xiv. 21. See also the instance of Eglon, Judges iii, and of Belshazzar, Dan. v. 29.

The wicked man is described Psal. x. 3, &c. “the wicked boasteth of his heart's desire,' &c. xiv. 1, &c. the fool hath said in his heart, Prov. i. 11, &c. “if they say, Come with us, let us lay wait for blood-iv. 14, &c. enter not into the path of the wicked xxviii. 5, &c. evil men understand not judgment.




The primary, efficient cause of good works, as has been stated above, is God.

The proximate causes of good works are naturally, in ordinary cases at least, good habits, or, as they are called, virtues ; in which is comprised the whole of our duty towards God and man. Philipp. iv. 8. • if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise.' 2 Pet. i. 5. add to your faith virtue.' These are partly general, or such as pertain to the whole duty of man; and partly special, or such as apply to the particular branches of that duty.

The general virtues belong partly to the understanding, and partly to the will.

Those which belong to the understanding are wisdom and prudence.

Wisdom is that whereby we earnestly search after the will of God, learn it with all diligence, and govern all our actions according to its rule.

The will of God. Deut. iv. 6. keep therefore and do them, for this is your wisdom— Psal. cxix. 66. ' teach me good judgment and knowledge, for I have



believed thy commandments.' v. 98-100. thou through thy commandments, hast made me wiser than mine enemies.........than my teachers......than the ancients. Prov. xxviii. 5. "they that seek Jehovah understand all things.' xxx. 5, 6. "every work of God is pure........add thou not unto his words, lest he reprove thee, and thou be found a liar. Rom. xii. 2.

be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good and acceptable and perfect will of God. xvi. 19. “I would have you wise unto that which is good, and simple concerning evil. ' Ephes. v. 15.

see that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise.' James iii. 13. who is a wise man, and endued with knowledge among you ? let him show out of a good conversation his works with meekness of wisdom.' v. 17. the wisdom that is from above is first

pure, then peaceable, gentle, and easy to be entreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy.' 1 John ii. 3. “hereby we do know that we know him, if we keep his commandments. Hence the fear of the Lord is called wisdom, Job xxviii. 28. Psal. xxv. 14. the secret of Jehovah is with them that fear him.' cxi. 10. the fear of Jehovah is the beginning of wisdom.' See also Prov. i. 7. Eccles. xii. 15. let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter,' &c. So also Christ, 1 Cor. i. 30. is made unto us wisdom.' Col. ii. 3. in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom.'

Earnestly search. Prov. ii. 4, &c. if thou seekest her as silver James i. 5. if any of you

lack wisdom let him ask of God that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not, and it shall be given

him.' Wisdom is readily found of such as seek her, and discloses herself to them of her own accord. Prov. i. 20, &c. 'wisdom crieth without, she uttereth her voice in the streets.' See also viii. 1, &c.

Wisdom is praised, Job xxviii. 15, &c. 'it cannot be gotten for gold — Prov. iii. 13, &c. "happy is the man that findeth wisdom. iv. 5, &c. 'get wisdom-viï. 6, &c. “hear, for I will speak of excellent things. Eccles. ix. 18. “wisdom is better than

weapons of war.'

The treasures of wisdom are not to be rashly lavished on such as are incapable of appreciating them. Prov. xxiii. 9. speak not in the ears of a fool, for he will despise the wisdom of thy words. Matt. vii. 6. "give not that which is holy unto the dogs.' Mark iv. 34. without a parable spake he not unto them.' 1 Cor. ii. 6. "howbeit we speak wisdom among them that are perfect; yet not the wisdom of this world.'

To wisdom is opposed folly; which consists, first and chiefly, in an ignorance of the will of God. Isai. i. 3. the ox knoweth its owner.' v. 13. therefore my people are gone into captivity, because they have no knowledge.' Jer. v. 4. they are foolish, for they know not the way of Jehovah, nor the judgment of their God. viii. 7, &c. 'yea, the stork in the heaven knoweth' her appointed times—.' John xvi. 2, 3. the time cometh that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service : and these things will they do unto you, because they have not known the Father, nor me.' xii. 10. the chief priests consulted that they might put Lazarus also to death.'

v. 17.

Eph. iv. 17, 13. being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them.'

be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is.' 1 Cor. ii. 8. 'had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.' 1 Tim. i. 13. “I did it ignorantly in unbelief.'

Secondly, in a false conceit of wisdom. Numb. xv. 39. 'that ye seek not after your own heart.' 1 Kings xviii. 17. “art thou he that troubleth Israel ?' Prov. iii. 7. be not wise in thine own eyes; fear Jehovah.' xiv. 6. 'a scorner seeketh wisdom, and findeth it not.' v. 12. there is a way that seemeth right unto a man, but the end thereof are the ways of death.' xxi. 2. “every way of a man is right in his own eyes; but Jehovah pondereth the hearts. xxvi. 12. seest thou a man wise in his own conceit? there is more hope of a fool than of him. xxviii. 26. 'he that trusteth in his own way is a fool ; but whoso walketh wisely he shall be delivered.' Isai. v. 21. woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes.' John ix. 39. that they which see not might see, and that they which see might be made blind.'. Rom. i. 22. 'professing themselves to be wise, they became fools.' 1 Cor. viii. 2. "if any man think that he knoweth any thing, he knoweth nothing yet as he ought to know. Yet folly cries aloud, and invites mankind to her instructions, as if she were the sole depositary of wisdom. Prov. ix. 16. whoso is simple, let him turn in hither.'

Thirdly, in a prying into hidden things, after the example of our first parents, who sought after the knowledge of good and evil contrary to the command

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