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F. V. HAYDEN, U. S. GEOLOGIST-IN-CHARGE.
THE UNITED STATES
GEOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY
VOLUME V.....NUMBER 1.
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY
OF THE TERRITORIES,
Art. 1.-Notes on the Aphididæ of the United States, with descriptions of species occurring West of the Mississippi.
By Chas. V. Riley and J. Monell.
BIOLOGICAL NOTES ON THE PEMPHIGINÆ, WITH DE
SCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES.-C. V. RILEY, Ph. D.
The object of the present paper is to set forth some interesting biological facts relating to the gall-making Pemphiginæ,* and which were presented in abstract at the late meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. These facts have a special interest just at this time on account of the close relationship between the insects of the sub-family in question and the notorious Grape-vine Phylloxera (Phyllorera vastatrix).
The life-history and agamic multiplication of the Plant-lice (Aphidida) hare always excited the interest of entomologists, and even of anatomists and embryologists not especially given to the study of insects. The lifehistory, however, of the gall-making species belonging to the Pemphiginae has baffled the skill of observers more than that of any other group. All of the older writers, in treating of the different gall-producing Pemphiginæ of Europe, have invariably failed to trace the life-history of any of the species after the winged females leave the galls, and, with few exceptions, have erroneously inferred that the direct issue from the winged females hibernates somewhere. The most recent production on the subject is a paper published the present year in Cassel, Germany, by Dr. H. F. Kessler, on the life-history of the gall-making Plant-lice
* This term is used in the sub-family sense, in accordance with most common usage, and not in the tribal sense, as employed by Buckton in his Monograph of British Aphides, 1875. Bull. v, 1-1