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insists on the complete cession of the Island Canada, and the line of its limits has been of Cape Breton, and of the other islands in traced, as aforesaid, by the Marquis de Vauthe gulf and river of St. Lawrence.

dreuil, all those opposite titles are united, “ Canada, according to the lines of its and become valid without contradiction, to limits traced by the Marquis de Vaudreuil confirm to Great Britain, with all the rest of himself, when that Governor surrendered the Canada, the possession of those countries said Province by capitulation to the British on that part of Ohio which have hitherto General, Sir J. Amherst, comprehends on been contested. one side the Lakes Huron, Michigan and “2. The line proposed to fix the bounds Superior; and the said line drawn to Red

of Louisiana cannot be admitted, because it Lake, takes in, by a serpentine progress, the would compromise in another part, on the river Ouabachi, as far as its junction with side of the Carolinas, very extensive counthe Ohio, and from thence extends itself tries and numerous nations, who have always along the latter river as far, inclusively, as been reputed to be under the protection of its influx into the Mississippi.

the King, a right which His Majesty has no "It is in conformity to this state of the intention of renouncing ; and then the King, limits made by the French Governor, that for the advantage of peace, might consent

, the King claims the cession of Canada; a to leave the intermediate countries under the Province which the Court of France, more protection of Great Britain, and particularly over, has offered anew by their Ultimatum the Cherokees, the Creeks, the Chicasaws, to cede to His Britannic Majesty, in the the Chactaws, and another nation, situate most extensive manner, as expressed in the between the British settlements and the Memorial of Propositions of Peace of 13th Mississippi." July."

The offer of England, contained in this “Article II. As to what respects the line paper, to cede to France the isles of St. to be drawn from Rio-Perdido, as contained Pierre and Miquelon, removed another obin the note remitted by M. Bussy of the 18th stacle to an agreement between the Powers, of this month, with regard to the limits of so far as related to Canada and its depenLouisiana, His Majesty is obliged to reject dencies. The last memorial of France, deso unexpected a proposition, as by no means livered by M. Bussy to Mr. Pitt on the admissible in two respects.

13th September, concedes the line of west"1. Because the said line, under colour ern boundary traced by Vaudreuil and inof fixing the limits of Louisiana, annexes sisted on by England. vast countries to that Province, which, with

“Article I. The King has declared in his the commanding posts and forts, the Mar- first Memorial, and in his Ultimatum, that quis de Vaudreuil has, by the most solemn he will cede and guarantee to England the capitulation, incontestibly yielded into the possession of Canada, in the most ample possession of His Britannic Majesty, under manner; His Majesty still persists in that the description of Canada, and that conse- offer, and without discussing the line of its quently, however contentious the preten- limits marked on a map presented by Mr. sions of the two Crowns may have been be- Stanley ; as that line, on which England rests fore the war, and particularly with respect its demands, is without doubt the most exto the course of the Ohio, and the territories in that part,* since the surrender of Traité d'Utrecht, comprenoit toute la presqu'Isle ;

on demandait qu'aucune des deux Nations ne pu Before the war England claimed that France s'approprier le cours de l'Ohio, et que le pays qu'il ar. should appropriate neither the Ohio nor the country rose, fut également fréquenté per les deux peuples.” watered by it :

-Soulluin Lumina.-histoire de la Guerre contre les "On pretendoit que la cession de l'Acadie, par le Anglais.


tensive bound which can be given to the herst; but this, however it may be deciu cession, the King is willing to grant it." does not affect the question of the bounda

The English proposal with respect to the Nearly three weeks before Vaudreur! w: limits of Louisiana was agreed to; but the his letter of denial, the French Govern. French objecting to what the English nego had, in direct terms, admitted the tiator had proposed as to the neutral na traced on the map, in possession of tions in the intermediate territory, wished to Stanley, to be the true boundary of Cu. have an agreement expressed in the follow- by accepting it. But if the decision it's ing terms :

the credibility of the two wire “The intermediate savage nations be-l as it does not, there would be good reün tween the lakes and the Mississippi, and for giving greater weight to the statener within the line traced out, shall be neuter General Amherst. Vaudreuil had fallen and independent, under the protection of to disgrace at the French court; the the king; and those without the line, on the tile, soon to become his lot, already 5:2 side of the English, shall be likewise neuter him in the face. He was to be put onih and independent, under the protection of with more than fifty others, as ore ci the king of England. The English traders authors of “monopolies, abuses, vext: also shall be prohibited from going among and prevarications committed in Canada the savage nations beyond the line on either charges but too well founded in many side ; and the said nations shall not be re. The fines imposed and restitutions des strained in their freedom of commerce with amounted to nearly eleven millions anda' the French and English, as they have exer- of francs. Vaudreuil escaped rondemna! cised it heretofore."

only to die of chagrin ; and it is a cle? At this point the negotiations were, for whether his tardy letter of denial was the time, broken off, on questions wholly any use to him, in a trial in which tre: foreign to the boundaries of Canada. With-jority of the accused were convicted in out the map on which the Marquis de Vau- absence, and practically without a hear! dreuil is said to have drawn the line, it is not By whomsoever the line was drawn, i possible to follow it in its entire length. But sufficient that both the English and this is not necessary. It is sufficient for French Governments agreed upon it, as the present purpose, to trace out Red Lake, scribing the true boundary of Canada on which the line touched in its serpentine the west. This line takes us from K course. But the question of the authenticity Lake to the Ouabache (Wabash)* an! of the line must first be examined. Vaudreuil, in a letter to the Duc de Choiseul, * There is no doubt about the ideo:ity of October 2, 1761, denied that he had de Ouabache with the Wabash. The Frerch,

they borrowed our W., would have :0 10.00 lived a map to General Amherst at the time orthography still. Del’Isle Carte du Canada, I of the capitulation ; and added that when a

marks it Ouabache autrement appelée / The

Belle R'ivèire; and in his carte de la Louisaxe cho British officer had brought a map to him, he du Mississippi he still call it the (Hot had denied that the limits traced on it were

Some English geographers called it (Putace.

1708, incorectly makes it run two-thirds of: correct. He admitted that Canada extend- distance on the south side of the Ohio. A " ed, on one side, to the “carrying place of illustrating one of Henipen's works (Amster:

1737) and showing Le cours du Ficace Vich the Miamis, which is the Height of Land selon les Kelations le plus modernes, marks the bus whose rivers run into the Ouabache, on the end of the Ohio, Hohio, the upper, Ouse,

whether the Wabash or the Main river it is iad, one side, and on the other to the head of the sible to say. The map attached to Chaset river Illinois.” It becomes a question of credi- Histoire et description generale de la Neurdie fru*

1743, by W. B. ing. du Roy et Hudrey bility between Vaudreuil and General Am- marine, marks the north branch Oy or Beile


quois word which means, I am informed, a matter almost of indifference which side slowly flowing river. Vaudreuil, even in should be touched—and a point on the his letter of denial, admits that Canada Wabash, near the Miamis Portage ; almost went in this direction to the Miamis portage, certainly the south-west end of this portage. between the Illinois and the Ouabache After it struck the Wabash, it continued rivers, the course taken by La Salle in his along that river to its junction with the Ohio, voyage of discovery to the Mississippi. Red and thence down the course of the Main Lake, another point which the line struck, River to the Mississippi. Northward of the must be sought out. There are two lakes Ohio, this line does not appear to have that bear that name; one north and the followed the Mississippi. The French other west of Lake Superior. Isaac Long, memorial of the 13th September, without in the map attached to his travels, (my copy the aid of the marked map, throws only an is a French translation) places one of these obscure light on this point, when it prolakes about due north of Lake Nipegon. poses that, “The intermediate savage It has disappeared from some later maps, nations between the lakes and the Misand is apparently replaced by “ Long Lake;" sissippi, and within the line traced out, but in one published by the Society for the shall be neuter and independent, under diffusion of useful knowledge it appears the protection of the King, and those much farther west than Long placed it. It without the line, on the side of the Engreceived the name of Red Lake, according lish, shall be likewise neuter and indepento a legend which he preserves, from some dent, under the protection of the King of Indian hunters having shot a colossal ani- England.” The line at the first definite mal which had moved with slow and heavy point where we can trace it, is drawn from tread along its margin, which they believed Red Lake southward till it strikes the to be Matchee Manito, or the evil spirit, Wabash, and proceeds down that river and and of which the blood, when the monster its parent stream, the Ohio, till the Missisreceived its death wound, coloured the sippi is reached. East of this line the waters of the lake. A line striking so far intermediate savage nations must be sought. north obviously could not be the one in with anything outside of it we have, for the tended to designate the western boundary present purpose, nothing to do. The object of Canada. The other Red Lake is one of of carrying this line down the Ohio must the sources of Red River. It is situated not have been to obtain a southern boundary. at its southern extremity but at the source if it had been intended, at that time, to of one of its eastern branches. Its longi- make the Mississippi the western boundary, tude appears, on some maps, to be a little the line would have been produced westwest of the north-west corner of the Lake of ward from Red Lake, and the course of the the Woods ; on others it appears on the river followed to the junction with the same meridional parallel.

Ohio, whence the western boundary would On the line agreed to by the French and have been traced. But all this is really of English Governments we have one certain very little importance. The essential point point, and another which may be approxi- is to know that the western boundary of mately fixed, the point on Red Lake, Canada went as far as Red Lake. The map a body of water so small as to make it a

on which it was traced, unless some casualty

has befallen it, ought to be found in the Quabach is in the upper end, somewhat out of posi- British archives; and it might be useful as tion. Bellecocq, translating from the English, in showing the exact point at which Red the second year of the French Republic, writes it

Lake was touched.



The definitive treaty of Peace, Feb. ro, grantee, expeditions were sent out into I 1763, irrevocably fixed the limits between nois in search of mines.* the French possessions and those of His After Crozat's dream of establishing Britannic Majesty, by a line drawn along the empire in the valley of the Mississippi, a "middle of the Mississippi river, from its possibly making his daughter the wife ci source to the river Iberville, and from thence Medici, and the Mississippi corsany u by a line in the middle of that stream, and , Law and his paper bubbles had come of lakes Maurepas and P'ontchartrain, to the the scene, the limits of Louisiana were sea.” All the French possessions on the left itended on thie north. An arrit issuei side of the Mississippi, except the town and the 27th September, 1717, detaching the island of Orleans,'were ceded to England. In linois from Youvelle France and inccipe this cession was included more than Canada. ting it with Louisiana.* The seventh article contains a preamble Then were established, substantia ly. which explains the reason for including a limits of Canada, on the west, which 1 part of Louisiana : “In order to establish dreuil is alleged to have traced on the c peace on solid and durable foundations, and itulation of Montreal, and which were to remove for ever all causes of dispute in tainly agreed upon in the course of relation to the limits between the French same year between the Governments of Fru and British territories, on the continent of and England. America.” The designation of the limits of

Great Britain having once become p Canada, on the west, at the capitulation of sessed of the country as far west as ! Vaudreuil, and in the subsequent correspon- Mississippi, the competence of Parliam dence between the two courts, was not new.

to extend the government of Canada to : The map of the Academy of Sciences, (1718) | limit cannot be questioned. Did it do makes Canada or New France extend to the in the Quebec Act ? This is certa: head waters of the rivers that run into Lake doubtful; more than doubtful I thi: Michigan and Green Bay (Baye des Puans When the line of boundary prescribed of the French); and it includes in Louisi- that statute struck the Ohio, it went we ana all the territory west of this point, of ward along that river to the Mississ. which the rivers empty into the Mississippi.* from the junction of the Ohio with the v

The grant of Louisiana, made to Crosissippi, it went “northward” till it int zat, by Louis XIV, Sept 17, 1712, was not sected the southern boundary of the Huds quite so extensive. It gave him the right of Bay Territory. In the first case, it was exclusive trade in all the French territories, follow the course of the river; in the secor bounded by New Mexico, on the side of the it was simply to go “northward.” By Spanish, and by Carolina on the side of the Proclamation of 1791, Canada was to : English; the Mississipi from the sea to the clude all the territory west and south of Illinois ; the Wabash and Ohio, being the line drawn due north from Lake Temisca: northern boundary, and the Illinois being ing till it reached the southern border excluded on the north. Under the Crozat IIudson's Bay Territory, commonly keov monopoly, which proved not less intolerable as Canada. How are we to know the to the inhabitants than profitless to the western limits ? The concurrence of t!

Governments of France and England in

western line of Canadian boundary is : 'M. Garneau's reading of this map agrees with my own : that it claims as “ Louisiana, du côté de

*Charlevoix, Tome 4, P, 170. l'est toutes terres dont les eaux tombent dans le Mississippi.”

*Charlevoix, T, 4, P, 194.

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best evidence we can have. It is, besides I think, then, it is a legitimate conclusion being official, the boundary which the pre- from all the facts, that Red Lake indicates vious owner of the country admitted, and the western boundary of Ontario; that all which the new owner insisted on. That the country south of the Hudson Bay Terline touches at Red Lake; and if Red Lake ritory, and north of the United States' be taken as a determinate point to which boundary line, east of this point, to the the line of the Quebec Act must be drawn, meridian of Lake Temiscaming, belongs to in its "northward "course, all difficulty van- Ontario ; and that the northern boundary ishes, and there is a perfect accord be of Ontario must, under the tenth article of tween the line agreed upon between the the Treaty of Utrecht, be found on the French and English Governments and the height of land which separates the Arctic Quebec Act and the Proclamation of 1791. and the Atlantic water-sheds.

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