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ecclesiastical laws. If the State refuses this tions, and the enemies of the Church gave sanction, the law will not be less binding on the themselves up to a dark and threatening anger. State itself; but, by so doing, the State simply Our venerated Pastor understood the full beardeclines the honour of protecting the Church, ing of the Pontifical document; he rejoiced at it; and experience teaches that this will be its mis- and, since that day, he has not relaxed in his fortune. As the Church which enacts its own efforts to make it produce its legitimate fruit. laws, so does it also judge ecclesiastical mat- Everyone knows with what learning, what ters independently of the State's glory, to cause magnificent ideas, what conviction, his Lordthe Church's decisions to be respected. The ship, by a pastoral dated January ist, 1865, Church decides in matrimonial cases, prescribes promulgated in his diocese the Syllabus, in the form of marriages, and the State is honoured which are framed and condemned all the preby causing the decisions of the Church to be tensions, encroachments and usurpations of observed. The Church has the possession and the State. The Church is independent; it has administration of temporalities, independently its own tribunals; it possesses and administers of the State ; and the State protects the Church its property ; it has schools independent of in its possessions and administrations. The the State. Its communities have no civil origin. Church enjoys its immunities, and the State | In Christian marriage, the contract and sacraprotects it against the sacrilegious man who ment are inseparable, and henceforward Cathowould wish to violate them. The Church erects lic statesmen shall not think of discussing in dioceses and parishes, and the State helps the legislative chambers, about laws concerning Church in all its works. The Church watches divorce or the rights of the Church. One thing over and directs the schools, and it approves alone they can do, repel with indignation every the teachers that parents choose, and the State attempt against the rights or independence of hastens freely to grant its protection and assist the Church. The State is subordinate to the ance. A Christian Government is far from Church, and in case of a conflict between them, imitating those liberal governments who arro- the Church has to decide, the State to submit.” gate to themselves all right and power in

Our readers will appreciate, from what we schools, which everywhere become schoolmasters, and which have perverted the education

have said, the special allusion to the diviof youth. Such is the union of Church and sion of parishes, as well as the invectives State, and our venerable Pontiff has devoted against Gallicans and Liberal Catholics in his life to the strengthening of this union.** * general. It is needless to comment on the

“In old Europe these truths are beginning to good taste and the truly Christian feeling be understood by true politicians. They under which inspired such an attack on members stand the cause of the evils which overwhelm of the same Church, who had come to take society. Nations have revolted against God, part with the preacher and his section in a they have wished to submit God to man, the

personal and religious celebration. "The Church to the Government. Profit by their

unhappy experience. If the rumblings of thunder devil is exercising his oppression chiefly by

. in Europe are not sufficient to warn you, must Gallican and Liberal errors,” were gracious it burst upon your heads before you will take words to fling in the faces of those who had heed? You will listen to the warnings of your brought their gifts and congratulations to Bishop, and your civil and political life will be the common head of the Roman Catholic Christian, as is your private life. Your Bishop's community of Montreal. But the zeal of doctrine will have produced this happy result : the sons of Loyola outruns such trivial con“He went about doing good.” A truly memo- siderations as these. rable day in the annals of the nineteenth cen, they are such as in Europe right be pro

As to the principles, tury was that on which the Pope condemned the errors that are sweeping away all modern pounded in the Univers, or some other irresociety. This great event rejoiced true Catho- sponsible counterpart of the Nouveau Monde, lics, and renewed their strength. The Gallicans which is the Jesuit organ at Montreal. But blinded themselves and sought to give explana- we very much doubt whether it would have

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been deemed politic to allow any responsible energy by the other. If the two journalists, ecclesiastic to compromise the Church by instead of serving their parties, were speakproclaiming them from the pulpit. Of course ing the truth frankly over a dinner table, we see the loopholes which are left for cas- both would probably agree that the appointuistical interpretation. We know that the ment in itself is a very good one-Mr.

supremacy of the Church over the State" | Mowat being a man of undoubted character is to be confined to ecclesiastical questions. and ability—but that the transfer of a judge But what questions are ecclesiastical is to be from the bench to a political office, if it was decided by the Church ; and history tells us necessary, was a necessity much to be deploplainly enough what the scope of her deci- red. In a country like ours, the integrity of sion will be.

the judiciary is at least as important as that In the political eddies caused by the of the executive or the legislature; and the meeting of these two hostile tides of ecclesi- integrity of the judiciary can be preserved astical opinion sank Sir George Cartier, and only by keeping the bench of justice entirely probably he sank to rise no more. Neither distinct from the political arena. he, at least, nor any other man in his place, cedents cited from the English practice by will ever again occupy the position of the the defenders of Mr. Mowat's appointment, political leader of the National Church of even if they were relevant, would be more French Canada. The result of the conflict honoured in the breach than in the observbetween the Gallicans and the Jesuits can- vance. But they are not relevant. The cominot be doubtful. The Jesuits have all the bination of the office of Minister of Justice influences of the hour in their favour, and with that of Chief Judge in Equity in the they will triumph in this case, as they have person of the English Chancellor is, like the triumphed in all the Roman Catholic com- judicial function of the House of Lords, a munities of Europe. Their triumph is in relic of a very ancient state of things anterior fact the inevitable consequence of the doc- to the separation of the judiciary from the extrine of Papal Infallibility, proclaimed in ecutive, or of either from the legislature, and their interest, and through their machina- it is rather retained by the national conservations. There will come, and probably at tism, than approved by the national judgno distant time, a struggle between the Ul- ment. Probably a separate Ministry of Justramontane Church of French Canada and tice will be among the coming legal reforms. the State.

Meantime, the Lord Chancellor does not try That struggle offers a great part to any controverted elections, and it is scarcely public man who is young, who is hopeful, possible that any political question should who is strong in conviction, who is not ever come before him in court. That Lord afraid, politically speaking, to take his life Ellenborough was taken from the Chief in his hand, who aims at something above Justiceship of a Court of Common Law the prizes for which hack politicians scuffle into the Cabinet is true ; but the measure with each other on the hustings, who desires was generally repudiated at the time, and it to win the position which can be won only is certain that it will never be repeated. by becoming the champion of a great cause. The recall of Vice-Chancellor Mowat to The old parties have no such man. We political life is a proof, on the one hand, of shall see what young Canada can produce. the death of leading ability in the Ontario

Turning to Ontario, we find, as a matter Legislature, caused by the narrowness of of course, the appointment of Mr. Mowat to the parties, and on the other, of the inadthe Premiership unreservedly lauded by one equacy of judicial salaries, which are insuffparty organ, and condemned with equal / cient to retain the services of a first-rate man. The fact is, that our official salaries generally tion leaders, in support of the factionist dochave been depreciated to a most serious ex- trine, is a singular and instructive instance tent, from the rise of prices since the time of the extent to which the vision, even of when their scale was fixed; and their general very able men, may be distorted by the optirestoration to their original amount is a cal peculiarities of the atmosphere in which pressing need of public policy, as well as they live. We should have thought that if of personal justice. If this is not done, we there was anything as to which all men and shall soon have a low class of officials, who angels were agreed, it was that the divisions will think themselves licensed to eke out of Christendom are injurious to Christianity. their salaries by irregular gains in this coun- But this eminent factionist has persuaded himtry, as they notoriously do in the United self that they are not only not injurious, but States. Let the Government appoint a essential to the unity of the Christian Church. commission of inquiry into the depreciation Without the various contending sects, he of salaries, and act on the report.

says the Church would be an anarchy. Of It is gratifying to note that the proposal course he thinks that it was an anarchy in of the party organs to introduce faction into its undivided state under its Founder and our municipal elections is generally repu- the Apostles. Had he been in the place of diated by the good sense of the people, St. Paul, instead of lamenting the growth of aided, perhaps, by the strategical discretion divisions, he would have rejoiced over them of the weaker party. The leaders of the as the rudiments of incipient order, emergOpposition have, however, been making ing out of the religious chaos. Had he sat strong speeches in favour of faction as the in the Council of the Apostles at Jerusalem, principle of government. We disclaim any he would have enjoined the Jewish Chrisapproach to a sneer in saying that those who ianş to adhere to their Judaism, and the believe themselves, after a desperate party Gentile Christians to persevere in eating struggle, to be on the eve of a party triumph, things sacrificed to idols, because they would are scarcely unbiassed in their judgment of thereby keep up a Conservative and a Libethis question. We have repeatedly recog- ral party, a perpetual conflict between which, nized the fact that there are at the present with abundance of rancour and abuse, was time important issues between the Opposi- so necessary, in order to prevent an anarchy tion and the Government. We also sin in the Church. cerely credit the leaders of the Opposition Another orator says that though he rewith a desire to put an end to the existing joices that Ontario gave the Opposition a system, and introduce one purer and less majority, it would have been a great misforinjurious to national character in its place. tune if the vote had been “solid.”. In other But we, nevertheless, feel perfectly con- words, it would be a great misfortune if the vinced that before they had themselves people of Ontario were of one mind as to held power for six months on the party princi- their own interests. Such are the axioms ple, they would be compelled ruefully to upon which, literally, Government is at preacknowledge that faction is not the antidote, sent founded. but the incentive to corruption. Does any The result of the Welland election looks misgiving of this kind mingle with the mo- like a heavy blow to the Administration, tives which lead Mr. Blake, so strangely, and though its significance is somewhat reduced so fatally to the interests of his party, to by the local and personal circumstances of nullify his influence as a leader by declaring the contest. We cannot lament that the that he will not accept office?

appearance of several Cabinet Ministers An argument used by one of the Opposi- brawling and bandying foul language on the hustings, in company with more than one complications, is sure of meeting with neuconfederate of questionable character, failed trals at least, and will often meet with parto secure the victory for their party. It is tisans. time that Ministers in general, and the The Treaty of Washington, construed with Prime Minister in particular, should be reference to its real intent, can hardly be reminded that they are entrusted with regarded as an instance of international arthe honour as well as with the interests bitration, or as proving anything for or of the country. A moderate amount of against that mode of settling the differences mis-government and jobbery, if carried of nations. It was, in fact, a purchase by

, on with decency, would be preferable to England of peace at the close of a moral the injury inflicted on national character by war, caused by the depredations of the Alasome scenes at the late elections. We bama and her consorts, the fisheries dispute, doubt whether anything so bad ever oc- and still more, by the sympathy exhibited curs in the United States. If Conservatism for the South by certain classes in Great in this country means anything, it means the Britain and the colonies. The price paid was maintenance of the respect due to Govern- the pre-arranged condemnation of Great ment; but the respect due to Government Britain to the payment of damages for the cannot be maintained, unless the members Alabama, the equally pre-arranged adjudicaof the Government will do their part. That tion of San Juan to the United States, and self-degradation, either on the part of public certain concessions with respect to the Fishmen, or of the press, is necessitated by the ery and other rights of Canada, the exact character and tastes of our people is, we are import of which is the subject of violent conpersuaded, an unfounded notion, if it is not troversy among the organs of our party a mere pretence. The necessity may be press, but, in fact, yet remains to be seen. created, but at present it does not exist. As to the arbitrators, they were something In the late elections corruption was only like the sugar-tongs which the old Scotchtoo efficacious; but ruffianism, we are con- woman held in her hand for politeness' sake, vinced, only recoiled upon those who were while she took up the sugar through them, guilty of it.

in primitive fashion, with her fingers. A In the loss of San Juan, we have drunk the smouldering quarrel which, though the last drop of bitterness which can flow, for the Americans never intended to go to war, present at least, from the Treaty of Wash- might have been fanned by any chance gust ington. It is idle to deny the gravity of of wind into actual hostilities, has thus, we this decision, or to attempt to conceal from trust, been finally extinguished ; and we are ourselves the fact that it may impair the ready to recognize the value of this result, value of British Columbia as a Province of and to give the British Ministers full credit the Dominion. But like the decision on the for having done what they sincerely be Alabama Claims, it was, in effect rendered lieved to be best for the Empire as a whole, inevitable by the Treaty, and there is no and for Canada as a part of it. However ground for impeaching the impartiality of high may be the spirit of our people, and the award. On the other hand, the evident however willing they may be to share the eagerness to condemn Great Britain exhi- fortunes of the mother country in war(though bited by certain of the Judges, in the Gen- they can contribute nothing to her regular evan arbitration, warns us that Great Bri- forces), it is obvious that our exposed situatain, in going before European arbitrators, tion must always be an element in her counis going before enemies or rivals, while the cils on our behalf; and that we must be American Republic, remote from European prepared to make sacrifices for her as she,




undoubtedly, has made sacrifices for us. viction that the failure to seek reparation for The appointment of our Prime Minister, the blood of our citizens shed by Fenian the elect of our people, at least of a majority hordes organized for the invasion of this of them, as one of the Commissioners, was country on American soil, with the full the strongest proof of regard for our interests knowledge and connivance, not to say apthat we could require; and if, as his op- probation, of the American Government, was ponents allege, he was capable of selling the a desertion of the national honour, which interest and honour of his country for pecu- will prove to have been bad policy in the niary assistance to a party job, the fault is end. We say deliberately that there is ours alone. On the other hand, if England no citizen of the United States, who is not expected from the Treaty any greater conscious that his Government did us advantage than the termination of the ex- wrong, and intended to do us a wrong; or isting quarrel-if she imagined that it would who believes that the withdrawal of our annul the moral peculiarities which make claim proceeded from any doubt of its validievery New Englander crave for the humilia- ty or from any motive but fear. tion of the land of his fathers, that it would The St. Juan decision called forth a curicharm the Pennsylvanian protectionist into ous little spurt of Anti-Colonial cynicism foregoing his commercial hostility to the from the London Times. Immediately Cagreat exporting nation, that it would eradi- nadian journalism is in a fluster, and gives cate from the breasts of Americans generally us columns of extracts from the fugitive the hatred implanted there by all the lessons pieces of all the Bohemians in London, on of their childhood—the menacing abuse lev- the value of Colonies and the virtues of their elled at her the other day by the American inhabitants. “Nescis fili'-how editorials press,under the ridiculous impression that she are composed. “What does the article in was intriguing against the San Juan decision, the Times mean? What can it mean ??—is as well as the slanderous malignity of that the universal cry. In one of the trials of imputation itself, must have awakened her clergymen for heterodoxy, before the Privy from her dream. Could any counsel from Council in England, the counsel for the prothis side of the Atlantic reach the ears of secution was vehemently insisting on his inBritish statesmen, they would learn hence terpretation of a particular passage in the forth to treat the Americans in the only impugned work. “If this is not its meaning, way in which people so disposed can be it has no meaning ?”

sed can be it has no meaning ?" "I am no theologian, safely treated, either in public or private Mr. Blank,” interrupted one of the judgeslife, amicably and with courtesy, but at the “I am no theologian, but may not the passame time with reserve, studiously avoiding sage have no meaning." It is truly lamentaoffence, but at the same time abstaining ble to see the anxiety with which our peofrom unreciprocated cordiality, and from ple study, as oracles of our destiny, the ranignominious attempts to fling England into dom and capricious utterances of the Lonthe arms of her one implacable and unap- don Press. The Times is the organ of the peasable foe. The Atlantic will be the best best informed if not the wisest or most virtumediator if statesmen will not interfere. ous section of English society, and might

We are bound to add in qualification of be supposed to represent settled convictions what we have said in defence of the conduct on the Colonial question : yet in the course of the British Government, that notwith- of a few years it has swung round half a standing the arguments of Professor Bernard dozen times from the Colonial to the Antiand everything else that has been said upon Colonial side and back again ; always in its the subject, we remain unshaken in our con- Colonial moods denouncing Anti-Colonial

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