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a strange ferocity, which I have never observed in any other being that feeds upon the earth. Two herds of men will often meet and shake the earth with noise, and fill the air with fire. When you hearl noise, andsee fire, with flashes along the ground, hasten to the place with your swiftest wing, for men are surely destroying one another; you will then find the ground smoking with blood, and covered with carcasses, of which many are dismembered and mangled for the convenience of the vulture.” “But when men have killed their prey,” said the pupil, “why do they not eat it? When the wolf has killed a sheep, he suffers not the vulture to touch it till 4 he has satisfied himself. Is not man another kind of wolf ?” “Man," said the old vulture, “is the only beast who kills that which he does not devour, and this quality makes him so much a benefactor to 5 our species.”—“ If man kill our prey, and 6 lay it in our way,” said the young one, “what need shall we have of labouring for ourselves ?7_“Because man will, sometimes, remain for a long time quiet in his den. The old vultures will tell you when you are to watch his motions. When you see men in great numbers moving close together,8 like a flight of storks, you may conclude that they are hunting, and that you will soon revel in human blood.”—“But still,” said the young one, “I would gladly know the reason of this mutual slaughter; I would never kill what I could not eat.”_“ My child,” said the vulture, “this is a question which I cannot answer,' though I am reckoned the most subtle bird oi the mountain. When I was young, I used frequently to visit the eyry of an old vulture, who dwelt upon the Carpathian rocks ;10 he had made many observations ; he knew the places that afforded prey round his habitation, as far in every direction as the strongest ving can fly between the rising and the setting of the summer sun; he had fed year after year on 11 the entrails of men. His opinion was, that men had only the appearance of animal life, being really vegetables with a power of motion ;1 and that, as the boughs of an oak are dashed together by the storm, that swine may fatten upon the fallen acorns, so men are by some unaccountable power driven one against another, till they lose their motion, that vultures may be fed. Others think they have observed something of contrivance and policy? among these mischievous beings; and those that hover most closely round them pretend that there is, in every herd, one that gives directions to the rest, and seems to be more eminently delighted with a wide carnage. What it is that entitles him to 3 such pre-eminence we know not; he is seldom the biggest or the swiftest, but he shows by his eagerness and diligence that he is, more than any of the others, a friend to 4 the vultures."

1 See § 40.—2 See § 41.—8 Hasten to the place with your swiftest wing, Dirigezvous vers cet endroit à tire d'aile.—4 Sees 39.—5 See § 32, 10.–6 See $ 41.-7 What need shall we have of labouring for ourselves ? À quoi bon nous donner de la peine ? -8 Moving close together, Marchant en lignes serrées.-9 See § 37.-10 Carpathian rocks, Les monts Carpathes.—11 See $ 34,

S. JOINSON.

1709-1784.

THE DEATH OF QUEEN ELIZABETH. SOME incidents happened which revived her tenderness for Essex, and filled her with the deepest sorrow for the consent which she had unwarily given to his execution.

The Earl of Essex, after his return from the fortunate expedition against Cadiz, observing the increase of the queen's fond attachment towards him, took occasion to regret that the necessity of her service required him often to be absent from her person, and exposed him to all those5 ill offices which his enemies, more assiduous in their attendance,h could employ against him. She was moved with? this tender jealousy; and, making him the present of a ring, desired him to keep that pledge of her affection, and assured him that into whatever disgrace he should fall, whatever prejudices she might be induced to entertain against him, yet 9 if he sent her that ring, she would immediately, upon sight of it, recall her former tenderness, and would lend a favourable ear to his apology. Essex, notwithstanding all his misfortunes, reserved this precious gift to the last extremity ; but after his trial and condemnation, he resolved to try the experiment, and he committed the ring to the Countess of Nottingham, whom he desired to deliver it to the queen. The countess was prevailed on by her husband, the mortal enemy of Essex, not to execute the commission; and Elizabeth, who still expected that her favourite would make this last appeal to her tenderness, and who ascribed the neglect of it? to his invincible obstinacy, was, after much delay and many internal combats, pushed by resentment and policy to sign the warrant for his execution. The Countess of Nottingham falling into sickness, and affected with the near approach of death, was seized with remorse for her conduct; and, having obtained a vişit from the queen, she craved her pardon, and revealed to her the fatal secret. The queen, astonished with this incident, burst into a furious passion ; she shook the dying countess in her bed ; and crying to her that God might pardon her, 4 but she never could, she broke from her, and thenceforth resigned herself over to the deepest and most incurable melancholy. She rejected all consolation ; she even refused food and sustenance ;' and throwing herself on the floor she remained sullen and immovable, feeding her thoughts on her afflictions, and declaring life and existence an insufferable burden to her. Few words she uttered, and they were all expressive of some inward grief which she cared not to reveal; but sighs and groans were the chief vent which she gave to her despondency. Ten days and nights she lay upon the carpet, leaning on cushions which her maids brought her; and her physicians could not persuade her to allow herself to be put to bed, much less to make trial of any remedies which they prescribed to her. Her anxious mind at last had so long preyed on her frail body, that'her end was visibly approaching; and the council being assembled, sent the keeper, admiral, and secretary, to know her will with regard to her successor. She answered with a faint voice that as she had held a regal sceptre, she desired no other than a royal successor. Cecil requesting her to explain herself more particularly, she subjoined that she would have a king to succeed her; and who should that be but her nearest kinsman, the King of Scots? Being then advised by the Archbishop of Canterbury to fix her thoughts upon God, she replied that she did so, nor did her mind in the least wander from Him. Her voice soon after left her; her senses failed ; she fell into a lethargic slumber, which continued some hours, and she expired gently, without further struggle or convulsion (March 24,) in the seventieth year of her age and forty-fifth of her reign.

1 With a power of motion, Avec la faculté de se mouvoir.—2 Something of contrivance and policy, Une sorte d'arrangement et d'organisation.-3 Entitles him to, Lui donne droit à. —4 See § 32, 10.-- See $21.-6 More assiduous in their attendance. Plus assidus auprès d'elle. _7 See $ 29.–8. Whatever prejudices she might be inducent to entertain against him, Quelques préventions qu'on pât lui inspirer contre lui.9 See § 42.

1 The Countess was prevailed on by her husband not to, La Comtesse se laissa persuader par son mari de ne pas.—2 Who ascribed the neglect of it, Qui attribuait son silence. 3 Affected with, Effrayée de.—4 See § 37, 4.-5 She even refused food and sustenance, Elle refusa même tout ce qui pouvait la nourrir et soute forces.—6 But sighs and groans were the chief vent which she gave to her despondency, Mais c'est surtout par des soupirs et des gémissements qu'elle exhalait son désespoir.

D. HUME. 1711-1776.

THE MONKEY AND THE TWO CATS. Two cats, having stolen some cheese, could not agree about dividing their prize. In order, therefore, to settle the dispute, they consented to refer the matter to a monkey. The proposed arbitrator very readily accepted the office, and, producing a balance, 4 put a part into each scale. “Let me see,” said he, "ay! this lump outweighs the other ;5 and immediately he bit off6 a considerable piece in order to reduce it, he observed, to an equilibrium.? The opposite scale was now become the heaviest ; which afforded our conscientious judge an additional reason for a second mouthful. “Hold! hold !” said the two cats, who began to be alarmed for the event, “give us our respective shares, and we are satisfied.” “If you are satisfied,” returned the monkey, "justice is not ;' a case of this intricate nature is by no ineans so soon determined.” Upon which he continued to nibble first at one piece and then the other, till the poor cats, seeing their cheese gradually diminishing, entreated him to give himself no further trouble, but deliver to them what remained. “ Not so fast, I beseech you friends,” replied the monkey ; “we owe justice to ourselves as well as to you ; what remains is due to me in right of my office.” Upon which he crammed the whole into his mouth, and with great gravity dismissed the court.2

1 Her anxious mind at last had so long preyed on her frail body, that, Enfin ses peines morales avaient si longtemps miné sa frêle constitution, que.—2 To refer the matter to a monkey, Å soumettre le cas à un singe.—3 The proposed arbitrator very readily accepted the office, Notre arbitre accepta avec empressement.–4 Producing a baiance, Prenant une balance. -5 This lump outweighs the other, Ce morceau est plus lourd que l'autre.—6 He bit off, Il enleva d'un coup de dent.—7 To reduce it to an equilibrium, Pour rétablir l'équilibre.

DODSLEY. 1703-1764.

ROBINSON CRUSOE'S CLOTHES, UMBRELLA, AND

PARROT. I HAVE mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures that I killed, I mean four-footed ones, and I had them hung up stretched out with sticks in the sun, by which means some of them were so dried and hard that they were fit for little, but others were very useful. The first thing I made of these was a great cap for my head, with the hair on the outside, to shoot off the rain ; and this I performed so well, that, after, I made me a suit of clothes 3 wholly of the skins. I must not omit to acknowledge that they were wretchedly made ; for if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse tailor. However they were such as I made a very good shift with,4 and when I was out, if it happened to rain, the hair of my waistcoat and cap being outermost, I was kept very dry.

After this, I spent a great deal of time to make an umbrella. I was indeed in great want of one, and had a great mind to make one. I had seen them made in the Brazils, where they are very useful in the great heats there, and I felt the heats every jot as

1 See § 17.—2 Dismissed the court, Il leva l'audience. -3 A suit of clothes, Un habillement complet. _4 I made a very good shift with, Je m'en arrangeai fort

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