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probably, more than you can say of the persons you do converse with.

Englishman. That's true, I own; but for all that, I would rather keep company with my surgeon half the year, than with your women of fashion the

year round. Stanhope. Tastes are different you know, and every man follows his own.

Englishman. That's true; but thine's an odd one, Stanhope. All morning with the nurse, all the evening in formal fine company, and all day long afraid of old daddyl in England. Thou art a queer fellow, and I am afraid there's nothing to be made of thee.

Stanhope. I am afraid so too.

Englishman. Well, then, good night to you; you have no objection, I hope, to my being drunk to-night, which I certainly will be?2

Stanhope. Not in the least; nor to your being sick to-morrow, which you as certainly will be ;-and so good night too.

You will observe that I have not put into your mouth those 3 good arguments which upon such an occasion would, I am sure, occur to you; as piety and affection toward me ; regard and friendship for Mr Harte; respect for your own moral character, and for all the relative duties of man, son, pupil, and citizen. Such 4 solid arguments would be thrown away upon such shallow puppies.5 Leave them to their ignorance, and to their dirty, disgraceful vices.



THE EXECUTION OF QUEEN MARY. On Tuesday the 7th of February 1587, the two earls arrived at Fotheringay, and demanded access to the queen, read in her presence the warrant for execution,6 and required her to prepare to die next morning. Mary heard them to the end without emotion, and crossing herself in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, “ That soul,” said she, “ is not worthy the joys of Heaven, which repines because the body must endure the stroke of the executioner; and, though I did not expect that the Queen of England would set the first example of violating the sacred person of a sovereign prince, I willingly submit to that which Providence has decreed to be my lot.” And, laying her hand on a Bible, which happened to be near her, she solemnly protested that she was innocent of that conspiracy which Babington had carried on against Elizabeth's life. She then mentioned the request contained in her letter to Elizabeth, but obtained no satisfactory answer. She entreated, with particular earnestness,1 that now, in her last moments, her almoner might be suffered to attend her, and that she might enjoy the consolation of those pious institutions prescribed by her religion. Even this favour, which is usually granted to the vilest criminal, was absolutely denied.

i Of old daddy, Du vieux papa.—2 You have no objection, I hope, to my being drunk to-night, which I certainly will be, Vous ne trouverez pas mauvais, je l'espère que je m'enivre ce soir, ce que je ferai bien certainement.—3 See $ 21.–4 See $ 25.5 Shallow puppies, Sots personnages.-6 The warrant for execution, L'ordre d'exé. cution.

Her attendants, during this conversation, were bathed in tears, and though overawed by the presence of the two earls, with difficulty suppressed their anguish ; but no sooner did Kent and Shrewsbury withdraw, than they ran to their mistress, and burst out into the most passionate expressions of tenderness and sorrow. Mary, however, not only retained perfect composure of mind, but endeavoured to moderate their excessive grief; and falling on her knees, with all her domestics around her, she thanked Heaven that her sufferings were now so near an end, and prayed that she might be enabled to endure what still remained with decency and with fortitude. The greater part of the evening she employed in settling her worldly affairs. She wrote her testament with her own hand. Her money, her jewels, and her clothes, she distributed among her servants, according to their rank or merit. She wrote a short letter to the King of France, and another to the Duke of Guise, full of tender but magnanimous sentiments, and recommended her soul to their prayers, and her afflicted servants to their protection. At supper, she ate temperately, as usual, and conversed not only with ease, but with cheerfulness ; she drank tol every one of her servants, and asked their forgiveness if ever she had failed in any part of her duty towards them. At her wonted time she went to bed, and slept calmly a few hours. Early in the morning she retired into her closet, and employed a considerable time in devotion. At eight o'clock, the High Sheriff and his officers entered her chamber, and found her still kneeling at the altar. She immediately started up, and with a majestic mien, and a countenance undismayed and even cheerful, advanced towards the place of execution, leaning on two of Paulet's attendants.

* She entreated, with particular earnestness, Elle demanda, avec des instances toutes particulières.—2 To attend her, De l'assister.-3 The most passionate expressions Les expressions les plus énergiques.

She was dressed in a mourning habit, but with an elegance and splendour which she had long laid aside, except on a few festival days. An Agnus Dei hung by a pomander chain at her neck, her beads at her girdle, and in her hand she carried a crucifix of ivory. At the bottom of the stairs, the two earls, attended by several gentlemen from the neighbouring counties, received her; and there Sir Andrew Melvil, the master of her household, who had been secluded for some weeks from her presence, was permitted to tiike his last farewell. At the sight of a mistress whom he tenderly loved, in such a situation, he melted into tears ; and as he was bewailing her condition, and complaining of his own hard fate in being appointed to carry the account of such a mournful event into Scotland, Mary replied : “Weep not, good Melvil, there is at present greater cause for rejoicing; thou shalt this day see Mary Stuart delivered from all her cares, and such an end put to her tedious sufferings as she has long expected. Bear witness that I die constant in my religion, firm in my fidelity towards Scotland, and unchanged in my affection to France. Commend me to my son : tell him I have done nothing injurious to his kingdom, to his honour, or to his right; and God forgive all those who have thirsted, without cause, for my blood !”

1 She drank to, Elle but à la santé de.

With much difficulty, and after many entreaties, she prevailed on the two earls to allow Melvil, together with three of her menservants and two of her maids, to attend her to the scaffold. It was erected in the same hall where she had been tried, raised a little above the floor, and covered, as well as a chair, the cushion, and block, with black cloth. Mary mounted the steps with alacrity, beheld all this apparatus of death with an unaltered countenance, and signing herself with the cross, she sat down in the chair. Beale read the warrant for execution with a loud voice, to which she listened with a careless air, and like one occupied in other thoughts. Then, the Dean of Peterborough began a devout discourse, suitable tol her present condition, and offered up prayers to Heaven in her behalf; but she declared that she could not in conscience hearken to the one nor join in the other,2 and falling on her knees, repeated a Latin prayer. When the Dean had finished his devotions, she, with an audible voice, and in the English tongue, recommended unto God the afflicted state of the Church, and prayed for prosperity to her son, and for a long life and peaceful reign to Elizabeth. She declared that she hoped for mercy only throughthe death of Christ, at the foot of whose image she now willingly shed her blood; and lifting up and kissing the crucifix, she thus addressed it : “ As Thy arms, O Jesus ! were extended on the cross, so with the out-stretched arms of Thy mercy receive me, and forgive my sins.”

She then prepared for the block by taking off her veil and upper garments, and one of the executioners rudely endeavouring to assist, she gently checked him, and said with a smile that she had not been accustomed to undress before so many spectators, nor to be served by such valets. With calm but undaunted fortitude she laid her neck on the block, and while one executioner held her hands, the other, at the second stroke, cut off her head, which, falling out of its attire,4 discovered her hair already grown quite gray with cares and sorrows. The executioner held it up,

1 Suitable to, En accord avec.—2 That she could not in conscience hearken to the one, nor join in the other, Que sa conscience lui défendait d'écouter ses paroles et de s'unir à ses prières. —3 Through, Par le mérite de.—4 Of its attire, De sa coiffure.

still streaming with blood, and the Dean crying out, “ So perish all Queen Elizabeth's enemies !the Earl of Kent alone answered : Amen!” The rest of the spectators continued silent and drowned in tears, being incapable at that moment of any other sentiments but those of pity or admiration.




THE Normans were then the foremost race of Christendom. Their valour and ferocity had made them conspicuous among the rovers whom Scandinavia had sent forth to ravage Western Europe. Their sails were long the terror of both coasts of the Channel. Their arms were repeatedly carried far into the heart of the Carlovingian empire, and were victorious under the walls of Maestricht and Paris. At length, one of the feeble heirs of Charlemagne ceded to the strangers a fertile province, watered by a noble river, and contiguous to the sea, which was their favourite element. In that province they founded a mighty State, which gradually extended its influence over the neighbouring principalities of Brittany and Maine. Without laying aside that dauntless valour which had been the terror of every land from the Elbe to the Pyrenees, the Normans rapidly acquired all, and more than all, the knowledge and refinement1 which they found in the country where they had settled. Their courage secured their territory against foreign invasion. They established internal order, such as had been long unknown in the Frank empire. They embraced Christianity, and with Christianity they learned a great part of what the clergy had to teach. They abandoned their native speech, and adopted the French tongue, in which Latin was the predominant element. They speedily raised their new language to a dignity and importance which it had never

1 The Normans rapidly acquired all, and more than all, the knowledge and refinement, Les Normands s'étaient promptement approprié et même avaient accru toutes les connaissances et tous les raffinements.—2 Had to teach, Pouvait enseigner.3 Native speech, Idiome national.

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