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Great Turk would use to his divan. She punished with great severity members of the House of Commons who, in her opinion, carried the freedom of debate 2 too far. She assumed the power of legislating by means of proclamations. She imprisoned her subjects without bringing them to a legal trial. Torture was often employed, in defiance of the laws of England, for the purpose of extorting confessions from those who were shut up in her dungeons. The authority of the Star Chamber, and of the Ecclesiastical Commission, was at its highest point.6 Severe restraints were imposed on political and religious discussion. The number of presses was limited. No man could print without a license; and every work had to undergo the scrutiny? of the Primate or the Bishop of London. Persons whose writings were displeasing to the Court were cruelly mutilated, like Stubbs, or put to death, like Penry. Nonconformity 8 was severely punished. The Queen prescribed the exact rule of religious faith and discipline; and whoever departed from that rule, either to the right or the left, was in danger 10 of severe penalties.

Such was her government. Yet we know that it was loved by the great body of those who lived under it. 11 We know that, during the fierce contests of the sixteenth century, both the hostile parties spoke of the time of Elizabeth as of a golden age. That great queen has now been lying two hundred and thirty years in Henry the Seventh's Chapel. Yet her memory is still dear to the heart of a free people.

MACAULAY. 1808–1860.

INVASION OF THE BARBARIANS. INURED by the rigour of their climate, or the poverty of their soil, to hardships,12 which rendered their bodies firm, and their minds vigorous ; accustomed to a course of life which was a continual preparation for action; and disdaining every occupation but? that of war or of hunting; the barbarous nations undertook and prosecuted their military enterprises with an ardour and impetuosity, of which men, softened by the refinements of more polished times, can scarcely form any idea.

1 To his divan, Avec son divan. -_2 The freedom of debate, La liberté de discussion. -3 She assumed, Elle s'arrogea._4 Without bringing them to a legal trial, Sans observer les formes légales. _5 The Star Chamber, La Chambre Étoilée. _6 Was at its highest point, Était dans toute sa force. —-7 The scrutiny, L'examen.-_8 Nonconformity, La non conformité. _9 Departed, S'écartait. -10 Was in danger of, S'exposait å. -11 Under it, Sous ce régime. – 12 To hardships, Aux privations.

Their first inroads into the empire proceeded2 rather from the love of plunder, than from the desire of new settlements. Roused to arms 3 by some enterprising or popular leader, they sallied out of their forests; broke in upon 4 the frontier provinces with irresistible violence ; put all5 who opposed them to the sword ;? carried off the most valuable effects of the inhabitants ; dragged along multitudes of captives in chains ; wasted all before them with fire or sword ; and returned in triumph to their wilds and fastnesses. Their success, together with the accounts which they gave of the unknown conveniences and luxuries that abound in countries better cultivated, or blessed with 8 a milder climate than their own, excited new adventurers, and exposed the frontier to new devastations.

When nothing was left to plunder in the adjacent provinces ravaged by frequent excursions, they marched farther from home, and finding it' difficult or dangerous to return, they began to settle in the countries which they had subdued. The sudden and short excursions in quest of 10 booty, which had alarmed and disquieted the empire, ceased ; a more dreadful calamity impended. Great bodies of armed men, with their wives and children, and slaves and flocks, issued forth, like regular colonies, in quest of new settlements. People who had no cities, and seldom any

fixed habitation, were so little attached to their native soil, that they migrated without reluctance from one place to another. New adventurers followed them. The lands which they deserted were occupied by more remote tribes of barbarians. These, in their turn, pushed forward into more fertile countries, and, like a torrent

Every occupation but, Toute autre occupation.—2 Proceeded, Provenaient.3 Roused to arms, Appelés aux armes.-4 Broke in upon, Se jetaient sur. —5 All, Tous ceux.–6 See $ 37, 10.-—7 See $ 55, 44.—8 Blessed with, Favorisés de. See also $ 29.-9 See § 18.-10 In quest of, En quête de.

continually increasing, rolled on? and swept everything before them. In less than two centuries from their first irruption, barbarians of various names and lineage plundered and took possession of? Thrace, Pannonia, Gaul, Spain, Africa, and at last of Italy, and Rome itself. The vast fabric 3 of the Roman power, which it had been the work of ages to perfect,4 was in that short period overturned from the foundation."




I SHOULD have lived happily enough in that country, if


littleness had not exposed me to several ridiculous and troublesome accidents, some of which I shall venture to relate. Glumdalclitch often carried me into the gardens of the court in my smaller box, and would sometimes take me out of it, and hold me in her hand, or set me down to walk. I remember, before the dwarf left the queen, he followed us one day into those gardens, and my nurse having set me down, he and I being close together,8 near some dwarf apple trees, I must needs show my wit,9 by a silly allusion between him and the trees, which happens to hold in their language as it doth in ours.10 Whereupon the malicious rogue, watching his opportunity, when I was walking under one of them, shook it directly over my head, by which a dozen apples, each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel, came tumbling about my ears ; 11 one of them 12 hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop, and knocked me down flat on my face ; but I received no other hurt, and the dwarf was pardoned ati my desire, because I had given the provocation.

1 Rolled on, Refoulaient. _2 Plundered and took possession of, Ravagèrent et prirent._3 The vast fabric, Le grand édifice.--4 The work of ages to perfect, L'œuvre des siècles. —5 From the foundation, De fond en comble.--6 Would sometimes take me out of it, Quelquefois elle m'en faisait sortir.—7 Or set me down to walk, Ou me mettait à terre pour me faire marcher. -8 Being close together, Nous trouvant à côté l'un de l'autre.-9 I must needs show my wit, Je ne pus résister à la tentation de montrer mon esprit.-10 Which happens to hold in their language as it doth in ours, Allusion qui, par hasard, se trouve dans leur langue comme dans la nôtre.11 By which a dozen apples, each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel, came tumbling about my ears, Ce qui fit tomber à nos oreilles une douzaine de pommes, dont chacune, &c.—12 One of them, Il y en eut une qui.

But a more dangerous accident happened to me in the same garden, when my little nurse, believing she had put me in a secure place, which I often entreated her to do, that I might enjoy my own thoughts, and having left my box at home to avoid the trouble of carrying it, went to another part of the garden with her governess, and some ladies of her acquaintance. While she was absent, and out of hearing, 3 a small white spaniel belonging 4 to one of the chief gardeners, having got by accident into the garden, happened to range near the place where I lay ;5 the dog, following the scent, came directly up,6 and taking me in his mouth, ran straight to his master, wagging his tail, and set me gently on the ground. By good fortune he had been so well taught, that I was carried between his teeth without the least hurt, or even tearing my clothes. But the poor gardener, who knew me well, and had a great kindness for me, was in a terrible fright; he gently took me up in both his hands, and asked me how I did ;8 but I was so amazed and out of breath that I could not speak a word. In a few minutes 10 I came to myself, and he carried me to my little nurse, who by this time had returned to the place where she left me, and was in cruel agonies 11 when I did not appear, nor answer when she called. She severely reprimanded the gardener on account of his dog. But the thing was hushed up, and never known at Court; for the girl was afraid of the Queen's anger; and truly, as to myself,12 I thought it would not be for my reputation that such a story should go about.13

I cannot tell whether I were more pleased or mortified to observe in those solitary walks that the smaller birds did not

1 See $ 26, 2.--2 That might enjoy my own thoughts, Afin de me livrer à mes pensées. _3 And out of my hearing, Et hors de la portée de ma voix.–4 Belonging, Qui appartenait. -5 Happened to range near the place where I lay, Rôdait par hasard près de l'endroit où j'étais couché.–6 The dog, following the scent, came directly up, Le chien, guidé par son odorat, vint droit à moi.--7 So well taught, Si bien dressé. --8 How I did, Comment je me trouvais.-9 Speak a word, Dire un mot.—10 See $ 30, 2.–11 Agonies, Angoisses. — 12 As to myself, Quant à moi.--13 It would not be for my reputation that such a story should go about, Ma réputation n'aurait qu'à perdre si une telle histoire se répandait.


appear to be at all afraid of me, but would hop about me, within a yard's distance, looking for worms and other food with as much indifference and security as if no creature at all were near them. I remember a thrush had the confidence to snatch out of my hand, with his bill, a piece of cake that Glumdalclitch had just given me for my

breakfast. When I attempted to catch any of these birds, they would boldly turn against me, endeavouring to peck my fingers, which I durst not venture within their reach ; and then they would hop back unconcerned,3 to hunt for worms or snails, as they did before. But one day I took a thick cudgel, and threw it with all my strength so luckily at a linnet, that I knocked him down, and seizing him by the neck with both my hands, ran with him in triumph to my nurse. However, the bird, who had only been stunned, recovering himself, gave me so many boxes with his wings on both sides of my head and body, though I held him at arm's length, that I was twenty times thinking to let him go.

But I was soon relieved by one of our servants, who wrung off the bird's neck, and I had him next day for dinner by the Queen's command. The linnet, as near as I can remember,6 seemed to be somewhat larger? than an English swan.

As I sat one day quietly meditating at my table, I heard something bounce in at my closet window, and skip about from one side to the other. Although I were much alarmed, yeto I ventured to look out, but not stirring from my seat; and then I saw a frolicsome monkey frisking and leaping up and down, till at last he came to my box, which he seemed to view with great pleasure and curiosity,' peeping in at the door and every window. I retreated to the farther corner of my box, but the monkey looking in at every side put me into such a fright that I wanted presence of mind to conceal myself under the bed, as I might

1 To snatch out of my hand, Pour m'arracher de la main.—2 Which I durst no venture within their reach, Que je me gardais bien de mettre à leur portée. 3 Un. concerned, Sans s'inquiéter de moi.-—4 I ran with him in triumph to my nurse, Je le portai en triomphe à ma bonne.—5 Though I held him at arm's length, Quoique je le tinsse à distance de toute la longueur de mon bras.—6 As near as I can remember, Autant que je puis m'en souvenir.–7 See § 3, 19.-8 See § 42.-9 With great pleasure and curiosity, Avec autant de plaisir que de curiosité.

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